nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2014‒10‒17
forty-one papers chosen by

  1. Agenda to Mitigate Food Price Volatility in Mexico By Gonzalez, Rafael Gamboas
  2. Determinants of crop yield and profit of family farms: Evidence from the Senegal River Valley By Elodie Blanc; Aurelia Lepine; Eric Strobl
  3. The role of U.S., China, Brazil's agricultural and trade policies on global food supply and demand. FOODSECURE working paper no.19 By Simla Tokgoz; Danielle Alencar Parente Torres; David Laborde; Jikun Huang
  4. The Economic Consequences of Trade and Immigration for Local Labor Markets By Hanson, Gordon
  5. Impact of Increased Crop Insurance Enrollment on Cropping of Environmentally Sensitive Land By Holderieath, Jason
  6. The impact of EU trade preferences on the extensive and intensive margins of agricultural adn food products. FOODSECURE working paper no. 22 By Margherita Scoppola; Valentina Raimondi; Alessandro Olper
  7. Agricultural Credit Cooperatives of India By Sushila KAUL
  8. Determinants of Household Food Insecurity in Mexico By David, Magnaña-Lemus
  9. Evaluating the Marginal Risk Management Benefits of the Supplemental Coverage Option By Paulson, Nicholas D.; Schnitkey, Gary D.; Kelly, Patrick
  10. Impact of Agricultural Policy Reform on Regional Rural Poverty in Turkey By Onur KOSKA; Duygu ATHAN; Selim CAGATAY
  11. Examining Adverse Selection in Organic Crop Insurance: Where Do We Go From Here? By Glenn, Viola; Dale, Kelli; Sligh, Michael; Robinson, James
  12. New Challenges for the European Agriculture: Modelling Agricultural Reform under the New WTO Proposals By PEREZ Ignacio WIECK Christine BRITZ Wolfgang
  13. An Assessment of the Distributional Impact of Agricultural Trade Policies in the Triad By BOUËT Antoine; DHONT-PELTRAULT Estelle
  14. Conflict displacement and technology adoption: evidence on agricultural households in Bosnia and Herzegovina By Mathieu SANCH-MARITAN; LIONEL VEDRINE
  15. Impacts Of Agricultural Policies On Income And Income Distribution in Turkey: A Social Accounting Matrix Analysis By Metin TEKTAS
  16. Heterogeneous Firms and Homogenising Standards in Agri-Food Trade - the Polish Meat Case By Frank VAN TONGEREN; Marie-Luise RAU
  17. Channels of impoverishment due to ill-health in rural Ethiopia By Debebe, Z.Y.; Mebratie, A.D.; Sparrow, R.A.; Dekker, M.; Alemu, G.; Bedi, A.S.
  18. Estimating the WA Agricultural Production System: A profit function approach Creation Date: 1999 By H. Ahammad; N. Islam
  19. Evaluating the Market and Welfare Impacts of Agricultural Policies in Developed Countries: Comparison of Partial and General Equilibrium Measures By Alexandre GOHIN; Giancarlo MOSCHINI
  20. Food Price Pass-Through in the Euro Area: the Role of Asymmetries and Non-Linearities By Luca ONORANTE; Gianluigi FERRUCCI; Rebeca JIMÉNEZ-RODRÍGUEZ
  21. Modeling Irrigation Agriculture in Bolivia By CARLEVARO Fabrizio; LOZA Hugo
  22. Making Grasslands Sustainable in Mongolia: Herders' Livelihoods and Climate Change By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  23. Industry and Drought-- Time to Prepare for Next Time By Allee, David; Antle, George; Tang, James; Schad, Ted; Cywin, Allen; Aron, Gert; James, Douglas; Toenniessen, Gary; Saski, Brion; Boland, John J.; Mahmood, Khalia; Sabadell, Eleonora
  24. A Hurricane Risk and Loss Assessment of Caribbean Agriculture By Preeya Mohan; Eric Strobl
  25. Welfare Effects of Food Desubsidization For Iranian Urban Households (The Index Number and Demand System Approach) By Aliakbar KHOSRAVINEJAD
  26. Impact Analysis of the Common Agricultural Policy Changes in Italy: a Two Sectors Input-output and Micro-econometric Modelling Approach By Edoardo Pizzoli; Giuseppe Lecardane; Domenico Ciaccia
