nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2014‒10‒03
forty-five papers chosen by

  1. Rethinking rural development approaches and their relations with agricultural and agro-food local systems By Mantino, Francesco
  2. Agricultural production, dietary diversity, and climate variability By Dillon, Andrew; McGee, Kevin; Oseni, Gbemisola
  3. Alternative subsidy scenarios for different agricultural practices: A sustainability assessment using fuzzy multi-criteria analysis By Ragona, Maddalena; Albertazzi, Sergio; Nicolli, Francesco; Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Montini, Anna; Vitali, Giuliano; Canavari, Maurizio
  4. Household Food Security in the United States in 2013 By Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Gregory, Christian; Singh, Anita
  5. Improving the Relevance and Effectiveness of Agricultural Education and Training in Africa: Insights from Agricultural Role Models By Haggblade, Steven; Chapoto, Antony; Hendriks, Sheryl; Kabwe, Stephen; Minde, Isaac; Mugisha, Johnny; Terblanche, Fanie; Yaye, Aissetou
  6. Food Science and Technology Curricula in Africa: Meeting Africa’s New Challenges By Minnaar, Amanda; Taylor, John R.N.; Haggblade, Steven; Kabasa, John David; Ojijo, Nelson K. O.
  7. The Evolution of Agricultural Education and Training: Global Insights of Relevance for Africa By Eicher, Carl; Haggblade, Steven
  8. Assessing the awareness of climate change as a factor of adaptation in the agricultural sector By Dono, Gabriele; Cortignani, Raffaele; Giraldo, Luca; Doro, Luca; Roggero, Pier Paolo
  9. Regional Disparity of Vulnerability to Food Insecurity in China By Brasili, Cristina; Barone, Barbara; Bin, Peng
  10. Self-Selection into Credit Markets: Evidence from Agriculture in Mali By Lori Beaman; Dean Karlan; Bram Thuysbaert; Christopher Udry
  11. Food System Dynamics: Projecting Changes in Food Demand in East and Southern Africa through 2040 By Tschirley, David; Dolislager, Michael; Meyer, Ferdi; Traub, Lulama; Ortega, David
  12. Evaluation of risk in farm planning: a case study By Rosa, franco
  13. Gender, Power and Property: “In my own right”. By Áine Macken-Walsh; Anne Byrne; Nata Duvvury; Tanya Watson
  14. A User's Guide for Two Programs to Estimate and Analyze the Multinomial Logit Allocation Model By Tyrrell, Tim
  15. Modelling land use, deforestation, and policy analysis: A hybrid optimization-ABM heterogeneous agent model with application to the Bolivian Amazon By Lykke Andersen; Ugur Bilge; Ben Groom; David Gutierrez; Evan Killick; Juan Carlos Ledezma; Charles Palmer; Diana Weinhold
  16. Relative Assistance to Agriculture and By Peter Lloyd and Donald MacLaren
  17. Tajikistan - Autonomous Adaptation to Climate Change : Economic Opportunities and Institutional Constraints for Farming Households By World Bank
  18. Evaluating agri-environmental schemes. The case of Tuscany By Campus, Daniela
  19. Exploring the provision of ecosystem services through rural landscape management: a development of conceptual framework By Rovai, Massimo; Bartolini, Fabio; Brunori, Gianluca; Fastelli, Laura
  20. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia: Wage premiums and segmentation By Mengistu Assefa Wendimu; Peter Gibbon
  21. The taxation of farm income in Italy. Evidences from the EU-SILC database By Severini, Simone; Tantari, Antonella; Rocchi, Benedetto
  22. Belize: effects of climate change on agriculture By Reino Unido. Department for International Development
  23. Impact of Human Resource Development Training on Crop Damages by Wild Animals in Developing Countries: Experimental Evidence from Rural Pakistan By Kurosaki, Takashi; Khan, Hidayat Ullah
  24. Food security in Kazakhstan within the integration into the Eurasian Economic Union: Ratings and ways to reduce threats By Bayanslu Markhayeva
  25. Demand for Imported Meat in Greece: A Source-Differentiated Almost Idea Demand System Approach By Stathis Klonaris
  26. The dynamics of deforestation and reforestation in a developing economy By Julien Wolfersberger; Gregory S. Amacher; Philippe Delacote; Arnaud Dragicevic
  27. Ecological-economic modelling of interactions between wild and commercial bees and pesticide use By Kleczkowski, Adam; Ellis, Ciaran; Goulson, Dave; de Vries, Frans P.; Hanley, Nick
  28. Estimating Food Quality from Trade Data: An Empirical Assessment By Curzi, Daniele; Pacca, Lucia
  29. Vine planting rights, farm size and economic performance: do economies of scale matter in the French viticulture sector? By Bernard Delord; Alfredo Manuel De Jesus Oliveira Coelho; Etienne Montaigne
  30. State Higher Education Councils in India : Opportunities and Challenges By World Bank Group
  31. Spatial panel models for the analysis of land prices By Saguatti, Annachiara; Erickson, Kenneth; Gutierrez, Luciano
  32. The Efficiency of the Portuguese Agricultural Credit Co-operatives Governance Model By Paula CABO; João REBELO
  33. Factor Structure in Commodity Futures Return and Volatility By Peter Christoffersen; Asger Lunde; Kasper V. Olesen
  34. Promoting Agricultural Growth in Rwanda : Recent Performance, Challenges and Opportunities By World Bank
  35. Finance-Led Growth in the OECD since the 19th century: How Does Financial Development Transmit To Growth? By Jakob B. MADSEN; James B. ANG
  36. Benefit in the wake of disaster: Long-run effects of earthquakes on welfare in rural Indonesia By Jérémie Gignoux; Marta Menéndez
  37. Air pollution in Urban Beijing: The role of Government-controlled information By Timothy Swanson; Chiara Ravetti; Yana Popp Jin; Mu Quan; Zhang Shiqiu
  38. Food-processing industry as a basis for community dynamics and local socio-economic development. By Layal Bou-Antoun
  39. Welfare enhancing coordination in consumer cooperatives under mixed oligopoly By Marco Marini; Paolo Polidori; Desiree Teobaldelli; Alberto Zevi
  40. Analysis of Poverty Determinant in West Java Province By Sartika Djamaluddin
  41. Water Valuation Research - Annotated Bibliography By Christopher Shultz; Randall W. Jackson
  42. Irish Land Bonds: 1891-1938 By McLaughlin, Eoin; Foley-Fisher, Nathan
  43. Export performance and product market regulation By Bruno Amable; Ivan Ledezma
  44. Robust viable management of a harvested ecosystem model By Esther Regnier; Michel De Lara
  45. From foot-draggers to strategic counter-partners : the dynamics of U.S. and Chinese policies for tackling climate change By Cheng, Fang-Ting

  1. By: Mantino, Francesco
