nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2015‒01‒14
fifty-five papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Rice in the Shadow of Skyscrapers : Policy Choices in a Dynamic East and Southeast Asian Setting By David Dawe; Steven Jaffee; Nuno Santos
  2. Costa Rica's outward-looking development: from ‘Agriculture of Change’ to food insecurity (1990-2008) By Elisa Botella Rodríguez
  3. Evaluation of the Water-to-Market Activity in Armenia By Kenneth Fortson; Anu Rangarajan; Randall Blair; Joanne Lee; Valentine Gilbert
  4. Summary of Determinants and impact of sustainable land and watershed management investments: By Schmidt, Emily; Chinowsky, Paul; Robinson, Sherman; Strzepek, Kenneth M.
  5. Aligning public expenditure for agricultural development priorities under rapid transformation: The case of China: By Yu, Bingxin; Chen, Kevin Z.; Zhang, Haisen
  6. Greenhouse gas intensity of three main crops and implications for low-carbon agriculture in China By Wang, Wen; Guo, Liping; Li, Yingchun; Su, Man; Lin, Yuebin; De Perthuis, Christian; Ju, Xiaotang; Lin, Erda; Moran, Dominic
  7. Modelling Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture By Ada Ignaciuk; Daniel Mason-D'Croz
  8. Summary of Hydrological modeling of sustainable land management interventions in the Mizewa watershed of the Blue Nile Basin: By Schmidt, Emily; Zemadim, Birhanu
  9. The impact of India's rural employment guarantee on demand for agricultural technology: By Bhargava, Anil K.
  10. Contrats et modes de coordination en agriculture By Zora Bouamra-Mechemache; Sabine Duvaleix-Treguer; Aude Ridier
  11. Economics of tractor ownership under rainfed agriculture with applications in Ghana: By Houssou, Nazaire; Diao, Xinshen; Kolavalli, Shashidhara
  12. Food safety and developing markets: Research findings and research gaps: By Unnevehr, Laurian J.; Ronchi, Loraine
  13. Irrigation potential in Nigeria: Some perspectives based on factor endowments, tropical nature, and patterns in favorable areas: By Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Adesugba, Margaret Abiodun
  14. Measuring the Effect of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Participation on Food Security By James Mabli; Jim Ohls; Lisa Dragoset; Laura Castner; Betsy Santos
  15. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participation and Child Food Security By James Mabli Julie Worthington
  16. Land rights knowledge and conservation in rural Ethiopia: Mind the gender gap: By Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Kumar, Neha
  17. Public account and coding system in Kenya: The trend and pattern of agricultural expenditure: By Yu, Bingxin; Zhang, Haisen
  18. The Virtual Water Of Siberia And The Russian Far East For The Asia-Pacific Region: Global Gains Vs Regional Sustainability By Anastasia B. Likhacheva; Igor A. Makarov
  19. Multi-dimensional Intertemporal Poverty in Rural China By Jing You; Sangui Wang; Laurence Roope
  20. Political economy of state interventions in the Bangladesh food-grain sector: By Islam, Nurul
  21. Infant Feeding Practices and Food Consumption Patterns of Children Participating in WIC By Denise M. Deming; Ronette R. Briefel; Kathleen C. Reidy
  22. Summary of Cows, missing milk markets and nutrition in rural Ethiopia: By Hoddinott, John F.; Headey, Derek D.; Dereje, Mekdim
  23. Welfare impact of broadening VAT by exempting local food markets: The case of Bangladesh By Levin, Jörgen; Sayeed, Yeasmin
  24. What is the social value of second-generation biofuels ? By Hertel, Thomas W.; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Tyner, Wallace E.
  25. SNAP Participation and Urban and Rural Food Security By James Mabli
  26. Opportunities for US-China Investments in Agricultural Innovation and New Technologies By Kimle, Kevin
  27. Improving the food policy process: Lessons from capacity strengthening of parliamentarians in Ghana: By Chhokar, Jagdeep S.; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Kolavalli, Shashidhara
  28. Poverty and Price Transmission By Christian Elleby
  29. The Role of Productivity, Transportation Costs, and Barriers to Intersectoral Mobility in Structural Transformation By Cem Karayalcin; Mihaela Pintea
  30. Breeding, Feeding and Distribution of Milch Animal Holdings in India:An Analysis Based on the Data from the National Dairy Sample Survey By K.N, Nair; C.S, Krishnakumar
  31. Greening Household Behaviour and Food By Katrin Millock
  32. Summary of perceptions, impacts and rewards of row planting of teff: By Vandercasteelen, Joachim; Dereje, Mekdim; Minten, Bart; Seyoum Taffesse, Alemayehu
  33. Costing alternative transfer modalities: By Margolies, Amy; Hoddinott, John F.
  34. Financing Smallholder Agriculture: An Experiment with Agent-Intermediated Microloans in India By Pushkar Maitra; Sandip Mitra; Dilip Mookherjee; Alberto Motta; Sujata Visaria
  35. Teff: nutrient composition and health benefits: By Baye, Kaleab
  36. What determines household income of ethnic minorities in North-West Mountains, Vietnam: A microeconometric analysis of household surveys By Tran, Quang Tuyen
  37. Mapping changes in spatial extent Irrigated and Rainfed cropped areas at the backdrop of Green Revolution By kumar, niteen; punia, milap
  38. Social networks and factor markets: Panel data evidence from Ethiopia: By Abay, Kibrom A.; Kahsay, Goytom A.; Berhane, Guush
  39. The coproduction of the global regulatory regime for food safety standards and the limits of a technocratic ethos By Alessandra Arcuri
  40. Greening Household Behaviour: A review for Policy Makers By OECD
  41. A quarter of a century: mobility and stagnation in India’s rural labour market By Majumder, Rajarshi
  42. No price like home: global house prices, 1870-2012 By Knoll, Katharina; Schularick, Moritz; Steger, Thomas
  43. Reducing Calories and Added Sugars by Improving Children's Beverage Choices By Ronette R. Briefel; Ander Wilson; Charlotte Cabili; Allison Hedley Dodd
  44. Mobile Money, Remittances and Rural Household Welfare: Panel Evidence from Uganda By Ggombe Kasim Munyegera; Tomoya Matsumoto
  45. Climate change, groundwater salinization and road maintenance costs in coastal Bangladesh By Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md. Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David
  46. Children's Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables: Do School Environment and Policies Affect Choices at School and Away from School? By Ariun Ishdorj; Mary Kay Crepinsek; Helen H. Jensen
  47. A"Delphi exercise"as a tool in Amazon rainforest valuation By Strand, Jon; Carson, Richard T.; Navrud, Stale; Ortiz-Bobea, Ariel; Vincent, Jeffrey
  48. The political economy of certificates for land use in Germany: Experimental evidence By Bizer, Kilian; Henger, Ralph; Meub, Lukas; Proeger, Till
  49. Accounting for enforcement is essential to improve the spatial allocation of marine restricted-use zoning systems By Davis, Katrina; Pannell, David; Kragt, Marit; Gelcich, Stefan; Schilizzi, Steven
  50. Allocating shadow prices in a multiobjective chance constrained model By C. Caldeira; L. Dias; F. Freire; D. Kremmydas; S. Rozakis
  51. Increasing Block Tariffs in the Water Sector: An Interpreation in Terms of Social Preferences By Georg Meran; Christian von Hirschhausen
  52. The European Union Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures and Africa’s Exports By Olayinka Idowu Kareem
  53. The impact of care farms and green care on health-related quality of life: a systematic review guiding cost-effectiveness analysis By Nyantara Wickramasekera; Sandy Tubeuf; Thomas Veale; Judy Wright; Helen Elsey; Jenni Murray
