nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2015‒02‒05
forty-five papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Impacts of supermarkets on farm household nutrition in Kenya By Chege, Christine G. K.; Andersson, Camilla I.M.; Qaim, Matin
  2. Evaluating nutrition and health impacts of agricultural innovations By Qaim, Matin
  3. Sustainability standards, gender, and nutrition among smallholder farmers in Uganda By Chiputwa, Brian; Qaim, Matin
  4. Climate Trends and Farmers’ Perceptions of Climate Change in Zambia By Mulenga, Brian P.; Wineman, Ayala
  5. Nutrition Effects of the Supermarket Revolution on Urban Consumers and Smallholder Farmers in Kenya By Qaim, Matin; Andersson, Camilla I.M.; Chege, Christine G.K.; Kimenju, Simon Chege; Klasen, Stephan; Rischke, Ramona
  6. Agricultural Transformation in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Role of the Multiplier A Literature Review By Snodgrass, Donald
  7. DOES THE CURRENT SUGAR MARKET STRUCTURE BENEFIT CONSUMERS AND SUGARCANE GROWERS? By Chisanga, Brian; Meyer, Ferdinand H.; Winter-Nelson, Alex; Sitko, Nicholas J.
  8. Impact of GlobalGAP Certification on EU Banana Imports: A Gravity Modeling Approach By Masood, Amjad; Brümmer, Bernhard
  9. Projecting Meat and Cereals Demand for China Based on a Meta-Analysis of Income Elasticities By Zhou, De; Yu, Xiaohua; Abler, David G.; Chen, Danhong
  10. India: India’s Food Grain Policies and the Public Distribution System: The Case of Rice. Who Wins, Who Loses, and by How Much? By Garry Pursell
  11. Distance to market and farm-gate prices of staple beans in rural Nicaragua By Ebata, Ayato; Velasco, Pamela; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan
  12. Modernization of the agri-food sector of the Republic of Moldova in the context of international trade development By Stratan, Alexandru; Moroz, Victor; Ignat, Anatolie
  13. Calorie Elasticities with Income Dynamics: Evidence from the Literature By Zhou, De; Yu, Xiaohua
  14. The value added tax. The impact of procedures applyed to agricultural producers (reverse charge, quota reducing and the exemption from VAT). Case study: wheat, flour, bread and bakery products By Toma, Mircea
  15. Expert assessment on agri-food implications of March 2011 earthquake, tsunami and Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan By Bachev, Hrabrin
  17. “Sustainability” a semi-globalisable concept for international food marketing - Consumer expectations regarding sustainable food – An explorative survey in industrialised and emerging countries By von Meyer-Höfer, Marie; Spiller, Achim
  18. A review of the literature on benefits, costs, and policies for wildlife management By Häggmark-Svensson, Tobias; Elofsson, Katarina; Engelmann, Marc; Gren, Ing-Marie
  19. Exploring the Potential of Mgnrega for the revitalization of Rainfed Agriculture in India By Kumar, Niteen
  20. Response policies and strategies for intensification processes of land degradation and desertification in the Republic of Moldova By Leah, Tamara
  21. Fighting against drought in Dobrogea by protective forest belts By Lup, Aurel; Miron, Liliana
  22. Bt Cotton and Ecosystem Impacts of Pesticide Reductions By Chellattan Veettil, Prakashan; Krishna, Vijesh V.; Qaim, Matin
  23. The Impact of External and Internal Factors on Strategic Management Practices of Agribusiness Firms in Tanzania By Dominic, Theresia; Theuvsen, Ludwig
  24. The Nutrition Transition and Indicators of Child Malnutrition By Kimenju, Simon; Qaim, Matin
  25. CREP - Cattle Receiving Enhanced Pastures? Investigating Landowner Response to Federal Incentives By James Manley; Jason Mathias
  26. Do Conditional Cash Transfers Reduce Household Vulnerability in Rural Mexico? By Naoko Uchiyama
  27. Agricultural commodities and processed products ratio in the Romanian international agrifood trade By Gavrilescu, Camelia
  28. Supplier dynamics in horticultural export chains – evidence from Ecuador By Romero, Cristina; Wollni, Meike
  29. Incentives and Moral Hazard: Plot Level Productivity of Factory-Operated and Outgrower-Operated Sugarcane Production in Ethiopia By Mengistu Assefa Wendimu; Arne Henningsen; Tomasz Gerard Czekaj
  30. Proximity and price co-movement in West African rice markets By Mengel, Carolin; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan
  31. Assessing pricing assumptions for weather index insurance in a changing climate By Joseph D. Daron; David A. Stainforth
  32. Risk analysis in the critical pigmeat control points By Marin, Ancuta
  33. Relaxing constraints as a conservation policy By Ben Groom; Charles Palmer
  34. Offset carbon emissions or pay a price premium for avoiding them? A cross-country analysis of motives for climate protection activities By Claudia Schwirplies; Andreas Ziegler
  35. Distance and border effects on price transmission - a meta-analysis By Mengel, Carolin; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan
  36. Does Non-Farm Sector Employment Reduce Rural Poverty and Vulnerability? Evidence from Vietnam and India By Katsushi S. Imai; Raghav Gaiha; Ganesh Thapa
  37. A review on climate change adaptation policies for the transportation sector By Stamos, Iraklis; Mitsakis, Evangelos
  38. Understanding the adaptation deficit: why are poor countries more vulnerable to climate events than rich countries? By Samuel Fankhauser; Thomas K. J. McDermott
  39. Influence factors of economic growth in the romanian agrofood sector By Bucur, Sorinel Ionel; Bucur, Elena Carmen
  40. Panchayats and Household Vulnerability in Rural India By Raghbendra Jha; Hari K. Nagarajan; Woojin Kang; Kailash C. Pradhan
  41. The role of insurance in reducing direct risk: the case of flood insurance By Swenja Surminski
  42. Accounting for the impact of conservation on human well-being By Eleanor Jane Milner-Gulland; J.A. Mcgregor; M. Agarwala; Giles Atkinson; P. Bevan; Tom J. Clements; T. Daw; Katherine Homewood; Noëlle F. Kümpel; J. Lewis; Susana Mourato; Benjamin N. Palmer Fry; M. Redshaw; J. Marcus Rowcliffe; S. Suon; G. Wallace; H. Washington; D. Wilkie
  43. The romanian trade with dairy products – the need to increase the export potential By Grodea, Mariana
  44. Understanding and managing zoonotic risk in the new livestock industries By Marco Liverani; Jeff Waage; Tony Barnett; Dirk U. Pfeiffer; Jonathan Rushton; James W. Rudge; Michael E. Loevinsohn; Ian Scoones; Richard D. Smith; Ben S. Cooper; Lisa J. White; Shan Goh; Peter Horby; Brendan Wren; Ozan Gundogdu; Abigail Woods; Richard J. Coker
  45. Conceptual approaches of the rural space By Geamasu, Talida; Alecu, Ioan Niculae

  1. By: Chege, Christine G. K.; Andersson, Camilla I.M.; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: Many developing countries are experiencing a food system transformation with a rapid growth of supermarkets. Research has shown that smallholder farmers can benefit from supplying supermarkets in terms of higher productivity and income. Here, we analyze impacts on farm household nutrition. Building on data from vegetable farmers in Kenya, we show that participation in supermarket channels has sizeable positive effects: calorie, vitamin A, iron, and zinc consumption are all increased by 15% or more. We also analyze impact pathways, using simultaneous equation models. Supermarket-supplying households have higher incomes, a higher share of land under vegetables, and a higher likelihood of male control of revenues. Furthermore, income and the share of land under vegetables have positive impacts, while male control of revenues has negative impacts on dietary quality. The total nutrition effects of supermarket participation could be even more positive if women were able to keep their control over farm revenues in the process of commercialization. The methods developed and used may also be useful for other impact studies to better understand agriculture-nutrition linkages.