  27. Spatial Water Management under Alternative Institutional Arrangements By CHAKRAVORTY Ujjayant; UMETSU Chieko; ZILBERMAN David
  28. Agricultural shocks and riots : A disaggregated analysis By Almer, C; Laurent-Lucchetti, Jeremy; Oechslin, Manuel
  30. Reducing Deforestation and Trading Emissions: Carbon Market Impacts of post-Kyoto Climate Policies By Niels ANGER; Jayant SATHAYE
  31. Within- and between- sample tests of preference stability and willingness to pay for forest management By Mikołaj Czajkowski; Anna Bartczak; Wiktor Budziński; Marek Giergiczny
  32. Regional perspectives and distributional effects of European regional policies By Andrea Bonfiglio; Roberto Esposti; Francesco Pagliacci; Franco Sotte; Beatrice Camaioni
  33. The Impact of Cooking with Firewood on Respiratory Health: Evidence from Indonesia By Ani Rudra Silwal; Andy McKay
  34. Water Price and Water Relocation in Andalusia. A Computable General Equilibrium Approach By Esther Velázquez; M. Alejandro Cardenete; Geoffrey J.D. Hewings
  35. Economic Assessment of Water Trade Restrictions in the Murray Darling Basin By M. Ejaz Qureshi; Wendy Proctor; M. Kirby
  36. Strengthening Carbon Financing for Grassland Management in the People's Republic of China: Incentive Mechanisms and Implications By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  37. Are Economic Goals and Goals of Environmental Protection Compatible? Explaining Paths to a Sustainable Economy By Helmut MAIER
  38. Weather Conditions and Economic Growth - Is Productivity Hampered by Climate Change? By Thomas Brenner; Daniel Lee
  39. An Alternative Markup Pricing and Protection Rate: Evidence From Wheat in Iran By Mohammad BAKHSHOODEH; M ZIBAEI
  40. Calculating the Economic Impacts of the European Water Framework Directive for the Netherlands Using a Dynamic AGE Model By Vincent Linderhof; Rob Dellink
  41. Impact Assessment of Natural Disasters upon Economic Growth in Pakistan By Umair Shahzad

  1. By: Gonzalez, Rafael Gamboas
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2013–12
  2. By: Elodie Blanc; Aurelia Lepine; Eric Strobl
    Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants of crop yield and profit of small family farms in Senegal using both a production and a profit function. The econometric analysis is based on information on agricultural inputs and outputs from 505 agricultural household members of a farmer organization in the Saint Louis region collected in 2009. The analysis of our results indicate that the development of commercialization sectors and agricultural loans would be required prior to increasing agricultural inputs. Our findings also suggest that information on planting technique, soil preparation and management of lands could allow productivity increases, but that an increase in the bargaining power of farmers is required to increase unit prices and consequently their profits.
    Keywords: crop productivity; profit; family farms; Senegal
    Date: 2014–09–25
  3. By: Simla Tokgoz; Danielle Alencar Parente Torres; David Laborde; Jikun Huang
    Abstract: Brazil, China and U.S. play crucial roles in global food supply and demand system as consumers, producers, and traders. Therefore, any agricultural and environmental policy tool of these 3 countries deserve special attention since their policy environment contributes to farmers’ decisions to plant and consumers’ decisions to buy. In an era of growing demand pressures, it is more important than ever before to understand the impact of policies relevant to land and water resources. This study attempts to identify and analyze these dynamics for these 3 countries in a global context.