  54. Greening Household Behaviour: Cross-domain Comparisons in Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours Using Spatial Effects By Zachary Brown
  55. The Determinants of Equity Transmission Between the New and Used Car Markets – A Hedonic Analysis By Alexander Kihm; Colin Vance

  1. By: David Dawe; Steven Jaffee; Nuno Santos
    Keywords: Crops and Crop Management Systems Agriculture - Agricultural Research Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Regional Economic Development Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Food and Beverage Industry Industry
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Elisa Botella Rodríguez
    Abstract: Costa Rica has been a great example of the neoliberal approach to agricultural policy implemented during the last two decades in most Latin American countries. Costa Rica shifted from import substitution industrialisation (ISI) to export-led growth and what the government and international organisations called ‘Agriculture of Change’ in the early 1980s. A combination of an active state, stable democracy, high social investment and support for small and medium firms, including cooperatives, resulted in higher economic growth and better gender and income distribution than in neighbouring countries. Since 1990, Costa Rica accelerated trade liberalisation, foreign direct investment (FDI), and non-traditional agricultural exports (NTAEs) through agricultural conversion programmes. Since the early 1990s new patterns of agricultural development have promoted the regional specialisation of agricultural production. The new strategy shaped agriculture and rural development in different regions and cantons creating opportunities and challenges for small famers and rural inhabitants.
    Keywords: Costa Rica, outward-looking development, NTAEs, small farmers, agricultural conversion, Agriculture of Change
    JEL: N56 O13 Q15 Q18
    Date: 2014–12
  3. By: Kenneth Fortson; Anu Rangarajan; Randall Blair; Joanne Lee; Valentine Gilbert
    Abstract: This report evaluates four components of an agricultural intervention in Armenia, the Water-to-Market Activity. It assesses on-farm water management, high-value agriculture training, credit to qualifying farmers, institutional training, and post-harvest processing and marketing.
    Keywords: Water to Market Armenia International
    JEL: F Z
    Date: 2013–03–08
  4. By: Schmidt, Emily; Chinowsky, Paul; Robinson, Sherman; Strzepek, Kenneth M.
    Abstract: Ongoing debate over water resource management and land degradation suggests a need for efficient sustainable land management mechanisms to improve agricultural output in the Blue Nile basin in Ethiopia. Numerous econometric and hydrological models have been developed to assess the effects of sustainable land and watershed management (SLWM) investments. However, these models fail to address the trade-offs faced by rural farmers in maintaining such structures. This study combines household survey data that evaluates the economic determinants of program sustainability with a detailed hydrological model that explores location specific effects of SLWM structures. Simulations suggest that more comprehensive investments (such as SLWM with increased fertilizer application) may reap more economically significant increases in household income. Cost benefit analysis suggests that a packaged investment approach is needed in order to outweigh the opportunity costs (foregone labor, particularly) of investing in SLWM infrastructure at farm level.
    Keywords: Watershed management, Sustainability, Land management,
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Yu, Bingxin; Chen, Kevin Z.; Zhang, Haisen
    Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive review of agricultural policy and public agricultural expenditure (PAE) in China. China shifted away from taxing agriculture to supporting agriculture in the mid-2000s, but the sector faces mounting demographic, biophysical, and trade challenges. PAE in China is outpacing that of other developing economies in Asia, but its composition does not align perfectly with the development challenges and priorities the sector faces.
    Keywords: Agricultural research, Agriculture, public expenditure, Food safety, Environment, Poverty, Agricultural policies, Economic development, agricultural sector, composition, inequality,
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Wang, Wen; Guo, Liping; Li, Yingchun; Su, Man; Lin, Yuebin; De Perthuis, Christian; Ju, Xiaotang; Lin, Erda; Moran, Dominic
    Abstract: China faces significant challenges in reconciling food security goals with the objective of becoming a low-carbon economy. Agriculture accounts for approximately 11 % of China’s national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions with cereal production representing a large proportion (about 32 %) of agricultural emissions. Minimizing emissions per unit of product is a policy objective and we estimated the GHG intensities (GHGI) of rice, wheat and maize production in China from 1985 to 2010. Results show significant variations of GHGIs among Chinese provinces and regions. Relative to wheat and maize, GHGI of rice production is much higher owing to CH4 emissions, and is more closely related to yield levels. In general, the south and central has been the most carbon intensive region in rice production while the GHGI of wheat production is highest in north and northwest provinces. The southwest has been characterized by the highest maize GHGI but the lowest rice GHGI. Compared to the baseline scenario, a 2 % annual reduction in N inputs, combined with improved water management in rice paddies, would mitigate 17 % of total GHG emissions from cereal production in 2020 while sustaining the required yield increase to ensure food security. Better management practices will entail additional gains in soil organic carbon further decreasing GHGI. To realize the full mitigation potential while maximizing agriculture development, the design of appropriate policies should accommodate local conditions.
    Keywords: food security; low-carbon agriculture; greenhouse gas intensity; China;
    JEL: Q15 Q24 Q54 Q18
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Ada Ignaciuk; Daniel Mason-D'Croz
    Abstract: This paper investigates how climate change can affect agricultural production and proposes some adaptation measures that could be undertaken to mitigate the negative effects of climate change while enhancing the positive ones. The paper stresses the importance of planned adaptation measures and highlights possible strategies for reducing risk and improving resilience. To quantify the possible effects of climate change and the effects of adaptation measures this study uses the International Model for Policy Analysis of Agricultural Commodities and Trade (IMPACT). The analysis first explores the potential effects of climate change on yields and prices. It then goes on to analyse the potential impacts of two distinctive sets of adaptation strategies on yields, prices, and food security, namely: i) research and development (to develop new crop varieties that are better suited to changed climate conditions) and ii) changes in irrigation technology. Last, the analysis in this paper estimates the public and private investment needs in research and development (R&D) for developing new crop varieties, and further develops estimates of the cost of improving irrigation technologies in OECD countries.