    Keywords: Rural development, Agro-food systems, Governance, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Q18, R58,
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Dillon, Andrew; McGee, Kevin; Oseni, Gbemisola
    Abstract: Nonseparable household models outline the links between agricultural production and household consumption, yet empirical extensions to investigate the effect of production on dietary diversity and diet composition are limited. Although a significant literature has investigated the calorie-income elasticity abstracting from production, this paper provides an empirical application of the nonseparable household model linking the effect of exogenous variation in planting season production decisions via climate variability on household dietary diversity. Using exogenous variation in degree days, rainfall, and agricultural capital stocks as instruments, the effect of production on household dietary diversity at harvest is estimated. The empirical specifications estimate production effects on dietary diversity using both agricultural revenue and crop production diversity. Significant effects of agricultural revenue and crop production diversity on dietary diversity are estimated. The dietary diversity-production elasticities imply that a 10 percent increase in agricultural revenue or crop diversity results in a 1.8 percent or 2.4 percent increase in dietary diversity, respectively. These results illustrate that agricultural income growth or increased crop diversity may not be sufficient to ensure improved dietary diversity. Increases in agricultural revenue do change diet composition. Estimates of the effect of agricultural income on share of calories by food groups indicate relatively large changes in diet composition. On average, a 10 percent increase in agricultural revenue makes households 7.2 percent more likely to consume vegetables and 3.5 percent more likely to consume fish, and increases the share of tubers consumed by 5.2 percent.
    Keywords: Food&Beverage Industry,Rural Development Knowledge&Information Systems,Regional Economic Development,Rural Poverty Reduction,Economic Theory&Research
    Date: 2014–09–01
  3. By: Ragona, Maddalena; Albertazzi, Sergio; Nicolli, Francesco; Mazzanti, Massimiliano; Montini, Anna; Vitali, Giuliano; Canavari, Maurizio
    Abstract: The recent Common Agricultural Policy reform (CAP14) at the European level links the granting of aid to farmers to adhering to environmentally-friendly farming practices. It therefore becomes important to assess the overall effectiveness of such a policy by taking into account different economic and environmental criteria. In this work, an ex ante assessment of different agricultural policy scenarios in Italy is undertaken at the national level, through the adoption of a fuzzy multi-criteria analysis approach, to account for the different economic and environmental aspects (indicators) of each scenario. Italian agricultural holdings were divided into homogeneous groups (according to farm typology, location, and environment), in order to determine the most preferable scenario for each group. Results are extremely heterogeneous across the macro areas, the farm typologies, and the climatic zones, and it is not possible to determine a ‘good-for-all’ scenario. However, we can observe that when all indicators are assigned an equal weight and also when environmental indicators are assigned a higher weight, the preferred scenario for the majority of groups is the alternative scenario where a tax of 30% on pesticides is added to the CAP14. On the other side, when economic indicators have a higher weight, the situation of subsidies preceding CAP14 (base subsidies and environmental subsidies, with no differentiation among conventional and organic farming) seems to be the ‘best’ scenario for all groups, with one exception.
    Keywords: multi-criteria analysis, sustainability, agricultural subsidies, environment, organic agriculture, Agricultural and Food Policy, Land Economics/Use, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Risk and Uncertainty, C02, C65, D81, Q15, Q18,
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Coleman-Jensen, Alisha; Gregory, Christian; Singh, Anita
    Abstract: An estimated 85.7 percent of American households were food secure throughout the entire year in 2013, meaning that they had access at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life for all household members. The remaining households (14.3 percent) were food insecure at least some time during the year, including 5.6 percent with very low food security, meaning that the food intake of one or more household members was reduced and their eating patterns were disrupted at times during the year because the household lacked money and other resources for food. The change in food insecurity overall from the prior year (from 14.5 percent in 2012) was not statistically significant. The cumulative decline in food insecurity from 2011 (14.9 percent) to 2013 (14.3 percent) was statistically significant. The prevalence rate of very low food security was essentially unchanged from 5.7 percent in 2011 and 2012. Children and adults were food-insecure in 9.9 percent of households with children in 2013, essentially unchanged from 10.0 percent in 2011 and 2012. In 2013, the typical food-secure household spent 30 percent more on food than the typical food-insecure household of the same size and household composition. Sixty-two percent of all food-insecure households participated in one or more of the three largest Federal food and nutrition assistance programs during the month prior to the 2013 survey.
    Keywords: Food security, food insecurity, food spending, food pantry, soup kitchen, emergency kitchen, material well-being, material hardship, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, SNAP, Food Stamp Program, National School Lunch Program, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, WIC, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2014–09
  5. By: Haggblade, Steven; Chapoto, Antony; Hendriks, Sheryl; Kabwe, Stephen; Minde, Isaac; Mugisha, Johnny; Terblanche, Fanie; Yaye, Aissetou
    Abstract: This paper examines the career trajectories of 66 distinguished African agricultural professionals. Based on in-depth qualitative interviews, the paper explores the answers to two critical questions: How can Africa motivate its youth to consider careers in agriculture and agribusiness? How can agricultural education and training (AET) institutions better prepare youth for productive careers in agribusiness?
