nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2014‒09‒25
twenty-six papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Università degli Studi di Verona

  1. Running with the Red Queen: An integrated assessment of Agricultural Land Expansion and Global Biodiversity Decline By Bruno Lanz; Timothy Swanson; Simon Dietz
  2. Tracer Study of Agricultural Graduates in Uganda By Mugisha, Johnny; Nkwasibwe, Anthony
  3. Alternative Food Networks in Piedmont: determinants of on-farm and off-farm direct sales by farmers By Corsi, Alessandro; Novelli, Silvia; Pettenati, Giacomo
  4. Technology adoption and the multiple dimensions of food security: the case of maize in Tanzania By Magrini, Emiliano; Vigani, Mauro
  5. Testing for Household Resilience to Food Insecurity: Evidence from Nicaragua By Ciani, Federico; Donato, Romano
  6. A Spatial Analysis to evaluate the Farm's structure and the Geography of Rural Areas: The case study of Mugello Area By Landi, Chiara; Fastelli, Laura; Rovai, Massimo; Andreoli, Maria
  7. The Capitalisation of Fixed per hectare Payment into Land Rental Prices: a Spatial Econometric Analysis of Regions in EU By Guastella, Gianni; Moro, Daniele; Sckokai, Paolo; Veneziani, Mario
  8. Evaluation of Selected USDA WAOB and NASS Forecasts and Estimates in Corn and Soybeans By Irwin, Scott H.; Sanders, Dwight R.; Good, Darrel L.
  9. One policy, many policies: the spatial allocation of first and second pillar CAP Expenditure By Camaioni, Beatrice; Esposti, Roberto; Pagliacci, Francesco; Sotte, Franco
  10. Estimates of Domestic Resource Cost in Philippines Agriculture By Roehlano M. Briones
  11. The Impact of the 2005 CAP-First Pillar Reform as a Multivalued Treatment Effect -Alternative Estimation Approaches By Esposti, Roberto
  12. The Geographical Spread and the Economic Impact of Food Harvest 2020 – A Regional Perspective By Mary Carey; Cathal O'Donoghue
  13. Models for University Engagement with Private and Public Sector Employers By Kaneene, John B.; Kirsten, Johann; Mugisha, Anthony; Kabasa, John David
  14. Technical and Institutional Capacities of AET Institutions in Southern Africa: Are there Lessons for the Rest of Africa? By Madakadze, Casper; Masamvu, Tane; Terreblanche, Fanie; Minde, Isaac
  15. Sustainability of local versus global bread supply chains: a literature review By Gava, Oriana; Galli, Francesca; Bartolini, Fabio; Brunori, Gianluca
  16. Cost Containment in the WIC Program: Vendor Peer Groups and Reimbursement Rates By Volpe, Richard; Saitone, Tina; Sexton, Richard
  17. Scale Economies and Technical Efficiency of Quebec Dairy Farms By Alphonse G. Singbo; Bruno Larue
  18. Household Size, Economies of Scale, and Public Goods in Consumption: A Proposal to Resolve the Food Share “Paradox” By Feridoon Koohi-Komali