    JEL: Q18 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2014–12–22
  8. By: Schmidt, Emily; Zemadim, Birhanu
    Abstract: This analysis utilizes recent hydrological and meteorological data collected from the Mizewa watershed in Fogera woreda in order to better understand the physical impact of sustainable land and watershed management (SLWM) investments. The effectiveness of the simulated conservation practices (terraces, bunds, and residue management) are evaluated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model taking into account investment decisions on different terrain types. Simulations compare the limited investments that currently exist with increases in terracing and residue management activities within the watershed. The results suggest mixed impacts on surface run-off and erosion depending on terrain and management practices. However, the type and amount of investment (and therefore costs) in SLWM have different implications with respect to labor input and utilization of agricultural land, and the consequent socio-economic effects on households.
    Keywords: Sustainability, Land management, Water management, Irrigation,
    Date: 2014
  9. By: Bhargava, Anil K.
    Abstract: This paper investigates whether this increase in the opportunity cost of agricultural labor incentivizes farm owners to adopt labor-saving agricultural technology. Using a regression discontinuity design and new Indian agricultural census data, this paper finds that NREGA causes a shift of roughly 20 percentage points away from labor-intensive technologies toward labor-saving ones, particularly for small farmers and low-powered technologies.
    Keywords: technology adoption, labor markets, Poverty, rural areas, subsidies, Agricultural development, welfare, employment, social protection, social safety nets, Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee,
    Date: 2014
  10. By: Zora Bouamra-Mechemache; Sabine Duvaleix-Treguer; Aude Ridier
    Abstract: [paper in French] This article aims at identifying and analyzing coordination and contracting schemes in food supply chains. We provide a literature review related to the contracts between farmers and processing firms. We examine how the development of contracts can be used as an alternative to spot market in order to meet several objectives: performance, risk-management and countervailing market power. We study the role played by producer organizations to improve farmers’ horizontal coordination and enhance vertical coordination between the upstream and downstream stages of the industry.
    Keywords: agricultural contracts, producers organizations, vertical coordination, risks, efficiency, market power
    JEL: L22 Q13
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Houssou, Nazaire; Diao, Xinshen; Kolavalli, Shashidhara
    Abstract: This paper assesses whether tractor investment is a rational and profitable decision for farmers using firm investment theory and tractor owner survey data collected in 2013. Under erratic rainfalls, timeliness of farming operations is critical for farmers. Based on the hypothesis that owning a tractor and hiring tractor services are not necessarily perfect substitutes for farmers with relatively large farm sizes, this paper assesses whether mechanization services can be profitable for the private sector in Ghana. It particularly addresses whether farmer-to-farmer service provision is a viable alternative to current programs, which should be promoted by policymakers for scaling up agricultural mechanization in the country.
    Keywords: mechanization, farm inputs, Smallholders, tractor service market, firm investment theory, timeliness,
    Date: 2014
  12. By: Unnevehr, Laurian J.; Ronchi, Loraine
    Abstract: To better inform donor support for public food safety interventions, this paper reviews the literature on the impact of more stringent food safety standards on developing-country markets. This literature has primarily focused on the market access and economic implications of higher standards in export markets rather than on the extensive debate around market failure and public health benefits that dominates the literature in developed countries. We find that the market access benefits from compliance with public and private food safety standards are clear, as is the market exclusion that results from noncompliance. These benefits are now well documented, with more recent evidence pointing to added benefits of poverty reduction and spillovers for health and productivity.
    Keywords: Food safety, Compliance, Regulations, Developing countries, Markets, Agricultural policies, trade, trade policies, supply chain,
    Date: 2014
  13. By: Takeshima, Hiroyuki; Adesugba, Margaret Abiodun
    Abstract: In this paper, we briefly explore these three perspectives that can be useful in the future assessment of irrigation potential in Nigeria: (1) factor endowments, (2) challenges inherent in the tropics, and (3) experiences in a favorable area within Nigeria.
    Keywords: Irrigation, Rice, Agricultural research, farm inputs, Water use, Water availability, Agricultural growth, productivity, Water allocation, factor endowments,
    Date: 2014
  14. By: James Mabli; Jim Ohls; Lisa Dragoset; Laura Castner; Betsy Santos
    Abstract: The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides food assistance to more than 47 million low-income Americans every month. It aims to reduce hunger by facilitating beneficiaries’ access to enough food for a healthy, active lifestyle, otherwise known as "food security." Our study conducted for the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture shows that SNAP participation is associated with improved food security. The study is the largest and most rigorous one to date examining the effect of SNAP on food security.
    Keywords: SNAP, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Food Security, Nutrition
    JEL: I0 I1
    Date: 2013–08–30
  15. By: James Mabli Julie Worthington
    Abstract: This article estimates the effect of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) on children’s food security using data from the largest national survey of food security of SNAP participants to date. The study found children in households that had participated in SNAP for 6 months experienced improvements in food security. On the basis of these findings, we conclude SNAP serves a vital role in improving the health and well-being of low-income children by increasing food security.
    Keywords: Child Food Security Program Participation Food Assistance SNAP, Food Stamps
    JEL: I0 I1
    Date: 2014–04–30
  16. By: Quisumbing, Agnes R.; Kumar, Neha
    Abstract: Using the 2009 round of the Ethiopian Rural Household Survey, this paper examines the medium-term impact of the land registration on investment behavior by households, particularly the adoption of soil conservation techniques and tree planting. It investigates whether men’s and women’s knowledge of their property rights under the land registration (as measured by answers to a list of questions regarding the provisions of the registration, covering such areas as tenure security, land transfer rights, and rights related to gender equity and inheritance) has an impact on these investments.
    Keywords: Land rights, Land ownership, Soil conservation, Gender, Women, assets, households, conservation agriculture, Land degradation, legal knowledge, soil conservation practices,
    Date: 2014
  17. By: Yu, Bingxin; Zhang, Haisen
    Abstract: This paper is part of a set of country case studies that take a detailed look at public expenditures in agriculture and at how these expenditure data are captured in government financial and budget accounts. The objective of these studies is to unpack the black box of public expenditure statistics reported in various cross-country datasets and ultimately enable the use of existing government accounts to identify levels and compositions of country-level agricultural spending data, with clearer knowledge of what these data are in fact accounting for.