    Keywords: African agricultural professionals, education, training, Agricultural and Food Policy, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2014–06
  6. By: Minnaar, Amanda; Taylor, John R.N.; Haggblade, Steven; Kabasa, John David; Ojijo, Nelson K. O.
    Keywords: Food Science, Technology, Africa, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2013–01
  7. By: Eicher, Carl; Haggblade, Steven
    Abstract: In 1959, on the eve of Africa’s independence, Africa exported modest food surpluses while India confronted a food crisis. Facing the threat of a 28 million ton shortfall in food grain supplies, the Government of India requested Ford Foundation funding for an international team of agricultural experts to prepare an emergency report recommending measures to address India’s projected food shortfall. The ensuing report, India’s Food Crisis and Steps to Meet It, became one of the most influential reports in Asian development circles in the 1960s (Ford Foundation 1959). The team called for an increase in the number of trained scientists, stepped-up research on food crop production and the import of new technology as key drivers of agricultural development. With strong political leadership, continuity of government funding and donor guarantees of food aid to feed the cities for a decade, India began a sixteen year march to push up wheat and rice yields until it became self-sufficient in 1981.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2013–04
  8. By: Dono, Gabriele; Cortignani, Raffaele; Giraldo, Luca; Doro, Luca; Roggero, Pier Paolo
    Abstract: The paper describes results obtained investigating the problems of adaptation to climate change of Italian agriculture. It specify a choice process that explicitly considers that farmers base their planning on an awareness of the inherent variability in the climatic conditions of their territories. The expectations on climatic variables, and the consequent conditions for crop, are represented under various hypotheses of climate stability, or cognition of a change achieved by observing the current weather conditions, or even in full knowledge of the actual probability distributions of climate events. The choices due to those expectations are simulated with a model of Discrete Stochastic Programming. The results suggest that it may be interesting to better investigate the hypothesis that, even in a relatively short time and, especially, already in the current period, are in place climate changes significant for the agricultural activities, especially when poor of water resource and in marginal areas. Failure to understand these changes can lead farmers to a wrong choices: on one hand, may prevent from taking advantage of existing opportunities for income improvements,; on the other hand, may induce farmers to misconceptions on the way to defend from the negative effects of climate change. This suggests that among the most effective strategies for adapting to climate change, there is support for farmers to improve their ability to assess the new and changing climate framework.
    Keywords: Keywords: discrete stochastic programming, positive mathematical programming, agricultural supply analysis, adaptation to climate change, awareness of climate change, Agribusiness, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Risk and Uncertainty, C61, Q10, Q54,
    Date: 2014
  9. By: Brasili, Cristina; Barone, Barbara; Bin, Peng
    Abstract: Paraphrasing the 1996 World Food Summit definition, “food insecurity” exists when “not” all people, “not” at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient safe and nutritious food. In this perspective, our study examines the relation between spatial inequality and vulnerability to food insecurity from a socioeconomic perspective. A longitudinal analysis is applied to estimate the regional food vulnerability at provincial and sub-provincial level and the rural and urban contributions to the integral regional vulnerability are underlined. Theil Index and Herfindahl Index are used to quantify the basic factors for the evaluation of economic vulnerability to food consumption and diversity of food structure, which we also based on to proceed further studies and benchmark 31 Chinese provinces and municipalities by their vulnerability to food insecurity. Our main aim is to fill up the gap of analysing regional food vulnerability in a socioeconomic point of view in China, and hence to better depict the regional disparity in food vulnerability and try to provide useful information on the reality of food insecurity.
    Keywords: Food insecurity, economic vulnerability, regional disparity, convergence, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Marketing, Q180, O130, O180,
    Date: 2014
  10. By: Lori Beaman (Northwestern University); Dean Karlan (Economic Growth Center, Yale University); Bram Thuysbaert (Ghent University); Christopher Udry (Economic Growth Center, Yale University)
    Abstract: We partnered with a micro-lender in Mali to randomize credit offers at the village level. Then, in no-loan control villages, we gave cash grants to randomly selected households. These grants led to higher agricultural investments and profits, thus showing that liquidity constraints bind with respect to agricultural investment. In loan-villages, we gave grants to a random subset of farmers who (endogenously) did not borrow. These farmers have lower – in fact zero – marginal returns to the grants. Thus we find important heterogeneity in returns to investment and strong evidence that farmers with higher marginal returns to investment self-select into lending programs.
    Keywords: credit markets, agriculture, returns to capital
    JEL: D21 D92 O12 O16 Q12 Q14
    Date: 2014–05
  11. By: Tschirley, David; Dolislager, Michael; Meyer, Ferdi; Traub, Lulama; Ortega, David
    Abstract: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been rapidly urbanizing for many years. Current estimates from the UN are that urban population growth in East Africa is over 4% per year, while in Southern Africa, which has higher urbanization levels, the growth is estimated at 2%. Overall in East and Southern Africa (ESA), urban populations in the region are growing about 3% per year, but with great variability as these figures indicate. Rural populations, meanwhile, are estimated to be increasing only by 2% per year in East Africa and near zero in Southern Africa. Across ESA, rural populations are rising about 1% per year but again with much variation across countries and regions.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty, Africa, Food Systems,
    Date: 2013–10
  12. By: Rosa, franco
    Abstract: Many studies suggest that farmers frequently show risk averse attitudes, and choose the “riskminimizing” and “safety first” survival strategy rather than pursuing the profit maximization. This article reports on a study of the impact of risk caused by different events: climate, stock levels, price volatility and other causes affecting the yield and price variability of agricultural crops. This study will simulate the risk in farm decisions using a sumex utility function that allows to parameterize the risk for specific traits of the function, and MOTAD (minimization of total absolute deviations) to simulate an efficient combination of crops in the whole farm planning (WFP). The empirical analysis is represented by a case study consisting in the risk simulation of a farm of 100 Ha, growing vegetable crops located in the Northern region of Italy. The risk is modelled using 15 years historical observations with discrete probability distribution of some of the most diffused cereal and oilseed crops (source: Eurostat). The objective is to evaluate the risk aversion by designing a utility frontier of crop combinations using a LP approximation model. The results indicate the trade off between expected returns and risk: if the value of gross income is expected to increase, the farmers tend to specialize in the most profitable portfolio enterprise while it is not so evident that the diversification will contribute to curb the risk.