  19. Employment Implications of Exporting Processed U.S. Agricultural Products By Blandford, David; Boisvert, Richard N.
  20. Atténuation de l’effet de serre d’origine agricole : efficacité en coûts et instruments de régulation By Stephane De Cara; Bruno Vermont
  21. Governance of Ecosystem Services: insights from Life+ Making Good Natura project By Marino, Davide; Gaglioppa, Pierluca; Schirpke, Uta; Guadagno, Rossella; Marucci, Angelo; Palmieri, Margherita; Pellegrino, Davide; Gusmerotti, Natalia
  22. Policies for balanced development of LDCs By Clovis Freire
  23. Consumer preferences, aquaculture technology and the sustainability of fisheries By Esther Regnier; Katheline Schubert
  24. A dynamic CGE modelling approach for analyzing trade-offs in climate change policy options: the case of Green Climate Fund By Alessandro Antimiani; Valeria Costantini; Anil Markandya; Chiara Martini; Alessandro Palma; ; Maria Cristina Tommasino
  25. Cooperation and Competition in Climate Change Policies: Mitigation and Climate Engineering when Countries are Asymmetric By Vassiliki Manoussi; Anastasios Xepapadeas
  26. The Papua Niugini Paradox. Land property archaism and Modernity of peasant resistance ? By Rémy Herrera; Poeura Tetoe

  1. By: Bruno Lanz; Timothy Swanson; Simon Dietz (Centre for International Environmental Studies, IHEID, The Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva)
    Abstract: Modern agriculture relies on a small number of highly productive crops and the continued expansion of agricultural land area has led to a significant loss of biodiversity. In this paper we consider the macroeconomic consequences of a continued expansion of modern agriculture from the perspective of agricultural productivity and food production: as the genetic material supporting agriculture declines, pests and pathogens become more likely to adapt to crops and proliferate, increasing crop losses due to biological hazards. To evaluate the macroeconomic consequences of a reduction in agricultural productivity associated with the expansion of agriculture, we employ a quantitative, structurally estimated model of the global economy in which economic growth, population and food demand, agricultural innovations, and the process of land conversion are jointly determined. We show that even a small impact of global biodiversity on agricultural productivity calls for both a halt in agricultural land conversion and increased agricultural R&D in order to maintain food production associated with population and income growth.
    Keywords: Global biodiversity; Agricultural productivity; Endogenous innovations; Land conversion; Population dynamics; Food security; Quantitative growth model
    JEL: N10 N50 O31 O44 Q15 Q16 Q57
  2. By: Mugisha, Johnny; Nkwasibwe, Anthony
    Abstract: There has been increased demand for food not only on the African continent but globally. This has been largely attributed to the high population growth with changing food preferences. This calls for the transformation of Africa’s agriculture and food systems through transforming agricultural production, markets, agricultural education and training institutions. Agricultural training institutions such as universities and agricultural colleges have a lot to contribute but they need to run relevant curricula in order to produce well trained human resource that will guide stakeholders in production, value addition and marketing, hence quality and quantity food supply.
    Keywords: Uganda, education, training, Agricultural and Food Policy, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2014–02
  3. By: Corsi, Alessandro; Novelli, Silvia; Pettenati, Giacomo
    Abstract: Direct sales are a widespread and important typology of the so-called Alternative Food Networks. The direct links between producers and consumers can take two basic forms: consumers going to buy agricultural products at the farm (on-farm sales), and farmers selling their products in urban areas. These practices are an alternative to traditional organizations of the agro-food chains, that typically involve several operators between producers and consumers. It is therefore important to analyse the reasons pushing farmers to adopt this new organization of their marketing chain. This research aims at analysing the territorial distribution of direct links between urban consumers and farmers in Piedmont (Italy), and to assess the main determinants of their choice. Firstly, the territorial distribution of direct sales practices (on-farm or elsewhere) is analysed. This is made possible by the access to micro-data from the 2010 Agricultural Census for Piedmont, a region whose agriculture is characterized by a strong emphasis on quality products. The farms that chose direct sales, both on- and off-farm, are mostly concentrated in specific clusters, such as the hilly wine-growing areas of Langhe and Monferrato, the hilly belt surrounding Torino, and some low Alpine valleys. Secondly, we analyse the determinants of the choice to sell directly to consumers, separately for on-farm and off-farm sales, with probit models. Explanatory variables comprise the structural characteristics of the farms (farm size, type of farming, etc.), the personal characteristics of the operators and of the farm households, and the proximity to urban and commercial areas. Operators’ and farm characteristics are found to affect the choice of selling directly, but rather weakly. The most important factors affecting these choices are farm location and, for on-farm direct sales, the complementarity with agro-tourism and recreational activities.