    Keywords: Agriculture, public expenditure, Agricultural policies, Agricultural research, Economic development, Agricultural development, classification of functions of government COFOG,
    Date: 2014
  18. By: Anastasia B. Likhacheva (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Igor A. Makarov (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Though Siberia and the Russian Far East are often considered oil and gas reservoirs, the southern areas of these regions have significant potential for water-intensive production, such as agricultural goods, chemicals, pulp and paper, metals, hydro energy. This potential is strengthening due to the proximity of the most dynamic and water demanding region of the world—the Asian-Pacific region (APR), where the challenge of water and food security is recognized as strategic. Russian political discourse has always been determined by a Eurocentric focus which has seriously constrained intensive cooperation with Asia. This paper investigates the opportunities and challenges to Siberia and the Russian Far East from the perspective of interdependence theory and its water specification—the virtual water concept. The most significant outcomes of the research refer to both theory and strategy. We show that in some cases the virtual water trade may help the water economy on a global scale but worsen the long-term regional water security status and increase the level of water stress in particular areas. The implication for Russia and APR is that Russia’s integration into the APR virtual water market would provide considerable benefits for Russia which include economic gains. More importantly, according to the interdependence theory, as well as a defensive realism, Russia, acting as a guarantor of Asia’s food and water security, would provide long-term positive effects for the whole APR through reduced water stress, and the desecuritization of the food trade and water allocation in the region
    Keywords: virtual water, water scarcity; Asia-Pacific, Russian Far East, international trade, food security
    JEL: F50 F18 Q25
    Date: 2014
  19. By: Jing You; Sangui Wang; Laurence Roope
    Abstract: We analyse intertemporal poverty in two important dimensions income and nutrition in less developed northwest China during 2000-2004. A generalised recursive selection model is proposed which enables simultaneous estimation of the causes of intertemporal poverty within and between dimensions. Improvement in agricultural production is crucial for reducing both dimensions of intertemporal poverty. We find evidence suggestive of intertemporal income-nutrition poverty traps.Higher labour productivity, especially in agriculture rather than local off-farm activities or out-migration, holds much potential for breaking the vicious circle. Agricultural innovation and mechanisation, regarded by the government as indispensable, yield mixed outcomes for intertemporal multi-dimensional poverty reduction.
    Keywords: intertemporal poverty, multi-dimensional poverty, rural China
    JEL: D63 I3 O52
    Date: 2014
  20. By: Islam, Nurul
    Abstract: This paper illustrates how the evolution of input/output policies in the food-grain sector in Bangladesh have been the result of interaction between various interest groups such as agricultural/rural and industrial/urban groups. The interaction between the diverse viewpoints and responsibilities of the various policymaking institutions engaged in making and implementing foodgrain policies have also affected the decisions of the government. In many instances, the donors engaged in financing development projects/programs in the relevant sectors/projects exercised varying degrees of influence on policy decisions. In a few instances, they joined hands with social scientists/economists in the government or in national think tanks who shared similar views.
    Keywords: food security, Food prices, food stocks, Markets, market failures, urban areas, social protection, social safety nets, donors, interest groups, suburbs, urban bias,
    Date: 2014
  21. By: Denise M. Deming; Ronette R. Briefel; Kathleen C. Reidy
    Keywords: Infant Feeding, Food Consumption, Children, WIC, Nutrition
    JEL: I0 I1
    Date: 2014–05–30
  22. By: Hoddinott, John F.; Headey, Derek D.; Dereje, Mekdim
    Abstract: In rural economies encumbered by significant market imperfections, farming decisions may partly be motivated by nutritional considerations, in addition to income and risk factors. These imperfections create the potential for farm assets to have direct dietary impacts on nutrition in addition to any indirect effects via income. We test this hypothesis for the dairy sector in rural Ethiopia, a context in which markets are very thin, own-consumption shares are very high, and milk is an important source of animal-based proteins and micronutrients for young children. We find that cow ownership raises children’s milk consumption, increases linear growth, and reduces stunting in children by seven to nine percentage points. However, we also find that the direct nutritional impacts of household cow ownership are less important where there is good access to local markets, suggesting that market development can substitute for household cow ownership.
    Keywords: Dairy, Dairy production, Markets, Nutrition, Smallholders, Livestock, malnutrition, Children,
    Date: 2014
  23. By: Levin, Jörgen (Örebro University School of Business); Sayeed, Yeasmin (Örebro University School of Business)
    Abstract: The spread of value-added tax (VAT) in developing countries has been dramatic since the beginning of 1990’s. Adopted by more than 130 countries, including many of the poorest, VAT has been, and remains, the key of tax reform in many developing countries. While adopting VAT, there are arguments for and against uniform general VAT system. A uniform and general VAT on all commodities is considered to be efficient and less distortionary. On the other hand, from the distributional perspective many goods especially food is exempted from VAT as low income households spend a high share of income on food. The contribution of this study is to analyze the income distribution and welfare impact of VAT reform when the food sectors are divided into local markets and supermarkets. A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model is used to evaluate the consequences of VAT reforms for Bangladesh. Our simulation results show that, a VAT reform that exempts the agriculture sector and local market food commodities provides the best welfare and distributional impact.
    Keywords: VAT; VAT reform; incidence analysis; equity and welfare; CGE; Bangladesh
    JEL: H21 H22 H23 I31
    Date: 2014–12–12
  24. By: Hertel, Thomas W.; Steinbuks, Jevgenijs; Tyner, Wallace E.
    Abstract: What is second-generation biofuel technology worth to global society? A dynamic, computable partial equilibrium model (called FABLE) is used to assess changes in global land use for crops, livestock, biofuels, forestry, and environmental services, as well as greenhouse gas emissions, with and without second-generation biofuels technology. The difference in the discounted stream of global valuations of land-based goods and services gives the value of second-generation technology to society. Under baseline conditions, this to amounts to $64.2 billion at today's population or an increase of roughly 0.3 percent in the valuation of the world's land resources. This gain arises despite the fact that, in the baseline scenario, the technology does not become commercially viable until 2035. Alternative scenarios considered include: diminished crop yield growth owing to adverse climate impacts, flat energy prices, low economic growth, and high population growth, as well as greenhouse gas regulation. The most important factor driving second-generation valuation is greenhouse gas regulation, which more than doubles the social value of this technology. Flat energy prices essentially eliminate the value of second-generation technology to society, and high population growth reduces its value because of the heightened competition for land for food production.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Climate Change Economics,Energy Production and Transportation,Energy and Environment
    Date: 2014–12–01
  25. By: James Mabli
    Keywords: SNAP, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Participation Rates, Urban Rural Food Security
    JEL: I0 I1
    Date: 2014–03–30
  26. By: Kimle, Kevin
    Abstract: This paper suggests four models that could link US and Chinese investment and yield productive new avenues for commercial collaboration. All four models focus on animal protein supply chain technologies. That is because agricultural innovation in this realm is of particular importance to demandside developments and to rapidly changing consumption patterns in China.  These four models focus on early-stage agricultural innovation and business development. 
    Keywords: China; innovation; agricultural technologies; Investment; Business startups
    JEL: M13 M16 O32 Q13 Q16
    Date: 2014–09–21
  27. By: Chhokar, Jagdeep S.; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Kolavalli, Shashidhara
    Abstract: In this paper, we document an approach to capacity strengthening of parliamentarians in Ghana and attempt to gauge to what extent and under what conditions such investments could lead to better debates and informed policymaking to promote growth and poverty reduction. We traced a group of Ghanaian parliamentarians to draw lessons after their study and exposure visit to India. Exposure visits changed participants’ knowledge, outlook, and thinking toward agricultural policies.