    Keywords: whole farm planning, risk, sumex utility function, LP-MOTAD, portfolio analysis, Agribusiness, Productivity Analysis, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2014
  13. By: Áine Macken-Walsh (Rural Economy and Development Programme, Teagasc, Athenry, Co. Galway, Ireland); Anne Byrne (School of Political Science and Sociology, NUIG); Nata Duvvury (School of Political Science and Sociology, NUIG); Tanya Watson (Rural Economy and Development Programme, Teagasc, Athenry, Co. Galway, Ireland)
    Abstract: Women on farms in Ireland are a subject of feminist analysis for five decades. Salient themes are the constraints of patriarchal agriculture (O'Hara 1997; Shortall, 2004), the invisibility of women's farm work (Viney 1968; O’Hara 1998), gender inequalities in ownership of farm assets (Watson et al. 2009) and increasing professionalisation of farmwomen outside of agriculture (Kelly and Shortall 2002; Hanrahan 2007). Most women enter farming through marriage and family ties. Land ownership is identified by Shortall (2004) as the critical factor underpinning male domination of the occupational category ‘farmer’ and considerable power differentials between men and women in family farming. This is an area that requires further investigation. Our analysis, framed by theoretical models of feminisation and empowerment, explores cases where male farm property ownership in Ireland is disrupted in conventional and non-conventional agricultural settings. Do these cases provide evidence of new opportunities for women to become farm property owners, and in what contexts? What consequences do these opportunities have for farmwomen’s empowerment and agency? How does women’s farm property ownership disturb rural gender relations in the context of the family farm?
    Date: 2014
  14. By: Tyrrell, Tim
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty,
  15. By: Lykke Andersen; Ugur Bilge; Ben Groom; David Gutierrez; Evan Killick; Juan Carlos Ledezma; Charles Palmer; Diana Weinhold
    Abstract: Policy interventions designed to simultaneously stem deforestation and reduce poverty in tropical countries entail complex socio-environmental trade-offs. A hybrid model, comprising an optimising, agricultural household model integrated into the ‘shell’ of an agent-based model, is developed in order to explore the trade-offs of alternative policy bundles and sequencing options. The model is calibrated to the initial conditions of a small forest village in rural Bolivia. Heterogeneous farmers make individually optimal land-use decisions based on factor endowments and market conditions. Endogenously determined wages and policy provided jobs link the agricultural labour market and rural-urban migration rates. Over a simulated 20-year period, the policymaker makes “real-time” public investments and public policy that in turn impact welfare, productivity, and migration. National and local land-use policy interventions include conservation payments, deforestation taxes and international REDD payments that both impact land use directly and affect the policymaker’s budget. The results highlight trade-offs between reductions in deforestation and improvements in household welfare that can only be overcome either when international REDD payments are offered or when decentralized deforestation taxes are implemented. Yet, the sequencing of policies is also found to play a critical role in these results.
    Date: 2014–09
  16. By: Peter Lloyd and Donald MacLaren
    Abstract: 1. Introduction The general level of assistance which has gone to farmers and other agricultural producers has been a major political issue since the beginning of Federation in Australia. From 1901 butter producers received protection from imports in the form of a prohibition of imports of margarine and butter substitutes “unless coloured and branded as prescribed” and sugar producers received a bounty on cane grown and harvested by white labour from 1902. New forms of assistance to particular agricultural producers came in every succeeding decade. From the 1920s Australian farmers sought increased assistance to offset the high levels of assistance given to manufacturers of import-competing products from the Australian Tariff. In this paper we seek to quantify the levels of assistance received by agricultural producers of the major crops and products in Australia and the average for the whole sector from the time of Federation, and then to compare this with the level of assistance provided to the Manufacturing sector.
    Keywords: In this paper, we extend these post-World War II series for agricultural producers backwards to 1903. Specifically, we first construct series of the nominal rate of assistance to producers of the major agricultural crops and products for each year in the period 1903 to 1945-46. From these, we then construct a series of the production-weighted average nominal rate of assistance for the whole sector. Finally, we construct a series of the relative rate of assistance for the period.
    Date: 2013
  17. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Poverty Reduction - Rural Poverty Reduction Rural Development Knowledge and Information Systems Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Regional Economic Development Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems Agriculture Rural Development
    Date: 2014–05
  18. By: Campus, Daniela
    Abstract: The rural development plans in Europe, within the provisions of Axis Two of the Common Agricultural Policy, consider the opportunity to protect and enhance “environmental-friendly” farming systems. The present paper describes the role of organic farming measures in the promotion and safeguard of the High Nature Value in Tuscany. Using National Census of Agriculture data (2010) a Probit model was adopted, in order to estimate the probability of program enrolment. After that, both control and treatment groups were constructed implementing a Propensity Score Approach: selecting 13 explanatory variables which are presupposed to be independent from the outcome variable, the two groups were built on the basis of the propensity scores. The aim should be to have two similar groups, for which the only difference is the treatment itself. In our study the treatment variable is the total area under organic agriculture, while the outcome is the High nature Value. After having controlled and achieved a good balancing between the covariates, the mean effect of the program participation on the treated (ATT) was computed. It is obtained as a difference between the averages of the two groups. The result unexpectedly reveals that AES have not a statistically significant impact on both fauna and flora biodiversity. However, these results must be interpreted with caution because both the type of data (we used cross-sectional data) and the assumptions on which the methodology is based could have a relevant effect on the final outcome.
    Keywords: agri-environmental payments, biodiversity, Tuscany, treatment effect., Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, C21, Q18, Q56.,
    Date: 2014
  19. By: Rovai, Massimo; Bartolini, Fabio; Brunori, Gianluca; Fastelli, Laura
    Abstract: Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) provides bases for comprehensive understanding of Services provided by ecosystems, linking ecosystems and human well-being. As rural landscape is considered provider of multifunction services and is affected by a wide range of land uses several ecosystems are involved in developing an operative definition of landscape. Thus a common and comprehensive definition of landscape function, services provides, benefits and value are not enough developed. In fact, the concept of landscape function or services has been used as synonymous to ecosystem services Literature has highlighted that alternative land uses/rural area managements affect the ecosystem services provision, due to the trade-off, synergies and disservices in the provision of these services. The paper aims at exploring the linkages between ecosystem services and regarding rural landscape. To support this comprehensive assessment of the linkages between ecosystem services and landscape an empirical analysis to understand trade-off and synergises in ecosystem services provision by landscape are applied in Tuscany region. Results will contribute to provide empirical evidences and knowledge about the implementation of mechanism aimed to align provision of ecosystem services by rural landscape towards current and future needs.