    Keywords: direct sales, alternative food networks, Agribusiness, Marketing, Q13, Q12, R12,
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Magrini, Emiliano; Vigani, Mauro
    Abstract: The paper analyses the impact of adopting new agricultural technologies on the multiple dimensions of food security for maize farmers in Tanzania. Relying on matching techniques, we use a nationally representative dataset collected over the period 2010/2011 to estimate the causal eects of using improved seeds and inorganic fertilizers on four dimensions: availability, access, utilization, and stability. We nd an overall positive and signicant impact on all the dimensions of food security even if substantial dierences are observed. In particular, improved seeds show a stronger eect on food availability and access while inorganic fertilizers guarantee higher stability. In terms of utilization, both technologies increase the diet diversity while only improved seeds reduce the dependence on staple food. The study supports the idea that the relationship between new agricultural technologies and food security is a complex phenomenon which requires a deeper and more thorough investigation.
    Keywords: Food Security, Technology Adoption, Propensity Score Matching, Tanzania, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Q12, Q16, Q18, O13,
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Ciani, Federico; Donato, Romano
    Abstract: The main goal of this paper is to develop a methodology to quantitatively assess resilience to food insecurity. The developed methodology is applied to Nicaraguan rural households hit by Mitch Hurricane in 1999. The results show that the proposed resilience index is a good predictor of households’ food security. The proposed resilience index highlights small landowners and agricultural wage workers as less resilient vis-à-vis other livelihood groups. Moreover this paper shows how a resilience index can be used in policy impact evaluation.
    Keywords: Resilience, Agriculture, Food Security, Nicaragua, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Security and Poverty, Q12, Q18, I32, I38,
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Landi, Chiara; Fastelli, Laura; Rovai, Massimo; Andreoli, Maria
    Abstract: In order to promote rural development public agricultural policies need to constantly adapt to the continuous change of socio-economic conditions of rural areas, related to both farm and territorial dynamics. Hence beyond the zoning provided by the European Commission and developed by Member States [art. 11 Reg. Ce 1698/2005], policy makers should take into account geography, farms characteristics and farmers attitude to acquire a deeper knowledge of these rural areas. This paper aims at supporting the design of proper agricultural policies focusing on the case-study of Mugello territory, a rural area located in the North of Tuscany, which includes both: intermediate rural areas and areas with development problems. This purpose is firstly pursued by generating a geo-referenced database able to develop a deeper analysis on the existing interactions between socio - economic attributes of farms, land use and agricultural policies. The study combined several sources of data: the 2010 Italian Agriculture Census, the Tuscany Regional Agency for Payments in Agriculture (ARTEA) database, and cover land data from the database Corine Land Cover (CLC-06), as updated to 2007 by LaMMA (Laboratory for Environment Monitoring and Modeling). The resulting sample is composed by 821 farms operating in the Mugello area which are split in four different farm styles according to their level of multifunctionality and enterpreunership capacity. Results show that Mugello territory is characterized by an internal differentiation, that determines the prevalence of different farm structure according to the sub-areas characteristics. Especially analyzing the distribution of payments related to area with development problems we note that there are still margins of improvement.
    Keywords: Rural development, Farm and Territorial Data, Rural Development Program, Spatial Analysis, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Q12, Q18,
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Guastella, Gianni; Moro, Daniele; Sckokai, Paolo; Veneziani, Mario
    Abstract: Following the decoupling of agricultural support from productions, the likelihood that payments get capitalised into farmland rent or sale prices has increased. In this study, the issue of capitalisation is examined for the case of regions in the EU and the three year (2006-2008) time span following the introduction of the reform is considered in an attempt to disentangle the effect of the decoupling. Evidence put forward in this study confirms the results of previous literature at the micro-level, suggesting that an additional 1% granted to farmers translates into an increase of 0.22% in farmland rents.
    Keywords: European Union, subsidies capitalisation, land rents, spatial panel econometrics, Agricultural and Food Policy, Q18,
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Irwin, Scott H.; Sanders, Dwight R.; Good, Darrel L.