    JEL: F1 F4 F5 Q18
  4. By: Hanson, Gordon
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2013–12
  5. By: Holderieath, Jason
    Abstract: Recently, the Federal Crop Insurance Program (FCIP) has come under fire from both popular press (e.g. Nixon 2012), the academic press (e.g. Hennessy 2011; Wright and Wimberly 2013), and this criticism is reflected in government publications (e.g. Shields 2012; US GAO 2007). The common argument is that subsidized crop insurance encourages expansion of cropping onto otherwise unsuitable land. In particular, the argument equates low productivity or high yield risk with environmental sensitivity (Nixon 2012; Hennessy 2011). In part, this conflation is due to the concern over land use change from the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) to cropping. CRP was, by construction, designed to take low productivity land out of production. In addition to CRP conversion, concern has focused on grassland conversion to crop land (Archer 2011; Johnston 2011; Hennessy 2011; Wright and Wimberly 2013). The United States Government Accountability Office recognized the land use change and the possibility that federal programs were influencing land use choices and recommended that the executive branch investigate. The environmental effects of increased cropping use of environmentally sensitive land include erosion (which would lead to increased nutrient and sediment pollution), carbon release in conversion and reduction in carbon sequestration in future This paper will empirically test the assertion that crop insurance, broadly stated, is a causal factor in increased cropping land use. Data from The United States Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), The United States Department of Agriculture’s Risk Management Agency (RMA), The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Climatic Data Center, The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and The Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City was compiled in Stata® for use in this analysis. This data was collected covering the period between 1981 and 2013 for Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Oklahoma, and Missouri. In 2013, these states grew twenty percent and eighteen percent of the corn and soybean, respectively, production in the US. Corn and Soybean production made up fifty and twenty-two percent of these states total crop production. These states are important to national production of corn and soybeans and these two crops are important to these states. If we accept that environmentally sensitive and marginal land are the same, as the press suggesting the existence of a link propose, one should expect that county yields would fall with higher levels of insurance participation. Further, if the effect is linear one would expect a statistically significant negative link between the proportion of land enrolled in crop insurance and county yields. The obvious dependent variable would look at acres, however with the length of CRP contracts, crop rotation, and the possibility of grassland or woodlot conversion to cropland suggested that the dependent variable would have to measure the quality of production rather than the acres carried out on. Supposing the relationship to be linear, a robust random effects generalized least squares regression model was built to test for the relationship between enrollment and yield. Results indicate that the link between crop insurance participation and yield is negative and statistically significant. It does appear that crop insurance participation has something to do with increased cropping of environmentally sensitive land, but further research is needed to confirm this result.
    Keywords: Crop Insurance, Panel Data, Environmentally Sensitive Land, Agricultural and Food Policy, Land Economics/Use, Q5, Q180,
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Margherita Scoppola; Valentina Raimondi; Alessandro Olper
    Abstract: In this paper we study the trade creation effects of the EU preferential trade agreements (PTAs) in the agriculture and food sectors for a large sample of developing countries in the period 1990-2006. Main results show that the EU PTAs positively affect agricultural extensive margins, especially through other than tariff impacts linked with the PTA, while in the food industry the results are more sensitive to the estimator used. As far as the intensive margin is concerned, the PTA effect is only driven by the role of tariffs, while other effects of the PTAs do not exert any relevant impact on agricultural and food products.
    JEL: Q18 C0
  7. By: Sushila KAUL
  8. By: David, Magnaña-Lemus
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2013–12
  9. By: Paulson, Nicholas D.; Schnitkey, Gary D.; Kelly, Patrick
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Production Economics, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2014–10
  10. By: Onur KOSKA; Duygu ATHAN; Selim CAGATAY
  11. By: Glenn, Viola; Dale, Kelli; Sligh, Michael; Robinson, James
    Abstract: Understanding when and why organic farmers use crop insurance can not only instruct the design of an equitable and financially sustainable crop insurance system but also identify production methods that decrease dependence on program-based risk management. In this article, the research team will identify factors influencing organic farmers’ decision to purchase or forgo crop insurance. Do organic farmers opt out of crop insurance because it is not cost-effective, because alternative risk management tools are preferred, due to barriers to access, or for some other reason? Understanding the drivers of and barriers to crop insurance use by organic producers can inform crop insurance designs that meet producer needs as well as illustrate alternative risk management methods that should not be lost as a result of the crop insurance safety net.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2014–09
  12. By: PEREZ Ignacio WIECK Christine BRITZ Wolfgang
  13. By: BOUËT Antoine; DHONT-PELTRAULT Estelle
  14. By: Mathieu SANCH-MARITAN (Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux, INRA); LIONEL VEDRINE (Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux, INRA)
    Abstract: This study deals with the literature about the impact of conflict-induced displacement. The aim of this paper is to study the link between conflict-induced displacement and under adoption of agricultural technologies. We exploit data from Bosnian household survey for year 2001. To account for endogeneity in the displacement status, we exploit the heterogeneity of the level of violence in the pre-war location. This level likely affected the displacement decision is disconnected from economic performance. We find evidence that displaced household are less likely to adopt fertilizer relative to stayers. Land tenure issue for displaced people in Bosnia are the most plausible candidates to explain under adoption. Finally, we draw some implications to guide design of political economy.