    Keywords: Landscape, Ecosystem services, Tuscany, Multicriteria Analysis, Fuzzy, Agricultural and Food Policy, Q18, Q10,
    Date: 2014
  20. By: Mengistu Assefa Wendimu (Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), Natural Resources and Development; Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen); Peter Gibbon (Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS))
    Abstract: Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers. This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage premium, self-selection into the informal sector and sectorally-distinct wage determination mechanisms.
    Keywords: Labour market segmentation, Agricultural labour markets, Wage premiums, Large-scale agriculture, Ethiopia
    JEL: J41 J42 J43 J45
    Date: 2014–09
  21. By: Severini, Simone; Tantari, Antonella; Rocchi, Benedetto
    Abstract: In this paper the level of taxation of Italian farm households is studied by analyzing the data of agricultural households in the Italian EU-SILC database. The proposed approach allows to use the EU- SILC database to fill missing information on FADN database through a methodology of statistical matching. The work provides some indications on the level of tax burden and on some factors affecting it as well as on the degree of progressivity of the taxation of agricultural incomes. The results suggest that the level of tax burden is not very much affected by the amount of income actually produced. Indeed, the taxation of agricultural incomes seems paradoxically to have a regressive effect favouring farm families in which farming accounts for the large part of family income.
    Keywords: income taxation, statistical matching, farm household income, Agribusiness, Consumer/Household Economics, H24, Q12,
    Date: 2014
  22. By: Reino Unido. Department for International Development
    Date: 2013–02–11
  23. By: Kurosaki, Takashi; Khan, Hidayat Ullah
    Abstract: Based on a four-year panel dataset of households collected in rural Pakistan, we examine the impact of an intervention on households’capacity to reduce income losses due to attacks by wild boars. A local NGO implemented the intervention as a randomized controlled trial at the beginning of the second year. We find that the intervention was highly effective in eliminating the crop-income loss in the second year, but that effects disappeared in the third and fourth years. Our finding suggests the difficulty in technology transfer through the training or the high implicit cost incurred by the households in implementing the treatment. Therefore, the intervention was not sustainable at the household level. Nevertheless, due to spillover effects, the intervention could have been cost-effective at the project level.
    Keywords: wild animal attack, production risk, randomized controlled trial, cost-benefit analysis, Pakistan
    JEL: O13 O15 Q12
    Date: 2014–08
  24. By: Bayanslu Markhayeva (Almaty Management University)
    Abstract: On May 29, 2014 Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia signed an agreement on the integration to the Eurasian Economic Union (EaEU) which formally goes into effect on January 1, 2015. A new common market of goods and factors of production will appear on the map of the planet. There are 170.3 million people living here (or 4.4% of the world population), 5.6% of which are citizens of Belarus and 10% are from Kazakhstan and 84.4% are Russians. The market territory occupies 16,4% of the terrestrial land where 25% of basic types of minerals reconnoitered in the world are concentrated and its cost is estimated in the range from 30 to 40 trillion United States dollars (USD). The share of the EaEU accounts for about 40% of the world supplies of natural gas, 25% coal, 20% oil, 25% forest, 13% of arable land and 11% of fresh water. The unique transcontinental geographical position allows to accumulate scale trade streams between Europe and Asia and thereby to increase world competitiveness of the region and the EaEU.
    Keywords: Food security, Kazakhstan, Eurasian Economic Union
    Date: 2014–09
  25. By: Stathis Klonaris (Dept. of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Agricultural University of Athens)
    Abstract: Greece is self-sufficient in crop production but it relies heavily on meat and dairy imports. The Greek balance of trade for agricultural products was steadily deficit due to the heavy imports of meat and dairy products. In this study the restricted source differentiated AIDS was employed in order to study the demand of imported meat. The results is indicted that Germany and France have the most to gain from a Greek exit from the financial crisis which it will lead to an expansion in beef and pork market. Moreover, the results indicate that in the pork market Germany and France has a comparative advantage to Denmark and Netherlands.
    Keywords: imported demand, Greek meat imports, AIDS model, source differentiation
    JEL: C51 D12 Q17
    Date: 2014
  26. By: Julien Wolfersberger; Gregory S. Amacher; Philippe Delacote; Arnaud Dragicevic
    Abstract: Forest transition theory is often used to describe the long term evolution of forest cover in a country as it develops, yet previous theoretical work has considered only net forest cover change when describing deforestation. However, little work exists describing the dynamics involved in forest cover change, particularly the relationship between reductions in primary native forests commonly associated with deforestation and concomitant reforestation and establishment of secondary forest plantations,. We examine this distinction and formulate a new forest transition hypothesis. Our approach recognizes that primary and secondary forests are imperfect substitutes in terms of ecosystem services, but also in the costs associated with securing tenure. The latter is important given the property rights insecurities that have led to deforestation in many tropical countries. Our model allows a study of both the length of a forest transition and the speed at which net forest depletion eventually ends in the long run. Understanding the forest transition as we describe it could be important for future climate change mitigation policies. For instance, we find that privileging the dynamics of reforestation can be harmful for primary native forests, which are known to have the highest ecological value.
    Keywords: forest transition, land uses, development, tenure costs.
    JEL: O11 O13 Q23 Q56 Q57
    Date: 2014
  27. By: Kleczkowski, Adam; Ellis, Ciaran; Goulson, Dave; de Vries, Frans P.; Hanley, Nick
    Abstract: The decline in extent of wild pollinators in recent years has been partly associated with changing farm practices and in particular with increase of pesticide use. In this paper we combine ecological modelling with economic analysis of a single farm output under the assumption that both pollination and pest control are essential inputs. We show that the drive to increase farm output can lead to a local decline in the wild bee population. Commercial bees are often considered an alternative to wild pollinators, but we show that their introduction can lead to further decline and finally local extinction of wild bees. The transitions between different outcomes are characterised by threshold behaviour and are potentially difficult to predict and detect in advance. Small changes in economic (input prices) and ecological (wild bees carrying capacity and effect of pesticides on bees) can move the economic-ecological system beyond the extinction threshold. We also show that increasing the pesticide price or decreasing the commercial bee price might lead to reestablishment of wild bees following their local extinction. Thus, we demonstrate the importance of combining ecological modelling with economics to study the provision of ecosystem services and to inform sustainable management of ecosystem service providers.