    Keywords: supermarkets, smallholder farmers, nutrition impact, dietary quality, gender, Kenya, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, D13, I15, O12, Q12, Q18,
    Date: 2014–04
  2. By: Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: Agricultural innovations are seen as a key avenue to improve nutrition and health in smallholder farm households. But details of these agriculture-nutrition-health linkages are not yet well understood. While there is a broad literature on the adoption of agricultural technologies, most studies primarily focus on impacts in terms of productivity and income. Nutrition and health impacts have rarely been analyzed. In this article, we argue that future impact studies should include nutrition and health dimensions more explicitly. A conceptual framework is developed to clarify possible impact pathways. Different nutrition and health metrics are reviewed in terms of their strengths and weaknesses and criteria of choice for different study purposes. To evaluate impacts of particular innovations, the chosen metrics have to be compared between adopters and non-adopters, using a suitable sampling design. Approaches of how to deal with possible selection bias are discussed. Finally, selected empirical examples in which these metrics and methods were used in practice are reviewed.
    Keywords: food security, health, nutrition, agriculture, impact assessment, smallholder farmers, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Health Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, I15, I32, O12, O33, Q12,
    Date: 2014–09
  3. By: Chiputwa, Brian; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: Sustainability standards are gaining in importance in global markets for high-value foods. While previous research has shown that participating farmers in developing countries may benefit through income gains, nutrition impacts have hardly been analysed. We use survey data from smallholder coffee farmers in Uganda – certified under Fairtrade, Organic, and UTZ – to analyse impacts on food security and dietary quality. Estimates of instrumental variable models and simultaneous equation systems show that certification increases calorie and micronutrient consumption, mainly through higher incomes and improved gender equity. In certified households, women have greater control of coffee production and monetary revenues from sales.
    Keywords: private standards, smallholder farmers, nutrition impact, gender, Uganda, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, I32, L15, O12, Q13, Q17,
    Date: 2014–12
  4. By: Mulenga, Brian P.; Wineman, Ayala
    Abstract: Despite some overlap between farmers’ observations and climate patterns found in the meteorological records, the meteorological data do not support the perception that is an increase in intra-season variability in rainfall. Therefore, a complete picture of climate change requires contributions from multiple knowledge systems.
    Keywords: Zambia, climate change, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2014–12
  5. By: Qaim, Matin; Andersson, Camilla I.M.; Chege, Christine G.K.; Kimenju, Simon Chege; Klasen, Stephan; Rischke, Ramona
    Abstract: Food systems in developing countries are transforming, involving a rapid expansion of supermarkets. This supermarket revolution may affect dietary patterns and nutrition, but empirical evidence is scarce. The few existing studies have analyzed implications for food consumers and producers separately. We discuss a more integrated framework that helps to gain a broader understanding. Reviewing recent evidence from Kenya, we show that buying food in supermarkets instead of traditional outlets contributes to overnutrition among adults, while reducing undernutrition among children. For farm households, supplying supermarkets causes improvements in dietary quality. The results underline that supermarkets influence nutrition in multiple ways and directions.
    Keywords: supermarkets, obesity, malnutrition, nutrition impacts, developing countries, Kenya, Agribusiness, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, D12, I15, O12, O15, Q12,
    Date: 2014–08
  6. By: Snodgrass, Donald
    Abstract: In the coming decades, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) could see a major humanitarian crisis. If rapid population growth continues and agricultural productivity rises slowly or not at all,large increases in the working-age population and daunting problems of food supply, poverty,and underemployment will result. Lowered population growth, job creation, and higher agricultural productivity are all needed to avert impending disaster. If a way can be found to bring about substantial increases in small farm productivity, the crisis may be averted. Multiplier effects could increase the benefits that accrue to the rural economy.
    Keywords: Africa, Sub-Sahara, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2014–10
  7. By: Chisanga, Brian; Meyer, Ferdinand H.; Winter-Nelson, Alex; Sitko, Nicholas J.
    Abstract: The market structure in Zambia’s sugar industry is highly concentrated, leading to consumers paying higher prices than expected given the low cost of sugar production in the country.
    Keywords: Zambia, sugar industry, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2014–12
  8. By: Masood, Amjad; Brümmer, Bernhard
    Abstract: Adopting a gravity framework and using data from 2010 to 2012 for 74 countries, we investigate whether the intensity of GlobalGAP standard adoption has a positive impact on EU banana import values. Intensity is measured by using number of GlobalGAP certified producers and hectares harvested under GlobalGAP certification. Using random and fixed effect estimation we find that intensity of certification, in terms of producers and hectares are associated with higher banana imports. However the estimated elasticities of imports in all models are less than 1 indication an inelastic response of imports to GlobalGAP certification intensity. This also indicates that the small farmers in developing countries who find it difficult to comply with the GlobalGAP standard requirements are driven out of the international banana market. For the gravity variables distance is found to have negative impact, but banana production in the exporting countries and presence of common language and RTA between the trading countries improves trade.
    Keywords: Banana imports of EU, Private food standard, GlobalGAP, Gravity model, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization, International Relations/Trade, Q17, Q18, O19,
    Date: 2014–10
  9. By: Zhou, De; Yu, Xiaohua; Abler, David G.; Chen, Danhong
    Abstract: There are many projections for China’s food demand, and the projection results differ significantly from each other. Different values for income elasticities could be a major reason. This study projects meat and cereals demand for China based on a meta-analysis of the income elasticity estimates using a collection of 143 and 240 income elasticity estimates for cereals and meat products, respectively, from 36 primary studies. We find that income elasticities for most cereals (general cereals, rice, and coarse grains) and all meat products (general meat, pork, poultry, beef & mutton) tend to decline as per capita income increases, except for wheat, which increases. Taking this into account, differences between consumption projections based on time-varying income elasticities and values based on constant elasticities are substantial in quantities and increase over time.