    Keywords: Agricultural policies, Capacity building, Governance, Agricultural development, Capacity strengthening, public policy, policy process,
    Date: 2014
  28. By: Christian Elleby (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: A key parameter determining the welfare impact from a world market shock is the transmission elasticity which measures the average domestic response to an international price change. Many studies have estimated price transmission elasticities for a large number of countries but the variation in these estimates is so far largely unexplored. This paper proposes a model which explains a country's domestic price response to world market shocks in terms of its demand structure. The model delivers two testable predictions; price transmission is increasing in per capita food expenditure and in income inequality. The empirical analysis of price changes during the food crises confirms these predictions with a caveat. I find significant inverse U-shaped relationships between domestic food price growth in 2007-8 and 2010-11 and per capita food expenditure. Unequal countries also experienced higher price growth but the relationship is less significant. The finding that food prices in middle-income countries increased the most during the food crises is a cause for concern in light of the fact that the majority of the world's poor today live in middle-income countries.
    Keywords: Price transmission, Food crisis, Food prices, Non-homothetic preferences, Income distribution
    JEL: D11 D31 Q11 Q12
    Date: 2014–12
  29. By: Cem Karayalcin (Department of Economics, Florida International University); Mihaela Pintea (Department of Economics, Florida International University)
    Abstract: The process of economic development is characterized by substantial reallocations of resources across sectors. In this paper, we construct a multi-sector model in which there are barriers to the movement of labor from low-productivity traditional agriculture to modern sectors. With the barrier in place, we show that improvements in productivity in modern sectors (including agriculture) or reductions in transportation costs may lead to a rise in agricultural employment and through terms-of-trade effects may harm subsistence farmers if the traditional subsistence sector is larger than a critical level. This suggests that policy advice based on the earlier literature needs to be revised. Reducing barriers to mobility (through reductions in the cost of skill acquisition and institutional changes) and improving the productivity of subsistence farmers needs to precede policies designed to increase the productivity of modern sectors or decrease transportation costs.
    Date: 2014–12
  30. By: K.N, Nair; C.S, Krishnakumar
    Abstract: This paper is prepared against the broader background of the policy debates on the breeding, feeding and distributional consequences of dairy development in India. The data for the study is drawn from the National Dairy Sample Survey covering 186 districts spread over 14 major States in the Country. Analysis presented in the paper shows that the diffusion and adoption of crossbreeding technology is an important factor contributing to the level, pattern, and sources of milk production. There is no evidence to show that the increase in milk production and widespread adoption of crossbreeding technology resulted in the intensification of the pressure on land resources for the production of livestock feed. The production of milk is carried out largely by the weaker sections of the rural society. Since agriculture is rapidly getting mechanized, draught power requirement would not work as a constraint on the diffusion and adoption of new breeds of milch animals. Drawing on the main findings, the paper offers a number of recommendations for the consolidation and acceleration of milk production and the sustainable income generation for the rural poor.
    Keywords: Breeding, Feeding,Distribution of Milch Animal Holdings, Diffusion of Technology,Production of milk,Levels and Patterns, National Dairy Sample Survey,KVASU, CLPR, India
    JEL: A12 C8 C80 C83 D1 D10 D12 H5 I1 M2 N5 O2 O3 Q1 Q2 Q4 R2 Z18
    Date: 2014
  31. By: Katrin Millock
    Abstract: This report focuses on households’ behaviour in relation to food consumption. It presents the results of follow-up econometric analysis of the 2011 OECD Survey on Environmental Policy and Individual Behaviour Change (EPIC). This report complements the overview of the survey data provided in the publication OECD (2014). It studies expenditure and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for organic food and food labelled as taking animal welfare into account...<BR>Ce rapport est consacré au comportement des ménages en matière d’alimentation. Il présente les résultats de travaux d’analyse économétrique qui s’inscrivent dans le prolongement de l’enquête sur la politique de l’environnement et le comportement individuel (EPIC) réalisée par l’OCDE en 2011. Ce rapport complète la synthèse des données de l’enquête présentée dans l’ouvrage OCDE (2014). Il est centré sur l’étude des dépenses réalisées et du consentement à payer (CAP) pour acquérir des aliments biologiques ou étiquetés comme respectant le bien-être des animaux.
    Keywords: labelling, household survey, attitudes, organic fruits and vegetables, animal welfare, behaviour, willingness-to-pay, fruits et légumes biologiques, attitudes, consentement à payer (CAP), bien-être animal, comportement, enquête auprès des ménages, étiquetage
    JEL: C51 D11 D12 Q18 Q58
    Date: 2014–12–10
  32. By: Vandercasteelen, Joachim; Dereje, Mekdim; Minten, Bart; Seyoum Taffesse, Alemayehu
    Keywords: Agricultural research, Teff, productivity, yields, Labor, sowing methods,
    Date: 2014
  33. By: Margolies, Amy; Hoddinott, John F.
    Abstract: Discussions regarding the merits of cash and food transfers by academics and implementers alike focus on their relative impacts. Much less is known about their relative costs. We apply activity-based costing methods to interventions situated in Ecuador, Niger, Uganda, and Yemen, finding that the per transfer cost of providing cash is always less than that of providing food. Given the budget for these interventions, an additional 44,769 people could have received assistance at no additional cost had cash been provided instead of food. This suggests a significant opportunity cost in terms of reduced coverage when higher-cost transfer modalities are used. Decisions to use cash or food transfers should consider both impacts and costs.
    Keywords: social protection, food aid, cash transfers,
    Date: 2014
  34. By: Pushkar Maitra; Sandip Mitra; Dilip Mookherjee; Alberto Motta; Sujata Visaria
    Abstract: We experimentally evaluate two micro-lending schemes to finance high-value smallholder agriculture. Loans featured durations that matched crop cycles, low interest rates, dynamic repayment incentives and index insurance. In the TRAIL design, the lender incentivized a local trader to recommend borrowers for individual-liability loans. In GBL, it offered joint-liability loans to self-formed groups, who attended high-frequency meetings and met savings targets. TRAIL loans increased potato cultivation and farm incomes by 17{21%, but GBL loans had insignificant effects, because TRAIL borrowers were more productive and lower-risk. TRAIL loans had higher repayment and take-up rates, and lower administrative costs than GBL loans.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Agent Based Lending, Group Lending, Selection, Repayment
    JEL: D82 O1
    Date: 2014–09
  35. By: Baye, Kaleab
    Abstract: Teff (Eragrostis tef), has been cultivated and used for human consumption in Ethiopia for centuries. However, teff’s global use for human consumption has been restrained partly due to limited knowledge about its nutrient composition and the processing challenges faced in making teff-based food products. Over the past decade, the recognition that teff is gluten-free has raised global interest. Consequently, literature on the nutritional composition, processing quality, and health benefits of teff has grown considerably. The existing literature suggests that teff is composed of complex carbohydrates with slowly digestible starch. Teff has a similar protein content to other more common cereals like wheat, but is relatively richer than other cereals in the essential amino acid lysine. Teff is also a good source of essential fatty acids, fiber, minerals (especially calcium and iron), and phytochemicals such as polyphenols and phytates.