    Keywords: Ecosystem services, Pollination, Food security, Bioeconomic modelling, Ecology,
    Date: 2013
  28. By: Curzi, Daniele; Pacca, Lucia
    Abstract: Recent developments in international trade theory give growing emphasis to the quality of the exported products, showing that it affects both the direction of trade and the countries’ export performances. However, as quality is unobservable, a measurement problem clearly emerges. In this paper we measure product quality relying on a nested logit demand structure developed by Berry (1994) and then applied to trade data by Khandelwal (2010). Our main goal is to investigate the reliability and the properties of the estimated qualities, focusing on the EU food sector, where the growing attention on quality and safety issues is leading to an increase in the demand for high quality products. Main results give credence to the accuracy of the quality estimates, which display some interesting properties. Indeed, the quality rankings we draw are in line with the expectations, and quality growth proves to be strongly correlated with TFP growth. Moreover, results reveal that the competitive strategy of countries (high-quality vs. low-price) tends to change when moving from OECDs to non-OECDs. Finally, we provide evidence that the quality and price components of export unit values behave differently when testing their relationship with trade costs.
    Keywords: Quality estimates, Nested logit, Food products, International trade., International Relations/Trade, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, C23, F14, L15, Q17,
    Date: 2014
  29. By: Bernard Delord (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA); Alfredo Manuel De Jesus Oliveira Coelho (UMR INRA / CIHEAM / ENSAM / CIRAD : Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA; Montpellier SupAgro); Etienne Montaigne (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA; Montpellier SupAgro)
    Abstract: This paper assesses the existence of both greater profitability for large-scale farms and economies of scale in the French viticulture sector, thereby confirming or invalidating the argument put forward by the European Commission to justify the abolition of vine planting rights. According to this argument (1) economic efficiency increases with the extension of the vine area in vineyards, and (2) vine planting rights prevent the expansion of farms. This article discusses the issue of economies of scale in agriculture and focuses on specific matters related to viticulture. The key issue of our demonstration lies in the impossibility of defining economies of scale by comparing the profits of farms producing different types of product at different prices. By using an assessment of these variables through FADN, it proposes and justifies the interest of using a measurement of output which is the net value added per unit of labor. The report prepared on behalf of the European Parliament is criticized as it demonstrates a positive correlation between size and efficiency, without taking account of the broad farm gate price dispersion for wine. This article demonstrates that in the case of France, over the period 2005-2007, farm size has little impact on performance. The significant differences observed are the result of differences in the selling price of wine.
    Keywords: planting rights, wine growing farm, profitability, economies of scale, price, francevin, économie de plantation, exploitation viticole, prix, économie d'échelle, taille de l'exploitationviticulturedroit à la terre
    Date: 2014
  30. By: World Bank Group
    Keywords: Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems Access and Equity in Basic Education Education - Education For All Tertiary Education Teaching and Learning Agriculture
    Date: 2014–06
  31. By: Saguatti, Annachiara; Erickson, Kenneth; Gutierrez, Luciano
    Abstract: The paper investigates the determinants of cropland value in 12 selected Midwestern U.S.A. States in the years 1971- 2009. We adopt the Ricardian Present Value Model (PVM) as the theoretical framework, and therefore focus on the relationship between land value and cash rents, expecting to find a positive one. In order to model the spatial effects that characterize the data, we estimate a spatial dynamic panel data model with fixed individual effects. The employed dataset represents an improvement with respect to earlier studies because it refers to a rather homogeneous sample of States and only to cropland rather than farmland in general, and also excludes the value of buildings from the value of farmland. Also, net, rather than gross, cash rents per acre of cropland are used, as this reflects the net return to the landowner. Our results allow the computation of short and long run cropland value elasticity to cash rents, whose close-to-1 value appears to support the PVM. We also highlight the importance of taking spatial effects into consideration when addressing this field of analysis.
    Keywords: farmland values, cash rents, present value model, spatial econometrics., Agricultural Finance, Financial Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, C23, G12, Q14,
    Date: 2014
  32. By: Paula CABO (Agriculture School and CIMO, Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Portugal); João REBELO (University of Trás-Os-Montes and Alto Douro, Department of Economics, Management and Sociology, Vila Real, Portugal)
    Abstract: In recent years the importance of corporate governance (CG) has rising new attention, as the 2008 financial crisis illustrates. Co-operative members, staff, regulators and others stakeholders involved in the co-operative banking business became aware of the need to strengthen co-operatives governance, since this is crucial to safeguarding sound management and, ultimately, to the survival and sustainability of these organizations. With their origins rooted in the 16th century, the Portuguese Agricultural Credit Co-operatives (CCAM) have been considered central players in the economic and social development of rural regions. The goal of this paper is to determine the impact of the different governance mechanisms of co-operative banks on control management, by analysing CCAM governance and assess its efficiency in disciplining management. Hence, using data from 1995-2009 period, and multinomial logit models, the relation between CCAM performance and several control mechanisms operating within the SICAM is analysed. The results show that overall internal governance mechanisms are not related to the CCAM performance, which indicates potential weakness of the CCAM internal control mechanisms. On the other hand, external governance mechanisms are related to CCAM operational and cost efficiency indicators, demonstrating the importance of these mechanisms in disciplining CCAM management. Moreover, the results highlight the value of the supervision task of Central CCAM in the performance of the associates.