    Keywords: projections, food demand, income elasticity, China, meta-analysis, Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, D12, Q11,
    Date: 2014–05
  10. By: Garry Pursell
    Abstract: Indian governments follow highly interventionist policies on food grains, especially rice and wheat. These policies include import and export controls which insulate the domestic market from world markets, a minimum support price (MSP) program which supports and controls domestic wholesale prices, large farm input subsidies, and consumer subsidy programs which provide rice and wheat through about half a million “fair price shops” to low income (below the poverty line-BPL) consumers at very low controlled prices. The consumer subsidy scheme was implemented under the provisions of the Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) until September 2013, when it was replaced by the National Food Security Act (NFSA). The NFSA aims to more than double the distribution of highly subsidised food grains (mainly rice and wheat) to cover approximately two thirds of the Indian population. Using a simple, comparative static linear model of the rice market roughly calibrated to the situation in rice marketing year 2011/12, this paper simulates the effects of various combinations of the following: abolition of the MSP regime, abolition of the TPDS, and opening of the market to exports by the private sector. The simulations identify the winners and losers and quantify the consequences of these policies for the fiscal positions of the central government and state governments, and for the welfare of rice farmers, rice consumers in general, poor (BPL) rice consumers, not-poor rice consumers,.and “diverters” who illegally resell subsidised rice at market prices. The policy simulations indicate that (1) The biggest increase in aggregate welfare is in the simulation which abolishes both the MSP and the TPDS and allows rice exports without restriction subject to an export tax (2) The improvement in aggregate welfare is much larger when the policy simulations include the abolition of the TPDS (3) When the TPDS is abolished,.the net aggregate welfare improvement of the winners is more than sufficient to compensate the net welfare losses of.BPL rice consumers..Unfortunately the NFSA replicates and in some respects worsens the deficiencies of the TPDS, so the prospect that it will be more effective and less costly in supplying low price food grains to very poor and poor individuals does not look good
    Keywords: Food grain policies; National Food Security Act; Targeted Public Distribution System; Food subsidy; Agricultural trade policies; India
    JEL: D61 H42 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Ebata, Ayato; Velasco, Pamela; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan
    Abstract: While smallholder market participation is seen as a catalyst for poverty alleviation, farmers in rural areas face a number of challenges in doing so. One of the most important factors is considered transaction costs related to transportation. Our study quantifies the benefits associated with improvement of rural road infrastructure by scrutinizing farm-gate prices of beans in rural Nicaragua. We find that the longer the distance and traveling time are to major commercial centers from farming communities, the less farm-gate prices producers receive. We find that a decrease in distance and traveling time by one unit is associated with an increase in farm-gate prices by 2-2.5 cents/qq. If infrastructure development can reduce travel time by 25%, an average farm would increase its annual revenue from beans by between $27.69 and $125.96 (between 4% and 18% of annual revenue today). Given that such infrastructure development affects all farmers and all crops, our findings suggest a larger implication at the sectorial level.
    Keywords: Producer prices, Central America, Transactions costs, transportation infrastructure, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Development, O13, O18, Q11,
    Date: 2015–01
  12. By: Stratan, Alexandru; Moroz, Victor; Ignat, Anatolie
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to identify opportunities for modernization of the agri-food sector of the Republic of Moldova in the context of the recent developments in the international and regional trade. Participation of the Republic of Moldova in various foreign trade agreements was analyzed. The assessment of the agri-food export was performed in order to show the impact of the trade barriers introduced by Russian authorities over the most important groups of agri-food products. The impact of the recent trade barriers over the economic stability and country’s food security was analyzed. The possible directions of the agro-food sector modernization in order to overcome external trade shocks were discussed.
    Keywords: agriculture, agri-food export, trade barriers, commercial risks, modernization
    JEL: F13 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2014–11–20
  13. By: Zhou, De; Yu, Xiaohua
    Abstract: This paper proposes a finite mixture model (FMM) to model the behavioral transition of calorie consumption with an assumption that nutrition consumption is a mixture of two different behavioral stages: a poor stage and an affluent stage. Based on 387 calorie-income elasticities collected from 90 primary studies, our results identify that the threshold income for calorie demand transition is 459.8 USD in 2012 prices (PPP). It implies that the transitional threshold for calorie consumption is 1.26 dollar/day, which is slightly lower than the World Bank poverty line (1.25 dollar/day in 2005 PPP prices).
    Keywords: nutrition transition, calorie consumption, income elasticity, finite mixture model, Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, D12,
    Date: 2014–05
  14. By: Toma, Mircea
    Abstract: The introduction or elimination, increase or decrease of taxes and contributions, theoretical and practical, can not ignore the direct and / or underlying effects (collateral) on chain: Financial institutions - Suppliers of inputs - Agricultural producers - En-gross traders - Processing industry - En-detail traders - Consumer - State Budget. Solutions require transparency, solidarity, equity, social justice in the distribution of efforts and usufruct(profit) for the whole chain participants in achieving useful goods and services to human society. A particularly aspect has VAT with effect from 1 July 1993, as a Romanian fiscal system compatible with EU procedures. By the additions and changes to VAT management procedures for agricultural activities (exemption from VAT of individual producers, the reverse charge in the production of cereals and technical crops, reducing the quota of VAT collected on chain at 9% for bread), fiscal inequity was created between farmers according to the legal status of the organization and operation, between sectors of agricultural production, but also to the users of agricultural production. The most disadvantaged are those of 3,859,000 individual farmers, family farms and associations without legal status, that use 7.45 million ha (56% of the total utilized agricultural of 13,306,000 ha). The study conclusion is the need of adapting VAT management procedures to the realities of Romanian agriculture by recognizing VAT on inputs used for agricultural production by individual producers, legal unorganized, valorised at the economic agents. By the recommended measures the individual producers' incomes grow by about 13-15% (300- 500 lei / ha wheat equivalent) without affecting the cost of raw materials to users of agricultural production, even if it increases the financial effort for its purchase. There are eliminated the discrimination between sectors of agricultural production (crop, livestock, horticulture, wine and fruit growing, fish, etc.), there are created conditions for the consolidation of farms and unblocking the association process and the formation of producer groups and/or agricultural cooperatives and a better use of financial resources and grants. It increases the efficiency and contribution of agriculture to the state budget revenues. Those 3,859,000 of individual producers (individual businesses, family farms, associations) legal unorganized, and the 31 thousand companies with legal personality for the 5.856 million ha(44%) of operation. (RGA-2010) beneficiate the measures proposed. Agricultural production is included in the fiscal system, the receipts and payments are fluidized and reduce the pressure for VAT refunds from the state budget (about 108 million. Lei / year for the wheat used for bread). It reduces the phenomenon of unfair competition and tax evasion area, bureaucracy, abuse and corruption. Fees, taxes and contributions should not be treated as simple budgetary resources, but also as effective tools of orientation farmers, and not only, through the level, mechanisms, procedures of charging and taxing that the state institutions can promote for the stabilization and improvement production and supply of agricultural services as part of a functioning market economy.