    Keywords: Teff, Nutrition, Micronutrients, cereals,
    Date: 2014
  36. By: Tran, Quang Tuyen
    Abstract: This paper investigates socio-economic factors affecting household income among ethnic minorities in North-West Mountains – the poorest region of Vietnam. The findings revealed that the vast majority of the sample households heavily depended on agricultural activities, with very limitted access to nonfarm employment. Factors affecting household income were analyzed using multiple regression models and the results confirm the crucial role of education, non-farm employment and fixed assets in improving household income. Also, some community characteristics such as the presence of means of transportation, post offices and nonfarm job opportunities were found to have a significantly positive impact on household income. The findings imply that policies for poverty reduction should aim at both commune and household levels in the study area.
    Keywords: Ethnic minorities, nonfarm participation, household income, North-West Mountains.
    JEL: O12 Q12
    Date: 2014–12–15
  37. By: kumar, niteen; punia, milap
    Abstract: Green Revolution was at its core a sort of technological response to the global food shortages that erupted out of the Second World War and claimed large chunks of population. It India it has its root in the food crisis which engulfed the nation in the very beginning of its journey as an independent nation. Using Normalised Difference Vegetation Index images of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer satellite dataset this study tends to map the changes in spatial extent of irrigated and rainfed cropped areas after the onset of green revolution. The result of the study shows an eastward extension of the irrigated agriculture as well as newer areas in central India coming under the ambit of irrigated agriculture.
    Keywords: Irrigated and rainfed agriculture, AVHHR, NDVI
    JEL: Q1 Q10
    Date: 2014–01–06
  38. By: Abay, Kibrom A.; Kahsay, Goytom A.; Berhane, Guush
    Abstract: We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market transactions among smallholder farmers. Using detailed longitudinal household survey data and employing a difference-in-differences approach, we find that iddir membership improves households’ access to factor markets.
    Keywords: social networks, iddir networks, factor market imperfections, factor market transactions, crowding-out,
    Date: 2014
  39. By: Alessandra Arcuri
    Abstract: Several socio-legal scholars have studied how the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) was empowered by the World Trade Organization (WTO) and how, under this transition, its standards became quasi-binding. What has gone less studied is how the WTO has transformed the very modus operandi of Codex. In particular, it has been argued that the WTO has infused Codex with a technocratic ethos. Building on this scholarship, this article investigates the dynamic relationship between the WTO and Codex and the evolving role of expert knowledge in the global regime for food safety standards. The article’s main thesis is that technocracy (as the rule of the knowers) is an unsustainable regulatory paradigm in the field of global food safety standards, as evidenced by the controversial ractopamine case, discussed in the article. The article concludes by arguing that the global food safety regime is turning towards a paradigm that marries science with democratic values.
    Date: 2014–09–24
  40. By: OECD
    Abstract: Personal behaviour and choices in daily life, from what we eat to how we get to work or heat our homes, have a significant – and growing – effect on the environment. But why are some households greener than others? And what factors motivate green household choices? <P>Answering these questions is vital for helping governments design and target policies that promote “greener” behaviour. The OECD’s Environmental Policy and Individual Behaviour Change (EPIC) survey is designed to do just that. This large-scale household survey explores what drives household environmental behaviour and how policies may affect household decisions. It focuses on five areas in which households have significant environmental impact: energy, food, transport, waste and water. This policy paper is based on the second round of the EPIC survey, carried out in 2011 (the first was in 2008). The survey collected information from more than 12 000 households in Australia, Canada, Chile, France, Israel, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland.
    Date: 2014–12–17
  41. By: Majumder, Rajarshi
    Abstract: Transformation of the countryside from agrarian subsistence economy to non-farm monetised economy is propagated as a precursor of growth and development and involves shifting of labour from farming to off-farm activities. India has started its journey in this path but has a long way to go. Researchers also question whether the changing pattern of rural labour is a positive phenomenon or a distress one. This paper attempts to examine the complexity of changes in rural labour market in India over a quarter of a century to untangle the dynamics. It is observed that the changes taking place are not always conducive to progress as a large part of it is distress driven. While some social groups are going up the ladder, a large mass of the others are stagnating in same or similar occupations. It appears that agriculture still holds the key to rural development. A three pronged strategy of agricultural progress, human capital formation, and rural industrialisation is necessary for breaking the shackles of continuity and usher in changes that are real rather than apparent.
    Keywords: Rural Labour; Employment; Stagnation; Occupation Mobility; Poverty
    JEL: J21 J24 J31 J43 J62
    Date: 2013–12
  42. By: Knoll, Katharina (Free University of Berlin); Schularick, Moritz (University of Bonn); Steger, Thomas (Leipzig University)
    Abstract: How have house prices evolved in the long-run? This paper presents annual house price indices for 14 advanced economies since 1870. Based on extensive data collection, we are able to show for the first time that house prices in most industrial economies stayed constant in real terms from the 19th to the mid-20th century, but rose sharply in recent decades. Land prices, not construction costs, hold the key to understanding the trajectory of house prices in the long-run. Residential land prices have surged in the second half of the 20th century, but did not increase meaningfully before. We argue that before World War II dramatic reductions in transport costs expanded the supply of land and suppressed land prices. Since the mid-20th century, comparably large land-augmenting reductions in transport costs no longer occurred. Increased regulations on land use further inhibited the utilization of additional land, while rising expenditure shares for housing services increased demand.
    JEL: N10 O10 R30 R40
    Date: 2014–10–01
  43. By: Ronette R. Briefel; Ander Wilson; Charlotte Cabili; Allison Hedley Dodd
    Abstract: This study estimated the mean calories from added sugars saved by switching sugar-sweetened beverages (including soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and sport drinks) and flavored milks consumed to unflavored low-fat milk (less than 1 percent fat) at meals and water between meals. These changes, which were simulated to demonstrate the potential effects of improving school nutrition policies, translated to a mean of 205 calories or a 10 percent savings in energy intake across all students (8 percent among children in elementary school and 11 percent in middle and high schools).