    Keywords: Governance, control mechanisms, co-operatives, integrated systems
    JEL: D23 G34 L30
    Date: 2014
  33. By: Peter Christoffersen (University of Toronto and CREATES); Asger Lunde (Aarhus University and CREATES); Kasper V. Olesen (Aarhus University and CREATES)
    Abstract: Using data on more than 750 million futures trades during 2004-2013, we analyze eight stylized facts of commodity price and volatility dynamics in the post financialization period. We pay particular attention to the factor structure in returns and volatility and to commodity market integration with the equity market. We find evidence of a factor structure in daily commodity futures returns. However, the factor structure in daily commodity futures volatility is even stronger than in returns. When computing model-free realized commodity betas with the stock market we find that they were high during 2008-2010 but have since returned to the pre-crisis level close to zero. The common factor in commodity volatility is nevertheless clearly related to stock market volatility. We conclude that, while commodity markets appear to again be segmented from the equity market when only returns are considered, commodity volatility indicates a nontrivial degree of market integration.
    Keywords: Factor structure, financial volatility, beta, high-frequency data, commodities, financialization
    JEL: G13 Q02
    Date: 2014–09–08
  34. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Poverty Reduction - Rural Poverty Reduction Economic Theory and Research Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Regional Economic Development Environmental Economics and Policies Environment
    Date: 2014–06
  35. By: Jakob B. MADSEN (Department of Economics, Monash University.); James B. ANG (Division of Economics, Nanyang Technological University)
    Abstract: It is well established in the literature that financial development (FD) is conducive to growth, and yet the channels through which FD affects growth are not well understood. Using a unique new panel data set for 21 OECD countries over the past 140 years, this paper examines the extent to which FD transmits to growth through ideas production, savings, fixed investment, and schooling. Unionization and agricultural share are used as instruments for FD. The empirical results show that FD influences growth through all four channels. In particular, ideas production is found to be the most important channel through which FD impacts on growth.
    Keywords: ideas production; savings; investment; schooling; growth; financial development.
    JEL: O16 O30 O40 O53
    Date: 2014–08
  36. By: Jérémie Gignoux (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - École normale supérieure [ENS] - Paris - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris); Marta Menéndez (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - École normale supérieure [ENS] - Paris - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris, DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme - Institut de recherche pour le développement [IRD], UP9 - Université Paris 9, Dauphine - Université Paris IX - Paris Dauphine)
    Abstract: We examine the long-term effects on individual economic outcomes of a set of earthquakes - numerous, large, but mostly not extreme - that occurred in rural Indonesia since 1985. Using longitudinal individual-level data from large-scale household surveys, together with precise measures of local ground tremors obtained from a US Geological Survey database, we identify the effects of earthquakes, exploiting the quasi-random spatial and temporal nature of their distribution. Affected individuals experience short-term economic losses but recover in the medium-run (after two to five years), and even exhibit income and welfare gains in the long term (six to 12 years). The stocks of productive assets, notably in farms, get reconstituted and public infrastructures are reconstructed with some improvements, seemingly partly through external aid, allowing productivity to recover. These findings tend to discount the presence of poverty traps, and exhibit the potential long-term benefits from post-disaster interventions in context where disasters primarily affect physical assets.
    Keywords: Natural disasters ; Earthquakes ; Rural Indonesia ; Long-term effects ; Welfare ; Aid and reconstruction
    Date: 2014–09
  37. By: Timothy Swanson (Centre for International Environmental Studies, IHEID, The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva); Chiara Ravetti; Yana Popp Jin; Mu Quan; Zhang Shiqiu
    Abstract: This paper looks at the problem of information control behind the unsustainable levels of air pollution in China. In particular, it focuses on a large urban area, Beijing, and it examines the role of the public, government-controlled information and the adaptation choices of households in response to signals about high pollution. Our analysis is based on a simple theoretical framework in which people migrate from rural areas to polluted cities, receiving a signal from the government about urban pollution; hence, they decide whether to adapt to pollution or not. We find that the government has no incentive to ensure sustainable air quality, as it can distort pollution information in order to attract cheap labour. We then analyse empirically two different air pollution indexes from different sources and agents’ behaviour in an original household survey collected in Beijing. We find that the official air pollution values are systematically distorted, creating perverse incentives for households to react to bad air quality, especially for people who rely on government-controlled sources of information.
    Keywords: Air Pollution; Government; Information; Averting Behaviour; Sustainability.
    JEL: Q53 Q56 Q58
    Date: 2014–08–29
  38. By: Layal Bou-Antoun (PACTE - Politiques publiques, ACtion politique, TErritoires - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Grenoble - CNRS : UMR5194 - Université Pierre-Mendès-France - Grenoble II - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble I)
    Abstract: The idea behind this paper is to counter traditional thinking on economic and social development that considers development as dependent byproduct of macroeconomic policies led by governments, or as a sole byproduct of entrepreneurial dynamics on the micro level. The idea we are defending here is that the "Community" as defined by German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies, (a tighter and more cohesive social entity) is a context where the "social" and "economic" are less separated and where the spatial dimension becomes more significant. This context could be an adequate analytical framework and a tool for regional development in the context of a developing country like Lebanon.
    Keywords: community, local development, wine industry, Bekaa, Lebanon
    Date: 2014–04–25
  39. By: Marco Marini (Department of Computer, Control and Management Engineering, Universita' degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza"); Paolo Polidori (Universita' degli Studi di Urbino "Carlo Bo"); Desiree Teobaldelli (Universita' degli Studi di Urbino "Carlo Bo"); Alberto Zevi (Centro Studi Legacoop, Rome, Italy)
    Abstract: The recent globalization of world economies has led the retail markets of developed countries towards increasing levels of integration and strategic interdependence. A non negligible share of retail and food markets is currently served by co-operative societies. Consistently with this trend, the consumer cooperatives have recently experienced increasing levels of integration. The main aim of this paper is to study the welfare effects of coordination among consumer cooperatives competing in quantities in a mixed oligopoly against profit-maximizing firms. We show that, in absence of agency problems, whereas under increasing or constant returns to scale a higher output coordination of consumer cooperatives may not affect the total welfare as long as a nonnegative profit constraint holds, under decreasing returns to scale the consumer cooperatives may contribute more to social welfare when acting on behalf of all consumers. This is because, by coordinating consumers' preferences, these firms can reduce their market output, thus helping the market to come closer to the first best. All together these results seem to provide an argument in favor of the recent process of integration involving consumer cooperatives in many developed countries.