    Keywords: VAT, reverse charge, exemption, reduced VAT rate, VAT collection; tax evasion, farms, farmers, financial resources, efficiency, economic crisis, budget revenues
    JEL: E62 Q12 Q18
    Date: 2014–11–20
  15. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: The March 11, 2011 earthquake, tsunami and nuclear plant accident have had immense impacts on Japanese agri-food sector. Previous analysis has demonstrated that some of the impacts that triple disaster are difficult to identify and assess due to the insufficient information, controversial data, continuing challenges and uncertainties, etc. In order to expend the assessments we have organized two expert assessments in order to identify the 2011 disasters’ short and longer terms impacts on agriculture, food industries and consumers as well as factors for persistence of negative impacts, and longer-term impacts on major resources, productions, organisations, efficiency, etc. in the most affected regions and the rest of Japan. This paper presents the results of the experts’ assessments on socio-economic impacts of the March 2011 earthquake, tsunami and the Fukushima nuclear disaster on the Japanese agriculture and food sector. Nearly four years after the triple disaster, it gives some tentative assessment on the diverse (specific, combined, short-term, long-term, functional) impacts of the 2011 earthquake, tsunami and nuclear accident on agriculture, food industries, and food consumption in different regions of the country.
    Keywords: great east Japan eartquake, tsunami, Fukushima nuclear accident, social, economic, environmental impacts, agriculture, food industry, food consumption, agri-food chains, disaster risk management
    JEL: Q1 Q12 Q13 Q15 Q18 Q5
    Date: 2015–01
  16. By: Alessandro Nicita; Marina Murina
    Abstract: Agriculture plays a fundamental role in the development prospects of many developing countries, especially those at the lower end of the development process for which export earnings are largely related to the export performance of their agricultural sector. Although the last few decades have seen a progressive trade liberalization, market access for agricultural products is increasingly determined by a wide array of regulatory measures. The increase in the use of such measures has been largely driven by non-trade policy objectives such as consumers’ demand for quality and safety of products and to the needs of agri-food businesses to streamline food production chains. Still, regulatory measures have a critical role in determining market access conditions as compliance with them is often a sine-qua-non condition for exporting to developed countries markets. From a trade perspective one of the most important aspects of such regulatory measures is their potential distortionary effect as their cost of compliance is often asymmetrical across countries. Using the UNCTAD's TRAINS database on non-tariff measures, this paper utilizes an econometric model to investigate the effect of the European Union’s sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures across 21 broad categories of agricultural goods. The findings indicate that SPS measures result in relatively higher burdens for lower income countries but that membership in deep trade agreements seems to reduce the difficulties related to compliance with SPS measures. Overall, the additional trade distortionary effect of the European Union SPS measures is quantified in a reduction of lower income countries’ agricultural exports of about 3 billion $US (equivalent to about 14 percent of the agricultural trade from lower income countries to the European Union). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that while many middle and high income countries have the internal capacity to comply with SPS measures, lower income countries do not. In broader terms, these results may be interpreted as an indication that technical assistance is helpful for lower income countries to meet compliance costs related to SPS measures. Further progress with well-targeted technical assistance projects, both at the bilateral and multilateral levels, could generate considerable gains for lower income countries.
    Date: 2014
  17. By: von Meyer-Höfer, Marie; Spiller, Achim
    Abstract: Today’s global food production and consumption often stand in sharp contrast to the objectives of sustainable development. Sustainable food products, characterised by higher environmental or ethical standards than conventional equivalents, are therefore an essential mean of addressing this global challenge. However, to ensure uptake of these products it is crucial for agri-food market actors to understand consumer expectations regarding sustainable food, so they can appropriately tailor their differentiation and communication strategies. To explore these consumer expectations, data from an online survey in three industrialised and three emerging countries is used. The results show that consumers around the globe have quite diverse expectations regarding sustainable food products. Only very few attributes such as “environmental friendly production”,“no chemical pesticides”, “naturalness” and “safety” can be used to meet a range of international consumers’ expectations regarding sustainable food. International food marketers should thus try to get to know their consumers in each country better and learn how to address them specifically, i.e., by semi-global marketing strategies.
    Keywords: sustainable food consumption, consumer expectations, international marketing, semiglobalisation, Environmental Economics and Policy, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Q13, Q18,
    Date: 2014–08
  18. By: Häggmark-Svensson, Tobias (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences); Elofsson, Katarina (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences); Engelmann, Marc (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences); Gren, Ing-Marie (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)
    Abstract: Wildlife management is a source of conflict in many countries because of the asymmetric allocation of benefits and costs among stakeholders. A review of studies on benefits, costs, and policies shows most valuation studies estimate recreational values of hunting, which can range between 13 and 545 USD/hunting day (in 2013 prices). A majority of the studies on costs calculate losses from livestock predation and crop destruction, and show that they can correspond to 40% of profits in the agricultural sector in wildlife rich regions in the US. Most of the studies are carried out for animals in developed economies, in particular in the US. This is in contrast to studies on costs of wildlife, which to a large extent are born by farmers neighboring national parks in developing and emerging economies. However, a common feature of both valuation and cost studies is the exclusion of several costs and benefits items and of indirect effects in the economies, which can be considerable for economies with high reliance on tourism and agriculture sectors. With respect to policy choice, the literature suggests economic incentives for conflict resolutions, where the winners from wildlife compensate the losses, but studies evaluating such policies in practice are lacking.
    Keywords: costs; benefits; policies; wildlife; review
    JEL: Q29 Q57
    Date: 2015–01–21
  19. By: Kumar, Niteen
    Abstract: Though MGNREGA happens to be an employment generation program at its core; initially encompassing activities under different heads to provide employment to the village communities; it has casted its potential towards rejuvenating rainfed agriculture along with short and long term environmental benefits. Within this context the present study sheds light on the intensity and distribution of works under different heads pertaining to revitalization of rainfed production systems i.e. water conservation and water harvesting, renovation of traditional water bodies and drought proofing for the year 2012-13. The study shows that with majority of the rainfed areas confined to five major states and primarily falling under semi-arid conditions, activities under MGNREGA with emphasis on watershed development and soil moisture conservation have appeared to be a potent tool to deal with the prolonged crisis of water scarcity in rainfed agriculture.