    Abstract: The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has a number of agencies that are involved in collecting, analyzing, forecasting, and disseminating information about the production and consumption of the corn and soybean crops (Spilka, 1983; Vogel and Bange, 1999; Lusk, 2013). Market participants rely heavily on estimates and forecasts provided by these agencies in order to form price expectations and to make business decisions. In spite of on-going efforts to maintain the quality of information provided and the transparency of the methodology used, misunderstanding, concerns, or complaints about the information provided periodically arise (e.g., USDA/ESRP, 1985; Good and Irwin, 2011). More recently (since 2006) those concerns have centered on the accuracy of the quarterly estimates of corn inventories and to a lesser extent on the methodology and accuracy of early season yield forecasts (e.g., Polansek, 2010; Pleven and McGinty, 2011). It is in that context that this review of USDA forecasts and estimates for corn and soybeans was conducted.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Consumer/Household Economics, Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis, Farm Management,
    Date: 2014–01
  9. By: Camaioni, Beatrice; Esposti, Roberto; Pagliacci, Francesco; Sotte, Franco
    Abstract: The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is the most important EU Policy in terms of total expenditure. Nevertheless, its impact on EU-27 regions is rather uneven: actually, some regions have historically received a larger support than others. Territorial imbalances, however, represent only part of the story. The CAP comprises a wide range of agricultural and rural measures, from agricultural market interventions to agro-environmental payments and rural development measures. Due to their underlying objectives, expenditures from different CAP Pillars are allocated according to different territorial patterns at local level. In this paper, CAP real expenditures for years 2007-2011 are analysed at EU-27 NUTS 3 level, by considering expenditure intensity per hectare of utilised agricultural area (UAA). Several CAP expenditure typologies (Direct Payments, Market Intervention Measures and RDP’s Axes, i.e., Axis 1, Axis 2 and Axis 3) are considered. Their spatial allocation highlights different territorial patterns and suggests the existence of well defined spatial clusters. They seem to be determined by the nature of CAP itself. Indeed, despite being a single EU policy, the heterogeneous nature of its measures and their spatial allocation make the CAP a combination of several territorial policies.
    Keywords: CAP, rural development, regional patterns, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, O18, Q01, R58,
    Date: 2014
  10. By: Roehlano M. Briones
    Keywords: Crops and Crop Management Systems Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Markets and Market Access Economic Theory and Research Food and Beverage Industry Private Sector Development - Emerging Markets Industry Agriculture
    Date: 2014–01
  11. By: Esposti, Roberto
    Abstract: This paper aims at evaluating the impact of the 2003/2005 CAP reform on farm production choices. The outcome of “market orientation” is measured by considering both the short-term production choices and the long-term investment decisions. The Treatment Effect (TE) is estimated through recent alternative multiple/continuous TEs estimators based on the Generalized Propensity Score (GPS). Instead of looking at non-treated counterfactuals these approaches take advantage of the different intensity with which the first pillar support is delivered to treated units. These alternative estimators are implemented and their statistical robustness assessed and results compared. Results show that the 2003/2005 reform of the first pillar of the CAP actually had an impact more in (ri)orienting short-term farm production choices then investment decisions and this effect is significantly more evident for farms with a limited contribution of the CAP on their own Gross Production Value.