    Keywords: Consumer Cooperatives ; Mixed Oligopoly ; Profit-maximizing Firms; Mergers
    Date: 2014
  40. By: Sartika Djamaluddin (Institute of Economics and Social Research, Faculty of Economics, University of Indonesia)
    Abstract: Comprehensive profiling of impoverished households plays a fundamental role in enabling the government to compose quintessential and antipoverty policies that effectively lower poverty on a significant level. This study analyzes household assets and poverty reduction policies as one of the determinant factors of poverty. This research is based on data cumulated from a national socio-economic household survey (susenas) in 2010 as well as logistic regression model to identify factors proximately associated with poverty level in Province, regency and City in West Java. The number of observations as much as 20,541 households. Upon comprehensively evaluating samples, the outcome of the research shows that West Java is facing complex issues related to poverty. All determinant factors including demographic, economy, social and government policies are identified as significantly impact on poverty rate in the region. At all province, city and regency level, size of household member and assets variables are found to be the factors that consistently and significantly determining poverty rate. At the province level, the high probability of poverty is triggered among other by the large size of households' members, family head is married and/or employed in agriculture sector or work as laborers and having low education level as well as living at house with the ground floor/bamboo. Results of regression analyses conducted in respective sample cities/regencies nevertheless illustrates that the level of influence on poverty level vary accordingly. While Tasikmalaya city and Sukabumi regency are facing more complex poverty issues to address, cause of poverty in Kuningan and Majalengka regency are identified as exactly the same.
    Keywords: Poverty Determinant, Household, Logistic Regression Model, West Java
    JEL: I32 D1 C25
    Date: 2014–09
  41. By: Christopher Shultz (Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University); Randall W. Jackson (Regional Research Institute, West Virginia University)
    Keywords: water resources, ecological economics, environment and development
    JEL: Q32 Q56 Q57
    Date: 2014–08–20
  42. By: McLaughlin, Eoin; Foley-Fisher, Nathan
    Abstract: This paper introduces a new database on Irish land bonds listed on the Dublin Stock Exchange from 1891 to 1938: it outlines the nature of these bonds and presents data on their size, liquidity and market returns. These government-guaranteed bonds arose during a period when the possibility of Irish secession from the United Kingdom appeared ever more likely, and were used to finance the transfer of land ownership from landlords to tenants in Ireland (North & South). Movements in the prices of these bonds can help to understand how financial markets responded to events in the early economic and political history of the Irish Free State, including Irish partition, Independence, Civil War and de facto default. Understanding these issues has contemporary relevance for regions in Spain (Catalonia, Euskadi), Great Britain (Scotland) and Belgium (Flanders).
    Keywords: Irish economic history, land reform, land bonds, Dublin Stock Exchange,
    Date: 2013
  43. By: Bruno Amable (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne, CEPREMAP - Centre pour la recherche économique et ses applications, IUF - Institut Universitaire de France - Ministère de l'Enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche Scientifique); Ivan Ledezma (LEDa - Université Paris-Dauphine, IRD - DIAL - UMR 225)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of product market regulation on the propensity to export at the industry level for 13 OECD countries and 13 industries over the 1977-2007 period. Recent economic policy and academic literature insists on the negative effects of product market regulation on productivity or innovation, and hence on "competitiveness", a term that we interpret as the ability to export. Similar to the conclusions of some contributions to a recent literature on competition and growth, the "common sense" is that product market regulation should be detrimantal to competitiveness. Testing through a two-step estimation the impact of upstream pressures of product market regulation on productivity and the effect of the latter on the propensity to export, this paper shows that upstream regulatory pressures have a significantly positive impact on productivity and thereby on the capability of an industry to attract resources and to sell its production in international markets.
    Keywords: Exports; product market regulation; competitiveness
    Date: 2013–02
  44. By: Esther Regnier (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris); Michel De Lara (CERMICS - Centre d'Enseignement et de Recherche en Mathématiques et Calcul Scientifique - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech)
    Abstract: The Word Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, 2002) encouraged the application of the ecosystem approach by 2010. In this perspective, we propose a theoretical management framework that deals jointly with i) ecosystem dynamics, ii) conflicting issues of production and preservation and iii) robustness with respect to dynamics uncertainties. More specifically, we define the robust viability kernel as the set of initial species biomasses such that at least one harvesting strategy guarantees minimal production and preservation levels for all times, whatever the uncertainties. We apply our approach to the anchovy-hake couple in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem. We find that accounting for uncertainty significantly reduces the robust viability kernel compared to the deterministic one (without uncertainties). We observe that, when we increase the set of uncertainties, the robust viability kernel very slightly decreases, expressing a moderate sensibility with respect to refining the set of uncertainties. We comment on the management implications of comparing robust viability kernels (with uncertainties) and the deterministic one (without uncertainties).
    Keywords: Optimization; viability; uncertainty; robustness; sustainability; ecosystem management; fisheries; Peruvian upwelling
    Date: 2013–01
  45. By: Cheng, Fang-Ting
    Abstract: As can been seen from the U.S.'s non-ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, together with the negotiations toward the post-Kyoto Protocol framework, the U.S. and China have been quarrelling over their responsibilities and have contradicted one another over the introduction of compulsory domestic greenhouse gases emission reduction targets. Therefore, for a long time, it has been argued that the controversy between the two countries has hindered the process of forging an international agreement to deal with climate change. On the other hand, Sino-U.S. bilateral cooperation on climate change has significantly increased in recent years in summit talks and their Strategic & Economic Dialogue (S&ED), especially after the 15th Conference of Parties (COP) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Copenhagen, one of whose aims was to facilitate positive negotiations for the post-Kyoto Protocol agreement. Analyzing this in the light of recent developments, we find that the U.S. and China have tended to address climate change and related issues from a pluralistic viewpoint and approach, by regarding the achievement of bilateral cooperation and global agreements as their common strategic objective.
    Keywords: China, United States, Climatic change, Foreign relations, Environmental problems, Climate change, Mitigation, Adaptation, Copenhagen Accord, Cancun Agreement, UNFCCC, Sino-U.S. relationship, U.S.-China Strategic & Economic Dialogue (S&ED)
    JEL: K32 O13 O19
    Date: 2014–09

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.