    Keywords: forced displacement, technology adoption, bosnian civil war, LSMS survey
    Date: 2014
  15. By: Metin TEKTAS
  16. By: Frank VAN TONGEREN; Marie-Luise RAU
  17. By: Debebe, Z.Y.; Mebratie, A.D.; Sparrow, R.A.; Dekker, M.; Alemu, G.; Bedi, A.S.
    Abstract: We analyse the effects of ill-health on household economic outcomes in Ethiopia, using three years of household panel data and event history interviews. We examine the immediate effects of a variety of ill-health measures on health expenditure and labour supply, the subsequent household coping responses, and finally the effect on household income and consumption. We find evidence of substantial economic risk in terms of increased health expenditure and reduced agricultural productivity. Households cope by resorting to intra-household labour substitution, hiring wage labour, borrowing and depleting assets. While households are able to maintain food consumption, we observe imperfect insurance of non-food consumption. This effect is larger for households with the lowest ability to self-insure. Maintaining current consumption through borrowing and depletion of assets and savings is unlikely to be sustainable and displays the need for interventions that work towards reducing the financial consequences of ill-health.
    Keywords: health shocks, ill-health, consumption insurance, health expenditure, labour supply, poverty dynamics, Ethiopia
    Date: 2014–09–30
  18. By: H. Ahammad; N. Islam
  19. By: Alexandre GOHIN; Giancarlo MOSCHINI
  21. By: CARLEVARO Fabrizio; LOZA Hugo
  22. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (East Asia Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: The threats posed by climate change have significant impacts on Mongolia’s grassland ecosystems and herders’ livelihoods. This publication discusses the auses of climate change and its impacts on livelihoods and ecosystems for herders and the general public. It explains how good pasture management and livestock roductivity are important for increasing incomes and provides information on adaptation practices. It also identifies sustainable management practices that can increase communities’ resilience to climate change, improve environmental quality, and increase local revenue.
    Keywords: Mongolia, climate change, mitigation, adaptation, greenhouse gas, GHG, carbon dioxide, methane, National Action Program on Climate Change, National Livestock Program, herders livelihoods, development, pasture rotation, pasture management livestock management, nationally appropriate mitigation action; NAMA, carbon finance ,carbon market
    Date: 2014–01
  23. By: Allee, David; Antle, George; Tang, James; Schad, Ted; Cywin, Allen; Aron, Gert; James, Douglas; Toenniessen, Gary; Saski, Brion; Boland, John J.; Mahmood, Khalia; Sabadell, Eleonora
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use,
  24. By: Preeya Mohan; Eric Strobl
    Abstract: Hurricanes act as large external shocks potentially causing considerable damage to agricultural production in the Caribbean. While a number of existing studies have estimated their historic economic impact, arguably the wider community and policy makers are more concerned about their future risk and potential losses, since this type of information is useful for disaster preparedness and mitigation strategy and policy. This paper implements a new approach to undertake a quantitative risk and loss assessment of the agricultural sector of Caribbean island economies. To this end we construct an expected loss function that uses synthetically generated, as well as historical, hurricane tracks within a wind field model that takes cropland exposure derived from satellite data into consideration. The results indicate that expected losses are potentially large but vary considerably across the region, where the smaller islands are considerably more likely to be negatively impacted.
    Keywords: hurricanes; agriculture, Caribbean, risk assessment
    Date: 2014–09–25
  25. By: Aliakbar KHOSRAVINEJAD
  26. By: Edoardo Pizzoli; Giuseppe Lecardane; Domenico Ciaccia
  27. By: CHAKRAVORTY Ujjayant; UMETSU Chieko; ZILBERMAN David
  28. By: Almer, C; Laurent-Lucchetti, Jeremy; Oechslin, Manuel
    Abstract: Every year, riots cause a substantial number of fatalities in less-advanced countries. This paper explores the role of agricultural output shocks in explaining riots. Our theory predicts a negative relationship between the level of rioting and the deviation of the actual output from the average one. Relying on monthly data at the cell level (0.5×0.5 degrees), and using a drought index to proxy for output shocks, our empirical analysis confirms such a negative relationship for Sub-Saharan Africa: A one-standard-deviation decrease in the drought index rises the likelihood of a riot in a given cell and month by 8.4 percent. The use of highly disaggregated data accounts for the fact that riots are temporally and geographically confined events.