    Keywords: MGNREGA, Rainfed Agriculture, Water Conservation, Water Harvesting, Drought Proofing
    JEL: Q10
    Date: 2015–01–24
  20. By: Leah, Tamara
    Abstract: Soil, the main means of production in agriculture of Moldova suffered a progressive deterioration in the last 20-30 years due to a intensive operations without adequate investment to preserve and improve its natural properties. Intensive exploitation led to changes in chemical composition(dehumification, alkalinization,salinization) andstructure (compaction) and degradation through erosion, pollution, landslides etc. It was estimated a loss of agricultural potential of the soil to 40% due to these direct negative effects of soil degradation. Policy analysis and response strategies showed that the state support of agriculture is very limited. There is no single source of information, containing reports on the amounts (internal and external) have been allocated, the distribution thereof and the name of the projects implemented or under implementation. Evaluation and monitoring of donor funded projects is made in several stages. In this process not involved beneficiaries and the results are made public only in some cases, depending on the scope of the project. To overcome the problems caused by land degradation is required structural agricultural policy, to ensure better use of land.
    Keywords: agriculture, degradation, policies, soil, strategies
    JEL: Q00 Q24 Q28
    Date: 2014–11–20
  21. By: Lup, Aurel; Miron, Liliana
    Abstract: Dobrogea province is composed by Constanta and Tulcea counties, situated in the South-eastern part of Romania, and it is known as one of the driest parts of Romania. The yearly amount of precipitations is no more than 400-450 mm. The yearly average temperature is around 10.5oC; the soils are of good quality but the main factor limiting the crops is, in this case, the lack of the water. During 1949 and 1955, studies were carried out concerning the damages produced by drought and the influence of the forest plantations for protective purposes on crops. Consequently, there have been planted protective forests on a few thousand hectares in the southern part of Constanta county but which were insufficient in order to protect all the agricultural lands. Because of the uncertainty surrounding the rehabilitation of the irrigation systems in the near future in Dobrogea, several projects were made in order to set up protective forest plantations. These projects include 70 localities and there have already been planted protective forests in some of them. The width of these forests is 10 m, the planting scheme is 2 x 1 m, and the distance between them is variable, by the case. The locust tree is the used species.
    Keywords: drought, damage, forest belt
    JEL: Q10 Q15 Q23 Q25
    Date: 2014–11–20
  22. By: Chellattan Veettil, Prakashan; Krishna, Vijesh V.; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: This paper examines the ecosystem impacts of transgenic Bt cotton technology resulting from reduced chemical pesticide use. Employing unique panel data from smallholder farmers in central and southern India, negative environmental and health effects of pesticide use are quantified with the environmental impact quotient (EIQ), with and without Bt technology. An environmentally-sensitive production function is estimated, treating the environmental risk of pesticide toxicity as an undesirable output in the production process. Negative externalities are significantly lower in Bt than in conventional cotton. The reduction in EIQ through Bt adoption has increased from 39% during 2002-2004 to 68% during 2006-2008. Bt adoption also contributes to higher environmental efficiency. We find that environmental efficiency is influenced by the quality of Bt technology; high-quality Bt seeds are associated with higher environmental efficiency than lower-quality seeds.
    Keywords: Bt cotton, Directional distance function, Environmental impact quotient, India, Pesticide externality, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Production Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, D62, O44, Q12, Q16,
    Date: 2014–08
  23. By: Dominic, Theresia; Theuvsen, Ludwig
    Abstract: All firms need to work out strategic plans to exploit the existing market, but they differ in their capacity to implement and manage strategies. Considering the industrial organization and resource-based views in the strategic management literature, we understand that firm attributes, resources and external environmental factors are critical links to strategic practices. With regard to African agribusiness firms, there is scant research on how these factors determine the successful application of strategic management practices. Therefore, this study uses empirical data from 229 agribusiness firms in Tanzania to obtain insights into the determinants of their choice of strategic management practices. The results show significantly that better strategic actions reside in the capabilities of firm managers, whereas many external factors, such as access to public infrastructure, did not turn out to have a significant influence. The findings have interesting implications for the management of agribusiness firms in African countries and other developing and emerging economies.
    Keywords: strategic management practices, agribusiness, structural modelling, Tanzania, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Marketing, Q13, Q18, M31, L10,
    Date: 2015–01
  24. By: Kimenju, Simon; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: We analyze how the nutrition transition affects child malnutrition in developing countries. It is often assumed that the nutrition transition affects child weight but not child growth, which could be one reason why child underweight decreases faster than child stunting. But these effects have hardly been analyzed empirically. Our cross-country panel regressions show that the nutrition transition reduces child underweight, while no consistent effect on child overweight is found. Against common views, our results also suggest that the nutrition transition reduces child stunting. Further research is required to confirm these findings.
    Keywords: Nutrition transition, malnutrition, stunting, underweight, obesity, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, I15, O10, O13,
    Date: 2014–12
  25. By: James Manley (Department of Economics, Towson University); Jason Mathias (City of Baltimore)
    Abstract: Using enrollment data on the enhanced CRP's river buffer subprogram from 1998 to 2010 we find that participation incentives are larger for cattle pasture and that enrollments increase at a higher rate in counties with large amounts of cattle ranching. Counties producing cattle receive almost twice as much in up-front incentives, and the marginal effect of that incentive is also higher. This is probably due to the fact that cattle ranchers can use heavily subsidized "cost share" funding to improve their ranches. Accounting for the cattle effect also helps explain previous findings of apparent producer preference for up-front payments over a discounted stream of annual benefits. This preference is replicated but disappears when we control for cattle production.
    Keywords: Agricultural Economics, Agricultural Policy, Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program, Conservation Reserve Program, Landowner Incentives, Subsidy Response, Cattle Ranching.
    JEL: H23 Q15 Q24 Q58
    Date: 2015–01
  26. By: Naoko Uchiyama (Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration (RIEB), Kobe University, Japan)
    Abstract: This study empirically analyzes risk-sharing mechanisms in rural Mexico to examine the vulnerability of the rural households. The two most recent Mexican rural household panel data (2003 and 2007) are used in the study. This study defines "vulnerability" as the inability to smooth consumption because of liquidity constraints. The empirical results reject full risk sharing, but support the hypothesis that risk-sharing mechanisms in rural Mexico offer better insurance to secure basic needs such as food. In addition, longer exposures to the CCT program enhance existing risk-sharing mechanisms and, thus, reduce households' vulnerability in the village. Risk-sharing mechanisms, reinforced by CCT, serve to mitigate the liquidity constraints—vulnerability—of poor households.
    Keywords: Risk sharing, Conditional cash transfers, Mexico
    JEL: O12 D12 O54
    Date: 2014–12
  27. By: Gavrilescu, Camelia
    Abstract: Romania’s international agrifood trade increased significantly during the last decade, and mostly after the EU accession. Since 1990, the Romanian agrifood trade balance showed an almost continuous increasing deficit trend until 2008. In four years only, the trend reversed and in 2013, for the first time in the last two and a half decades, the agrifood trade balance turned positive. The present paper is analyzing the evolution of the trade evolution and its structure, separating the agrifood products in three categories: agricultural commodities, primarily processed products and secondary processed products. A higher ratio of processed products in exports is indicating an increased competitiveness, resulting from higher unit values incorporating more added value, and showing, at the same time, a higher development degree of the country’s food industry. The results for total trade show that the processed products represented at most 46% of the Romanian exports, and at least 63% of imports, indicating a low-competitive structure of the agrifood trade. The analysis is detailed for intra and extra-EU trade and by main partners and groups of products.