    Keywords: Child Obesity Sweetened beverages Added Sugars School Nutrition Policy; Home food environment
    JEL: I0 I1
    Date: 2013–02–28
  44. By: Ggombe Kasim Munyegera (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies); Tomoya Matsumoto (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies)
    Abstract: Mobile money service in Uganda has expanded rapidly, penetrating as much as over 30 percent of the adult population in just four years since its inception. We investigate the impact of this financial innovation on household welfare, using household survey panel data from rural Uganda. Results from our preferred specification reveal that adopting mobile money services increases household per capita consumption by 72 percent. The mechanism of this impact is the facilitation of remittances; user households are more likely to receive remittances, receive remittances more frequently and the total value received is significantly higher than that of non-user households. Our results are robust to a number of robustness checks. JEL (O16, O17, O33, I131)
    Date: 2014–12
  45. By: Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md. Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David
    Abstract: The potentially-adverse impact of salinity on paved roads is well-established in the engineering literature. The problem seems destined to grow, as climate-related changes in sea level and riverine flows drive future increases in groundwater salinity. However, data scarcity has prevented systematic analysis for poor countries. This paper assesses the impact of groundwater salinity on road maintenance expenditures in the coastal region of Bangladesh. The assessment draws on new panel measures of salinity from 41 stations in coastal Bangladesh, and road maintenance expenditures, income, road network length, and road surfaces from 20 coastal municipalities. In a model relating maintenance expenditure for paved roads to groundwater salinity, municipal income, and road network length, large and significant effects are found for salinity. The regression model is used to predict the effect of within-sample salinity variation on road maintenance expenditure share, holding municipal income and road length constant at sample mean values. Increasing salinity from its sample minimum to its sample maximum increases the predicted road maintenance expenditure share by 252 percent. The implied welfare impact may also be substantial, particularly for poor households, if diversion of expenditures to road maintenance reduces support for community sanitation, health, and other infrastructure related programs.
    Keywords: Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Water Conservation,Roads&Highways,Rural Roads&Transport,Water Resources Assessment
    Date: 2014–12–01
  46. By: Ariun Ishdorj; Mary Kay Crepinsek; Helen H. Jensen
    Abstract: On an average school day, school lunch participants consume more fruits and vegetables, including relatively more at school and less away from school compared to nonparticipants.
    Keywords: Censoring, Endogeneity, Food Assistance, Fruits and Vegetables, National School Lunch Program , NSLP, Nutrition
    JEL: I0 I1
    Date: 2013–06–30
  47. By: Strand, Jon; Carson, Richard T.; Navrud, Stale; Ortiz-Bobea, Ariel; Vincent, Jeffrey
    Abstract: The Amazon rainforest, the world's largest and most biodiverse, represents a global public good of which 15 percent has already been lost. The worldwide value of preserving the remaining forest is today unknown. A"Delphi"exercise was conducted involving more than 200 environmental valuation experts from 36 countries, who were asked to predict the outcome of a survey to elicit willingness to pay for Amazon forest preservation among their own countries'populations. Expert judgments of average willingness-to-pay levels, per household per year, to fund a plan to protect all of the current Amazon rainforest up to 2050, range from $4 to $36 in 12 Asian countries, to near $100 in Canada, Germany, and Norway, with other high-income countries in between. Somewhat lower willingness-to-pay values were found for a less strict plan that allows a 12 percent further rainforest area reduction. The elasticity of experts'willingness-to-pay assessments with respect to own-country per capita income is slightly below but not significantly different from unity when results are pooled across countries and income is adjusted for purchasing power parity.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Economic Theory&Research,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Knowledge for Development,Wildlife Resources
    Date: 2014–12–01
  48. By: Bizer, Kilian; Henger, Ralph; Meub, Lukas; Proeger, Till
    Abstract: Certificate trading schemes have been discussed as a cost-efficient means of reducing land use in Germany by capping and reallocating permissions to conduct building projects. However, in contrast to the established cap & trade systems for emissions, reputation-seeking politicians would be in charge of buying and trading certificates - an aspect not considered to date. We thus present a laboratory experiment that captures politician´s incentives connected to electoral cycles in a cap & trade scheme for land use, whereby tradable certificates are auctioned and grandfathered in equal shares. We find the cap & trade system to be efficient at large, yet there are several politically relevant distortions that are aggravated by self-serving incentives. Prices show high volatility, initially by far exceed fair values and are substantially biased by the endowment effect. Further, the timing and location of land use projects and the heterogeneity in income across municipalities are sensitive to the specifics of the system and politicians´ interests. We thus identify potential problems to a cap & trade system for land use that could substantially reduce both its assumed superior efficiency and its political feasibility.
    Keywords: economic experiment,land use,municipal actors,political business cycle,tradable certificates
    JEL: C91 Q58
    Date: 2014
  49. By: Davis, Katrina; Pannell, David; Kragt, Marit; Gelcich, Stefan; Schilizzi, Steven
    Abstract: Growing industrial and consumer demands are negatively affecting fish stocks, which are increasingly extracted above sustainable levels. Successful management of marine resources through restricted use zoning systems such as reserves and territorial user rights schemes relies on support from marine stakeholders; particularly coastal fishing communities. Restricted use zoning results in both management costs and benefits to stakeholders. To increase support for management decisions these need to be taken into account when designing optimal marine management. A linear spatial optimisation model was developed to identify zoning solutions which maximize fishers’ revenue, while meeting conservation targets. Targets were based on maximum population abundance levels for two invertebrate and three reef fish species in Chile. Revenue was maximised by allocating the study area to different management zones: no-take, territorial user rights for fishing (TURFs), or open access. Costs are incurred to enforce no-take and TURF areas; but enforcement results in higher species abundance by preventing poaching and overfishing. Several scenarios were analysed to determine the impact of enforcement on revenue. Results demonstrated net benefits from enforcement: revenue under scenarios with enforcement was approximately 50% higher than under scenarios without it; and enforced-TURF areas were preferentially selected over other zones. Enforcement costs are one of the chief reasons that fishers in the study area stop actively managing TURFS. However, our analysis demonstrates that the often hidden benefits of enforcement far exceed the visible costs. These findings highlight the importance of accounting for both the benefits and costs of management in marine spatial design; particularly as they relate to marine stakeholders.
    Keywords: Spatial optimization, conservation planning, linear programming, marine stakeholders, reserve design, territorial user rights, Environmental Economics and Policy, Q57,
    Date: 2014–01–09
  50. By: C. Caldeira (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, Portugal); L. Dias (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, Portugal); F. Freire (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, Portugal); D. Kremmydas (Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Agricultural University of Athens); S. Rozakis (Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Agricultural University of Athens)
    Abstract: Biodiesel production sustainability relates to decision making on blending involving economic and environmental criteria. Several feedstocks candidate in European countries biodiesel industry, namely different vegetable origin oils. The present research aims at assessing the impact of technological constraints allocated to the decision objectives taking into account inherent uncertainty. For this purpose chance?constrained programming is used in order to maintain tolerance towards fuel quality.