    Keywords: conflict; social unrest; economic shocks; disaggregated analysis
    Date: 2014–09
  29. By: Bulent Acma
    Abstract: The use of renewable energy is expanding rapidly due to a combination of market and political forces. Government regulations, consumer demand, economics, and environmental and sustainability concerns are all driving forces in the expanding renewable energy market. As a result of accelerated development and implementation in the past few years, renewable energy has emerged from niche markets to become a mainstream player in the energy market. While renewable energy sources have generally been thought of as more environmentally benign than conventional resources, not all applications of renewable energy should be considered sustainable. Renewable energy options include wind, solar, biomass, biogas, geothermal, and water energy(hydroelectric/ocean)The objective of this paper is to describe water resources development as a major renewable energy and its role in the current energy situation in Turkey. First section, provides a brief overview of the major renewable energy resources that have the potential for market development in the next decade. Second section, analyses water resources potential of Turkey. Third section, gives legislative and institutional aspects of water sector in the Turkish Constitution. Fourth section, analyses participatory irrigation management activities and present status of water resources in Turkey. Finally, will be discussing about participatory irrigation management activities in Turkey.First section, provides a brief overview of the major renewable energy resources that have the potential for market development in the next decade. Second section, analyses water resources potential of Turkey. Third section, gives legislative and institutional aspects of water sector in the Turkish Constitution. Fourth section, analyses participatory irrigation management activities and present status of water resources in Turkey. Finally, will be discussing about participatory irrigation management activities in Turkey.
    Keywords: Turkey, Energy, Environmental and water issues
    Date: 2014–10–01
  30. By: Niels ANGER; Jayant SATHAYE
  31. By: Mikołaj Czajkowski (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Anna Bartczak (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw; Warsaw Ecological Economics Center); Wiktor Budziński (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw); Marek Giergiczny (Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw; Warsaw Ecological Economics Center)
    Abstract: The assumption of the stability of preferences is a fundamental one in the theory of the consumer. Many papers within the stated preferences literature have tested this assumption, and have found mixed results. Individuals may become more sure of their preferences as they repeat a valuation task or purchase decision; they may also learn more about prices and quantities of substitutes or complements over time, or about other relevant characteristics of both the good being valued and alternatives in their choice sets. In this paper, we test for the stability of preferences and willingness to pay for attributes of forest management both within and between samples. The within-sample test compares a set of responses from individuals over the sequence of a survey; the between-sample test compares responses from the same people over a period of 6 months. We find that respondents’ preferences differ more within a sample (comparing their first 12 with their second 12 choices) than across samples. This may imply that preference learning and/or fatigue effects within choice experiments are more important than changes in preferences over time in this data.
    Keywords: preference stability, test-retest, discrete choice experiments, contingent valuation, stated preferences, forestry
    JEL: D01 H4 Q23 Q51
    Date: 2014
  32. By: Andrea Bonfiglio; Roberto Esposti; Francesco Pagliacci; Franco Sotte; Beatrice Camaioni
    Abstract: A major objective of this study is to analyse the evolutionary patterns of regional linkages and disparities across the EU space, especially those related to rural and peripheral/remote regions. In particular, this report assesses the economy-wide effects, in terms of GDP and employment, induced, at the European level, by the 2007-2011 CAP payments and by the possible future scenarios concerning the next programming period (2014-2020). A multiregional closed I-O approach applied at a NUTS-3 level is adopted. Particular attention focuses on the (re-) distributive effects produced by spatial and sectoral relationships. In defining regional policy, the knowledge of spillover effects is particularly strategic in that it can assist policy makers in better calibrating allocation of funds among regions and evaluating distribution of final policy effects more correctly. With reference to the next programming period, three main scenarios are analysed. Two are based on different and extreme shares of funds apportioned to basic payments. They are in turn divided into sub-scenarios based on three different criteria of regional distribution of funds devoted to basic payments: utilized agricultural area, agricultural value added and historical payments. A third scenario assumes the suppression of the actual framework based on two pillars and the transfer of all available funds to rural development policy. Results indicate that intersectoral and interregional linkages, which characterise the EU economic space, redirect a large part of effects, for any policy framework and scenario considered, from rural regions and from primary and secondary sectors (representing the main targets of policy) to urban and tertiary sectors, respectively. Moreover, they reveal that the best option for MSs in allocating basic payments among regions would be a criterion based on eligible hectares, which is the general principle on which the new CAP is based, since it would produce higher and more balanced distribution of effects among all regions. They also suggest that a total rethinking of the CAP by introducing only a single co-financed policy would lead to higher contribution to reduction in differences between rural and urban regions. Finally, the analysis shows that the policy decision taken for the 2014-2020 programming period to redistribute funds in favour of poorer regions not only is fair from an equity point of view but can also produce economic advantages for the regions directly penalised by a fund reallocation.