    Keywords: agrifood trade, competitiveness, processed products
    JEL: F10 L69 N50 Q17
    Date: 2014–11–20
  28. By: Romero, Cristina; Wollni, Meike
    Abstract: In this paper we study the dynamics of smallholder participation in export value chains focusing on the example of small-scale broccoli producers in the highlands of Ecuador. A double hurdle model and a multi-spell cox duration model are used to explain the extent of participation and the hazards of dropping out of the export chain. The empirical results suggest that small farmers´ withdrawal from the export sector is in fact accelerated by hold-ups experienced in the past and that family ties play an important role in farmers’ marketing decisions. Negative external shocks – such as the bankruptcy of the main buyer in our case study – represent a major threat towards the sustainability of smallholder farmer inclusion in high-value chains, because farmer organizations often possess low resilience towards such events.
    Keywords: Horticultural export chains, small farmers, duration model, double hurdle model, transaction risks, Agribusiness, Consumer/Household Economics, Risk and Uncertainty, D23, D81, Q12,
    Date: 2014–10
  29. By: Mengistu Assefa Wendimu (Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), Natural Resources and Development; Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen); Arne Henningsen (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen); Tomasz Gerard Czekaj (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: We investigate the unique contractual arrangement between a large Ethiopian sugar factory and its adjacent outgrower associations. The only significant difference between the sugarcane production on the factory-operated sugarcane plantation and on the outgrower-operated plots is the remuneration system and thus, the incentives to the workers. We compare the productivity of the factory-operated plantation with the outgrower-operated plots based on a new cross-sectional plot-level data set that includes all plots that are operated by the sugar factory and its adjacent outgrower associations. As sugar-cane production depends on various exogenous factors that are measured as categorical variables (e.g. soil type, cane variety, etc.), we estimate the production function by a nonparametric kernel regression method that takes into account both continuous and categorical explanatory variables without assuming a functional form and without imposing restrictions on interactions between the explanatory variables. In order to obtain meaningful productivity measures, we impose monotonicity in input quantities using the constrained weighted bootstrapping (CWB) method. Our results show that outgrower-operated plots have−ceteris paribus−a statistically and economically significantly higher productivity than factory-operated plots, which can be explained by outgrowers having stronger incentives to put more effort into their work than the employees of the sugar factory.
    Keywords: Productivity, Outgrower schemes, large-scale plantation, agricultural workers, incentives, Nonparametric regression, Sugarcane, Ethiopia
    JEL: D24 Q12 Q15
    Date: 2015–01
  30. By: Mengel, Carolin; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan
    Abstract: This study explores the link between proximity and price cointegration between two markets, where proximity is captured with variables for geographical, political and cultural distance. Linear and threshold cointegration is tested for a set of 756 rice market pairs in 6 West African countries, with threshold specifications accounting for transaction costs. Whether proximity influences price transmission is determined in a second step with a multinomial logistic regression. The estimation produces robust and statistically significant evidence of a link with air-line and road distance, international borders, contiguity and a common language. We conclude that proximity matters for market integration processes in West African rice markets.
    Keywords: West Africa, cointegration, developing countries, agricultural trade, rice, commodity prices, transaction costs, regional integration, Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade, C32, D23, L11, Q11, Q17,
    Date: 2014–05
  31. By: Joseph D. Daron; David A. Stainforth
    Abstract: Weather index insurance is being offered to low-income farmers in developing countries as an alternative to traditional multi-peril crop insurance. There is widespread support for index insurance as a means of climate change adaptation but whether or not these products are themselves resilient to climate change has not been well studied. Given climate variability and climate change, an over-reliance on historical climate observations to guide the design of such products can result in premiums which mislead policyholders and insurers alike, about the magnitude of underlying risks. Here, a method to incorporate different sources of climate data into the product design phase is presented. Bayesian Networks are constructed to demonstrate how insurers can assess the product viability from a climate perspective, using past observations and simulations of future climate. Sensitivity analyses illustrate the dependence of pricing decisions on both the choice of information, and the method for incorporating such data. The methods and their sensitivities are illustrated using a case study analysing the provision of index-based crop insurance in Kolhapur, India. We expose the benefits and limitations of the Bayesian Network approach, weather index insurance as an adaptation measure and climate simulations as a source of quantitative predictive information. Current climate model output is shown to be of limited value and difficult to use by index insurance practitioners. The method presented, however, is shown to be an effective tool for testing pricing assumptions and could feasibly be employed in the future to incorporate multiple sources of climate data.
    Keywords: Climate modeling; Uncertainty; Bayesian Networks; Adaptation; India
    JEL: J1 N0
    Date: 2014
  32. By: Marin, Ancuta
    Abstract: The pig meat is of particular importance in human food due to the high content of vitamins and minerals. To prevent the hazard of microbial contamination, physical contamination, chemical contamination, etc., before slaughtering and during slaughter of animals has been developed and implemented the system Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP).
    Keywords: pork meat, HACCP, organoleptic indices, contamination hazard
    JEL: D81 Q10 Q18
    Date: 2014–11–20
  33. By: Ben Groom; Charles Palmer
    Abstract: Eco-entrepreneurs in developing countries are often subject to market or institutional constraints such as missing markets. Conservation interventions which relax constraints may be both cost effective and poverty reducing. A simulation using data from an intervention in Madagascar to relax the technological constraints of forest honey production investigates this possibility. Cost-effectively achieving dual environment-development goals is shown to depend on the severity of constraints, relative prices, along with the nature and efficiency in use of technology. Success is more likely for technologies exhibiting close to constant returns to scale or high-input complementarity. Forest honey does not meet these requirements. Ultimately, where market or institutional constraints are present, knowledge of the recipient technology is required for more informed, efficient and perhaps more politically acceptable conservation policy.
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2014–08–01
  34. By: Claudia Schwirplies (University of Kassel); Andreas Ziegler (University of Kassel)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the economic literature on pure and impure public goods by consid-ering two alternatives for contributing to the public good climate protection: compensating carbon emissions from conventional consumption or paying higher prices for climate-friendly products. We analytically and empirically examine a wide range of motives and their impact on individuals’ choice in favor of these two alternatives. Relying on data from representative surveys among more than 2000 participants from Germany and the USA, our results indicate that environmental awareness, warm glow motives, and the desire to set a good example sig-nificantly motivate the choice of both climate protection activities in both countries. However, some motives differ considerably between both alternatives and countries. A green identity enhances the willingness to pay a price premium for climate-friendly goods or services in Germany, while social norms seem to be of much higher relevance in the USA. Our results further suggest that the choice of climate protection activities, especially of carbon offsetting, entails a high degree of uncertainty.