    Keywords: Treatment Effects, Common Agricultural Policy, Farm Production Choices, Matching, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Q18, Q12, C21, O13,
    Date: 2014
  12. By: Mary Carey (PhD student in Public Policy, School of Economics, University College Dublin, Ireland); Cathal O'Donoghue (Rural Economy and Development Programme, Teagasc, Athenry, Co. Galway, Ireland)
    Abstract: Recently the agri-food sector has received increased attention in Ireland. The agri-food sector has been the traditional backbone of Irish exports, and despite the economic downturn Irish exports in this sector grew by an impressive 12 percent in 2011 (CSO 2012). The agri-food sector is regarded as Ireland’s largest indigenous industry, the potential of the sector in terms of exports, and its heavy dependence on domestic inputs are the key reasons for the increased attention. The real economic value of the agri-food sector in Ireland is analysed at national, and most importantly for this paper, at regional level. This paper examines the impact of the agri-food sector in addressing regional disparities in Ireland. The estimation of the true value of the agri-food sector is evaluated at regional level by analysing Gross Value Added, employment levels and productivity rates for the sector expressed in percentage of regional values. Gross-Value-Added in absolute terms and as a percentage of regional Gross-Value- Added provides us with a more thorough understanding of the regional importance of certain industries within the sector. In terms of employment, the rural context of the agri-food sector is discussed, including the geographical spread of the sector. A comparison of regional productivity levels is analysed at national and regional level. In addition, this paper geographically distributes the change in output and employment if the four main sector specific Food Harvest 2020 targets are achieved. As a preliminary contour of the agri-food sector in Ireland this research will be useful to all the key players in the sector.
    Keywords: Regional Development Policy, Agri-food sector, Regional Economics
    Date: 2013
  13. By: Kaneene, John B.; Kirsten, Johann; Mugisha, Anthony; Kabasa, John David
    Abstract: This study compares models for university engagement with private and public sector employers in Africa. It compares engagement models in countries with more developed food systems (South Africa) and a sample of selected African countries with less developed food systems - Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and Senegal. The study was conducted in two parts. Part one consisted of desk top review of the available literature in order to identify the available engagement models and development of a conceptual framework for engagement, and part two consisted of conducting structured interviews with selected private agricultural companies and public employers.
    Keywords: Africa, engagement models, education, Agricultural and Food Policy, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2014–06
  14. By: Madakadze, Casper; Masamvu, Tane; Terreblanche, Fanie; Minde, Isaac
    Abstract: This paper takes an inventory of technical and institutional capacities of some selected tertiary agricultural education and training institutions (AET) in southern Africa. Data were gathered on key selected areas such as student enrolment, physical infrastructure, teaching staff, curricula, level of research and outreach, and relationship between these institutions and the communities and private sector. The objective was to learn about best practices in the management of the AET institutions which can then potentially be applied to other AET institutions. South Africa demonstrated the greatest degree of diversity in their AET institutions. What is even more remarkable is that South Africa arguably has the most market driven, demand oriented AET-sensitive curricula in southern Africa. Different institutions target different segments in the job market. This is a great lesson for many African countries who are vying to increase job opportunities for their graduates.
    Keywords: agricultural education, Africa, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2014–05
  15. By: Gava, Oriana; Galli, Francesca; Bartolini, Fabio; Brunori, Gianluca
    Abstract: The sustainability of the food supply chain is a core issue in the research and policy debate and is one of the priorities in the EU Horizon 2020 Strategies (EU, 2014). As a result, increasing knowledge of the resource efficiency of the food supply chain can help to meet EU global challenges. The literature review on food chain performance reveals methodological differences when investigating multiple dimensions, i.e. economics, social, human health, environmental, ethics; thus, comparisons are arduous. The majority of studies focus on environmental, social and economic performance overlooking health and ethical aspects. The paper will investigate the scientific literature focusing on the contribution of supply chain on economic, social, health, environmental and ethical performance. Results could help in understanding the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches as well as their reliability in assessing how food chain sustainability is affected by its length.
    Keywords: sustainability dimensions, food supply chain, local, global, bread, Agricultural and Food Policy, Q18, Q10,
    Date: 2014
  16. By: Volpe, Richard; Saitone, Tina; Sexton, Richard
    Abstract: Cost containment is a concern for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), a Federal food assistance program providing participants with key foods and beverages. Since WIC is not an entitlement program, the amount of aid available to cover those who are eligible depends on fixed budget appropriations and WIC agency cost containment. This report examines the extent to which cost containment might be improved through changes in the regulations governing WIC vendors and allowable reimbursement levels for foods covered by the program. Using California, the largest U.S. WIC program, as a case study, we analyze data on WIC redemptions—that is, reimbursements to vendors for items bought by WIC participants—and determine the potential for cost savings through changes to the cost-containment practices. Smaller vendors, often with higher operating and procurement costs, are more likely to charge higher prices for WIC products than larger vendors. However,these small vendors comprise only a small percentage of total WIC redemptions. Policies intended to reduce maximum allowable WIC reimbursement rates would have little to no effect on most standard-size supermarkets, where the majority of WIC transactions take place.