    Keywords: Biodiesel blends, Uncertainty, Chance constrained programming, Shadow prices, Multiobjective programming, GHG emissions
    JEL: C61 Q29 Q42
    Date: 2014
  51. By: Georg Meran; Christian von Hirschhausen
    Abstract: Many developing countries around the world apply progressive water tariffs, often structured in the form of discretely increasing block tariffs (IBTs). These tariffs have been criticized in the welfare economic literature due to their perceived inefficiency: many of the prices charged under IBTs do not correspond to marginal costs and thus violate the principle of allocative efficiency. In this paper we explore an alternative interpretation of the widespread use of IBTs, in terms of social preferences and fairness considerations. For this, we rely on an extension of the Fehr and Schmidt (1999) utility function, including inequality aversion, to which we add another parameter representing a preference for redistribution, which reflects a societal preference to correct for income difference perceived as unfair. In addition, the paper also includes household size in the analysis, finding that as poor households are on average larger (in per capita terms), a simple IBT tariff disregarding household size may not be "fair" at all. We conclude on a methodological note on the importance of addressing allocative and distributional issues simultaneously.
    Keywords: water, tariffication, prices, fairness, distribution, institutions
    JEL: L51 L95 H21 D40
    Date: 2014
  52. By: Olayinka Idowu Kareem
    Abstract: Changes in tastes and preferences in importing countries as well as the need to keep the environment safe, especially in developed markets, has contributed to a rising trend in the demand for sanitary and phytosanitary measures for quality products. However, the stringency and the preponderance of these measures have effects on trade, particularly for the developing and least developed countries in Africa. The effects often influence the attainment of the development aspirations of these Africa countries, especially employment, poverty reduction and sustainable growth. To this end, this study investigates the export effects of the EU standards for Africa. It uses the two-step Helpman et al. (2008) extensive and intensive trade margins model for two high-value foods and two traditional products. The EU standard requirements for each product are called the ‘hurdle to pass’ before the product can gain access to the EU market. In all, 52 African countries are considered in an empirical analysis covering the period 1995 to 2012. The study finds that product standards for fish and cocoa are trade-enhancing at the extensive margins, but this is not the case at the intensive margins. However, the standards are trade-inhibiting at both the extensive and intensive margins of exports for vegetables, while the standards are trade-restrictive at the extensive margins and trade-enhancing at the intensive margins for coffee. Thus, the findings suggest that the impacts of standards on exports are commodity-specific due to the significant differences in the costs of compliance, the size of the exporting firms or countries, access to development assistance and the commodity-specific interests of countries. The study recommends development partnerships and alliance policies on the part of Africa, with the development of institutions that can improve the level of standard-compliance in all African exporting markets.
    Keywords: Technical Regulations, Food Exports, Africa, EU, Gravity Model
    JEL: C33 C87 F13 F42
    Date: 2014–10
  53. By: Nyantara Wickramasekera (Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds); Sandy Tubeuf (Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds); Thomas Veale (Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds); Judy Wright (Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds); Helen Elsey (Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds); Jenni Murray (Leeds Institute of Health Sciences, University of Leeds)
    Abstract: Background: Care farms are increasingly commissioned by public sector and health sector organizations to provide support to vulnerable people. It is a complex intervention that provides farming activities for therapeutic purposes. The evidence base assessing the effectiveness of care farms is relatively recent and to date no systematic review has been conducted to assess the impact of care farms using health-related-quality-of-life measures. Aim: This systematic review aims to identify any existing literature evaluating the impact of care farms and green care interventions in adult populations, with a specific focus on health-relatedquality- of-life measures that could be used for a cost-effectiveness or cost-utility analysis. Methods: 19 general health and social science databases were searched systematically in November 2013. Care farm and green care interventions, for adults measuring HRQOL outcome were included and assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane’s six item risk of bias checklist. Results: Five studies with four hundred and eighty-four participants were included in this review. Two studies favoured the interventions, whereas three studies did not find strong evidence that the intervention had an effect on participants’ health-related-quality-of-life at post-intervention follow-up. These results indicated that care farms and green care may benefit certain populations such as breast and lung cancer patients, the elderly, and people with affective disorders. Conclusions: Given the small number of available studies and their methodological limitations we cannot make unequivocal conclusions about the impact of care farms on health-relatedquality- of-life. With this caveat, some evidence suggests that care farms and green care interventions can improve quality of life for some participants. However, this review highlights the need to conduct more high quality trials with larger sample sizes and longer term follow-up.
    Keywords: health-related quality-of-life, care farms, green care, cost-effectiveness, cost-utility
    JEL: I31 I38
    Date: 2014
  54. By: Zachary Brown
    Abstract: Discussions of the importance of public attitudes in shaping policy often lack clear evidence on causal relations between stated attitudes and observed behaviours. The 2011 OECD Survey of over 12,000 households allows analysing households’ environmental attitudes and behaviours in five different domains (electricity, food, transport, waste and water). Using econometric analysis, we investigate the relationship between stated environmental attitudes and indicators of civic engagement, such as voting in local elections, charity membership and membership in environmental organisations...<BR>La réflexion sur le rôle des attitudes du public dans l’élaboration des politiques manque souvent d’éléments probants au sujet du lien de causalité existant entre les attitudes déclarées et les comportements observés. L’enquête réalisée par l’OCDE en 2011 auprès de plus de 12 000 ménages permet d’analyser leurs attitudes et comportements environnementaux dans cinq domaines distincts (électricité, alimentation, transports, déchets et eau). Sur la base d’une analyse économétrique, on étudie ce qui lie les attitudes environnementales déclarées à différentes formes d’engagement civique, telles que voter aux élections locales, s’impliquer au sein d’une oeuvre caritative et être membre d’une association de défense de l’environnement.
    Keywords: household survey, behavioural economics, GIS, environmental attitudes, civic engagement, engagement civique, enquête auprès des ménages, attitudes envers l'environnement, SIG, économie comportementale
    JEL: C51 D10 D11 D12 D64 D71 H89 Q50 Q58
    Date: 2014–12–10
  55. By: Alexander Kihm; Colin Vance
    Abstract: Drawing on a data set containing 371,082 observations on new and used cars from 2008, this study employs a hedonic model to estimate the determinants of prices in the primary and secondary car markets in Germany. We are specifically interested in identifying those vehicle attributes that are responsible for retaining the car’s value in the used car market. Beyond parameterizing the influence of technical features and brand name on the retail price, our model simultaneously generates a corresponding set of parameter estimates for the used car price, thereby allowing us to formally compare their magnitudes across the two markets. This comparison reveals that fuel consumption, in particular, is an important determinant of the price, one whose impact is higher in magnitude in the used car market than in the new car market. Large heterogeneity in how cars hold their investment value is also seen to depend on body type and brand/model name.
    Keywords: Retail prices; used car prices; hedonic model; Germany
    JEL: M31 R41
    Date: 2014–12

This nep-agr issue is ©2015 by Angelo Zago. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.