    Keywords: Demographic change, Ecological innovation, Economic growth path, EU integration, New technologies, Social capital as growth driver, Socio-ecological transition, Sustainable growth
    JEL: O18 Q01 R11 R58
    Date: 2014–09
  33. By: Ani Rudra Silwal (Department of Economics, University of Sussex, Falmer, United Kingdom); Andy McKay (Department of Economics, University of Sussex, Falmer, United Kingdom)
    Abstract: The vast majority of households in low-income countries cook with firewood, which is known to produce various airborne toxins. We examine whether cooking with firewood results in poorer respiratory health by using a unique Indonesian household survey that collected direct measures of lung capacity. We find that individuals living in households that cook with firewood have 11.2 per cent lower lung capacity than those that cook with cleaner fuels. This impact is larger for women and children than for men. The results strongly support the international policy focus on encouraging households to switch to cooking with cleaner fuels.
    Keywords: Health production; Indoor air pollution; Household energy use
    JEL: I12 Q53 O13
    Date: 2014–09
  34. By: Esther Velázquez; M. Alejandro Cardenete; Geoffrey J.D. Hewings
  35. By: M. Ejaz Qureshi; Wendy Proctor; M. Kirby
  36. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (East Asia Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: The People’s Republic of China (PRC) is being impacted by climate change. The resulting degradation and desertification of grasslands are projected to lead to decreased productivity and severely affect livestock and ecosystems. Financial incentives are required to improve environmental management of grasslands and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the grassland sector of the PRC. This publication summarizes the legal and policy framework for incentive programs, assesses the impact of three main incentive programs on soil carbon stocks, and analyzes the implications of these existing incentive mechanisms for the development of grassland carbon finance projects for domestic carbon markets.
    Keywords: China; People’s Republic of China; PRC, mitigation, climate policy, grassland management, livestock management grassland carbon sequestration, carbon offset, carbon market carbon trade, carbon dioxide , greenhouse gas, clean development mechanism; CDM, certified emission reduction; CER, GHG intensity, carbon credit, emissions trading verified carbon standard; VCS, voluntary emission reduction; VER
    Date: 2014–01
  37. By: Helmut MAIER
  38. By: Thomas Brenner (Economic Geography and Location Research, Philipps-University, Marburg); Daniel Lee (German Meteorological Service, Offenbach)
    Abstract: Climate change researchers predict a dramatic increase in global average temperature over the next decades. We use past temperature and precipitation fluctuations to investigate whether changes in temperature and precipitation are associated with decreases in economic growth. A GMM panel regression is used to analyze the effects of the average yearly heat index and precipitation on economic growth in 105 countries for the time period 1991-2009.
    Keywords: national growth, heat, average yearly temperature, growth effects, panel GMM
    JEL: O11 O13 E10 C23
    Date: 2014–10–14
  39. By: Mohammad BAKHSHOODEH; M ZIBAEI
  40. By: Vincent Linderhof; Rob Dellink
  41. By: Umair Shahzad
    Abstract: The research is based on the natural disasters in Pakistan, and their overall impact on the economy of Pakistan. Disasters are hypothesized to have a significant effect on the GDP of Pakistan. Moreover, Pakistan is considered as a disaster prone nation due to its geographical location. Pakistan has always been likely to be affected because of floods due to monsoon rains. But looking at the recent history, Pakistan has experienced massive loss due to 2010 floods and due to the earthquake in 2005, these two being considered as the biggest disasters in Pakistan of all time. The Time-series Distributive Lag (DL) model has been used to find the model estimates. Number of people killed in disasters is taken as a proxy for disasters and it effect on economy is seen. Interaction of glacier meltdown with consumption of ozone depleting substances has been developed and is seen as a proxy cause for global warming, which ultimately results in climate change and is likely to cause natural disasters. The results suggest that natural disasters and global warming have a negative impact on the economic growth. Moreover the study focuses on the policy implications from National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) and to avoid huge losses with better mitigation plans has been incorporated and suggestions in conclusion that how can the losses from disasters be minimized. A distributed-lag model has been used for the time-series data in this study. A DL model helps to regress the dependent variable of the current time period, in accordance to the value of previous years; lags of its independent variables. Lags are considered as a substantial part of the time-series approach. The variables are lagged accordingly to check the impact and significance on the dependent variable. As one or more explanatory variables are lagged, the model becomes multivariate distributed lag model. The lag number taken to keep the variables is two; hence they are lagged for two time periods Where as in case of aid its different. All the variables used are quantified properly and for the collection of data, authentic databases have been consulted and relied upon.Natural Disasters are expected to have a Significant impact on slowing down the economic development of Pakistan.
    Keywords: Pakistan, Socio-economic development, Other issues
    Date: 2014–10–01

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