    Keywords: Public good; climate change; climate protection; carbon offsetting; price premium
    JEL: H41 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2015
  35. By: Mengel, Carolin; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan
    Abstract: In a meta-analysis of spatial price transmission (PT) literature we aim to test for the presence of distance and border effects on price transmission. We use PT estimates for 1189 cereal market pairs extracted from 57 studies and seek to explain them by airline distance and existence of a border. The findings indicate distance and border effects on both price cointegration and price transmission. A border separating two markets reduces the probability of cointegration of price series by 23% compared with markets located in the same country. 1000 kilometers of distance reduces the probability of cointegration by 7%. The speed of price adjustment is on average 13% slower in international than in intra-national market pairs. 1000 kilometers of distance within a country on average yields 6-20% slower price adjustment. Distance effects become negligible and economically insignificant for international market pairs. Maize price pairs are less often cointegrated compared to rice prices and cointegration is most prevalent for barley. Price transmission is slowest in wheat markets. In peer reviewed studies cointegration is more prevalent and price transmission is faster. However the explanation need not be a publication bias but can also result from higher quality methodologies. Moreover, we identify a set of model specifications that significantly affect price transmission estimates. The study contributes to the literature by presenting a first meta-analysis of spatial PT literature and providing insights into distance and border effects on price transmission.
    Keywords: meta-analysis, cointegration, spatial price transmission, distance, borders, developing countries, agricultural trade, cereals, rice, maize, wheat, Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade, C32, L11, Q11, Q17,
    Date: 2014–05
  36. By: Katsushi S. Imai (School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester (UK) and RIEB, Kobe University (Japan)); Raghav Gaiha (Faculty of Management Studies, University of Delhi, India); Ganesh Thapa (International Fund for Agricultural Development, Rome, Italy)
    Abstract: The present study examines whether rural non-farm employment has any poverty and/or vulnerability-reducing effect in Vietnam and India. To take account of sample selection bias associated with it, we have applied treatment-effects model. It is found that log per capita consumption or log mean per capita expenditure significantly increased as a result of access to the rural non-farm employment in both Vietnam and India - which is consistent with its poverty reducing role of accessing - with the aggregate effect larger in Vietnam than in India. Access to the rural non-farm employment significantly reduces vulnerability too in both countries, implying that diversification of household activities into non-farm sector would reduce such risks. When we disaggregate non-farm sector employment by its type, we find that poverty and vulnerability reducing effects are much larger for sales, professionals, and clerks than for unskilled or manual employment in both countries. However, because even unskilled or manual non-farm employment significantly reduces poverty and vulnerability in India and poverty in some years in Vietnam, this has considerable policy significance as the rural poor do not have easy access to skilled non-farm employment.
    Keywords: Poverty, Vulnerability, Non-farm sector, Treatment Effects Model, Vietnam, India
    JEL: C21 C31 I32 O15
    Date: 2015–01
  37. By: Stamos, Iraklis; Mitsakis, Evangelos
    Abstract: Climate change related disasters and extreme weather events are expected to significantly increase the risk of damages on networks, systems and assets. In view of these anticipated adverse effects, growing attention is placed on adaptation measures, in the form of preventive actions aiming to minimize induced hazards’ negative impacts and to enhance the cross-sectorial resilience. The transportation sector is no stranger to this regime. Within this paper, a detailed desktop, literature and case-study review approach is adopted in order to identify transport-related adaptation measures and actions that are taken at a global and European level. Findings from national and international activities, along with relevant policies and strategies stemming from relevant organizations (IPCC, Bridging the Gap, etc.) are reviewed in terms of their hitherto and expected contribution in efficiently addressing climate change. In addition, proposed actions are clustered in terms of content (technical measures, ICT, legislative, etc.). In this way, the transferability and applicability of case-specific experiences throughout the world are highlighted through the consolidation of a common knowledge base regarding adaptation measures in the transportation sector. Findings are formulated in the form of an adaptation toolbox that can provide the basis for an improved decision making approach for different end-user for addressing climate change.
    Keywords: climate change adaptation transport systems
    JEL: R40
    Date: 2014–10–08
  38. By: Samuel Fankhauser; Thomas K. J. McDermott
    Abstract: Poor countries are more heavily affected by extreme weather events and future climate change than rich countries. One of the reasons for this is the so-called adaptation deficit, that is, limits in the ability of poorer countries to adapt. This paper analyses the link between income and adaptation to climate events theoretically and empirically. We postulate that the adaptation deficit may be due to two factors: A demand effect, whereby the demand for the good “climate security” increases with income, and an efficiency effect, which works as a spill-over externality on the supply-side: Adaptation productivity in high-income countries is enhanced because of factors like better public services and stronger institutions. Using panel data from the Munich Re natural catastrophe database we find strong evidence for a demand effect for adaptation to two climate-related extreme events, tropical cyclones and floods. Evidence on the efficiency effect is more equivocal. There are some indications that adaptation in rich countries might be more efficient, but the evidence is far from conclusive. The implication for research is that better data, in particular on adaptation effort, need to be collected to understand adaptation efficiency. In terms of policy, we conclude that inclusive growth policies (which boost adaptation demand) should be an important component of international efforts to close the adaptation deficit.
    Keywords: climate change; adaptation; development; extreme events; disaster risk
    JEL: O11 O13 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2014–07
  39. By: Bucur, Sorinel Ionel; Bucur, Elena Carmen
    Abstract: The determinants of economic growth in a national economy or in an activity field were the subject of many disscusions between specialists, starting from identifying the indicators considered to be the engine of economic growth, but also to the correlations between them, and to the interpretation of the results. The aim of the present approach is to identify some factors with direct influence on economic growth in the Romanian agrofood sector. Our research used common statistical methods, on the basis of public information, from the National Institute of Statistics and National Commission for Prognosis. Regarding to the agricultural sector, were identified as indicators/factors with influence on the economic growth the following: final consumption, the value of exports, the value of production for market, variation of stocks, the value of taxes on products. Analysis of the data series of the indicators mentioned above and correlations between them reveal their involutions in terms of efficiency and productivity levels, being still far from ensuring sustainable economic growth in the agrofood sector.
    Keywords: influence factors, economic growth, agrofood sector
    JEL: Q0 Q19
    Date: 2014–11–20
  40. By: Raghbendra Jha; Hari K. Nagarajan; Woojin Kang; Kailash C. Pradhan
    Abstract: In the context of rural India this paper focuses on six questions. a) Does gender of the elected representatives’ matter; specifically do political reservations help in reducing vulnerability? b) What will be the impact of regime changes on resource re-allocation and on household consumption? Do all types of regime changes (based on Jati or gender) have similar impacts on household vulnerability? c) Do households fall into poverty traps, i.e. experience chronic poverty, due to inefficiencies associated with governance? d) Has local governance contributed to households undertaking less risky coping strategies in response to adverse shocks? (e) During periods of distress, are local governments able to provide insurance through welfare programs? (f) After experiencing adverse shocks, is the insurance that Panchayats provide sufficient to eliminate the need for households to cut their food consumption to less than two meals, and to avoid selling of productive assets, and thereby reduce both vulnerability and poverty?
    Keywords: vulnerability Panchayats, coping strategies, insurance, regime changes
    JEL: D31 D63 D73 O12
    Date: 2014
  41. By: Swenja Surminski
    Abstract: The provision of flood insurance is a patchwork, with countries showing varying degrees of penetration, coverage types, demand levels, and design structures. This article explores the current understanding of flood insurance with a specific focus on the ability of flood insurance to contribute to direct risk reduction. The starting point is a consideration of the existing provision of flood insurance, both in established insurance markets and in developing countries. A review of efforts to analyse and explain the use and design of flood insurance highlights how the understanding of supply and demand determinants is steadily growing, while clear gaps also emerge. Particularly the question of utilizing flood insurance in the context of climate change and as a lever for physical risk reduction would benefit from further empirical and theoretical analysis. The article concludes with a reflection on current efforts to reform and design flood insurance and offers some pointers for future research.
    Keywords: Flood insurance; Disaster risk reduction; Flood risk management; Insurance; Climate change; Natural hazards; Adaptation
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2014–12–18
  42. By: Eleanor Jane Milner-Gulland; J.A. Mcgregor; M. Agarwala; Giles Atkinson; P. Bevan; Tom J. Clements; T. Daw; Katherine Homewood; Noëlle F. Kümpel; J. Lewis; Susana Mourato; Benjamin N. Palmer Fry; M. Redshaw; J. Marcus Rowcliffe; S. Suon; G. Wallace; H. Washington; D. Wilkie
    Abstract: Conservationists are increasingly engaging with the concept of human well-being to improve the design and evaluation of their interventions. Since the convening of the influential Sarkozy Commission in 2009, development researchers have been refining conceptualizations and frameworks to understand and measure human well-being and are starting to converge on a common understanding of how best to do this. In conservation, the term human well-being is in widespread use, but there is a need for guidance on operationalizing it to measure the impacts of conservation interventions on people. We present a framework for understanding human well-being, which could be particularly useful in conservation. The framework includes 3 conditions; meeting needs, pursuing goals, and experiencing a satisfactory quality of life. We outline some of the complexities involved in evaluating the well-being effects of conservation interventions, with the understanding that well-being varies between people and over time and with the priorities of the evaluator. Key challenges for research into the well-being impacts of conservation interventions include the need to build up a collection of case studies so as to draw out generalizable lessons; harness the potential of modern technology to support well-being research; and contextualize evaluations of conservation impacts on well-being spatially and temporally within the wider landscape of social change. Pathways through the smog of confusion around the term well-being exist, and existing frameworks such as the Well-being in Developing Countries approach can help conservationists negotiate the challenges of operationalizing the concept. Conservationists have the opportunity to benefit from the recent flurry of research in the development field so as to carry out more nuanced and locally relevant evaluations of the effects of their interventions on human well-being.
    Keywords: development; ecosystem services; impact evaluation; intervention; poverty
    JEL: Q56
    Date: 2014–10
  43. By: Grodea, Mariana
    Abstract: Although the international milk market has registered a permanent demand increase, in the analyzed period (2002-2012), the dairy products export made by Romania, have registered relatively modest values, in meeting the demand. In this period, the Romanian trade with dairy products has known an ascending trend, and, especially after the year 2007, increases were massive o imports side, but low, in comparison with those made by the main players on the international market. The method used was the comparative analysis, in the period 2000-2012, of some sets of indicatives specific for the trade with dairy products, having as source of information international reports and studies elaborated by the European Commision, the data of FAOSTAT Agriculture and EUROSTAT. From the analyses made, as a conclusion we can observe the fact that Romania is a net importer of dairy products, this category of products presenting a strongly deficit balance (in 2012, the debt trade balance for milk and dairy products was of -157552 thousand i euros, decreasing from the preceeding year by 8.2%).
    Keywords: import, export, dairy products, trade balance
    JEL: F19 O52 Q17
    Date: 2014–11–20
  44. By: Marco Liverani; Jeff Waage; Tony Barnett; Dirk U. Pfeiffer; Jonathan Rushton; James W. Rudge; Michael E. Loevinsohn; Ian Scoones; Richard D. Smith; Ben S. Cooper; Lisa J. White; Shan Goh; Peter Horby; Brendan Wren; Ozan Gundogdu; Abigail Woods; Richard J. Coker
    Abstract: Background: In many parts of the world, livestock production is undergoing a process of rapid intensification. The health implications of this development are uncertain. Intensification creates cheaper products, allowing more people to access animal-based foods. However, some practices associated with intensification may contribute to zoonotic disease emergence and spread, for example the sustained use of antibiotics, concentration of animals in confined units, and long distance and frequent movement of livestock. Objectives: This paper reviews the diverse range of ecological, biological, and socio-economic factors likely to enhance or reduce zoonotic risk, and identifies why improved understanding requires an interdisciplinary approach. A conceptual framework is then offered to guide systematic research on this problem. Discussion: We recommend that interdisciplinary work on zoonotic risk should be able to account for the complexity of risk environments, rather than simple linear causal relations between risk drivers and disease emergence and/or spread. Further, we recommend that interdisciplinary integration is needed at different levels of analysis, from the study of risk environments to the identification of policy options for risk management. Conclusion: Given rapid changes in livestock production systems in developing countries and their potential health implications at the local and global level, the problem we analyse here is of great importance for environmental health and development. While we offer a systematic interdisciplinary approach to understand and address these implications, we recognise that further research is needed to clarify methodological and practical questions arising from the integration of the natural and social sciences.
    Keywords: integrated ecology and human health; emerging diseases; livestock production; risk characterization; risk management; zoonoses
    JEL: G32
    Date: 2013–08
  45. By: Geamasu, Talida; Alecu, Ioan Niculae
    Abstract: This paper is a bibliographic study of the rural space concept, from its establishment and until now. In this respect, the following works from the dedicated literature have been studied: scientific works, doctoral dissertations, case studies, books and websites dedicated to this topic. The used method was the bibliographic research and the synthesis of conceptual approaches in own manner. The conclusions that may be drawn from the performed research reveal certain concept dynamics in time, as the functions and services of the rural space were better understood, leading to the conceptual development of the rural space. Also, the approach of the development of the rural-urban dichotomy has outlined the rural space concept more clearly.
    Keywords: concept, dichotomy, rural space
    JEL: Q0 Q19
    Date: 2014–11–20

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