    Keywords: WIC program, cost containment, vendor peer grouping, food assistance, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2014–08
  17. By: Alphonse G. Singbo; Bruno Larue
    Abstract: Canada’s average cost for milk production is amongst the highest in the world. The paper focusses on specific potential causes by estimating economies of scale and technical efficiency for a panel of Quebec dairy farms that spans the 2001-2010 period. The stochastic frontier analysis based on an input distance function is use to estimate returns to scale relationships across dairy farms. We show that there is significant economies scale to be exploited and that cost of production could also be reduced by improving technical efficiency. The results have important implications for Canada’s supply management policy, and more specifically for the trading of production quota between dairy farmers, as well as for the delivery of targeted extension services.
    Keywords: Economies of scale, technical efficiency, dairy policy, supply management
    JEL: Q12 Q18
    Date: 2014
  18. By: Feridoon Koohi-Komali
    Abstract: This paper is addressed to an explanation of the food share paradoxencountered in (Deaton and Paxson 1998),and suggests a proposal to resolveit. The paper examines the effect of family size on the demand for food, acommodity group believed to be particularly responsive to changes ineconomies available to households. It argues that the size effect on the budget share of food is negative; this has only become a paradox because the sources of economies are assumed to be confined to mainly family public goods. The paradox is likely to disappear once within food group private sources of economies are acknowledged.
    Date: 2014–08
  19. By: Blandford, David; Boisvert, Richard N.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, International Relations/Trade,
  20. By: Stephane De Cara (Economie Publique, INRA); Bruno Vermont (Economie Publique, INRA)
    Abstract: Du fait de son poids dans les émissions de gaz à effet de serre (GES), l’agriculture peut (et doit) participer significativement à l’effort d’atténuation global. Les politiques publiques peuvent jouer un rôle important pour que les potentiels d’atténuation que peut offrir ce secteur soient mobilisés au meilleur coût pour la société. Ce texte synthétise les concepts qui sous-tendent les travaux d’économie appliquée qui ont examiné cette question. Il précise notamment le concept d’efficacité en coûts et le rôle que peuvent jouer les instruments économiques à cet égard. Les résultats de travaux récents portant sur cette question dans les cas français et européen illustrent l’importance des gains en efficacité permis par les instruments économiques. Ces éléments sont mis en regard de l’évolution récente des politiques climatiques et agricoles dans leur prise en compte de la question des émissions de GES d’origine agricole.
    Abstract: Given its weight in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), agriculture can (and should) contribute significantly to the global mitigation effort. Public policies may play an important role in realizing the mitigation potential in this sector at the lowest possible cost for the society. This text provides an overview of the concepts used in applied economics research works that have addressed this issue. In particular, it presents the concept of cost-effectiveness and the role that economic instruments can play in this regard. Recent results from studies that have examined this question in the French and European contexts illustrate the efficiency gains that can be expected from the implementation of economic instruments. These results are then used to analyze the recent trends in climate and agricultural policies with respect to the issue of GHG emissions from agriculture.
    Keywords: gaz à effet de serre, émission de gazinstrument économiqueprotoxyde d'azote, méthaneefficacitécoût
    Date: 2014
  21. By: Marino, Davide; Gaglioppa, Pierluca; Schirpke, Uta; Guadagno, Rossella; Marucci, Angelo; Palmieri, Margherita; Pellegrino, Davide; Gusmerotti, Natalia
    Abstract: The Natura 2000 network is the cornerstone of EU Biodiversity Strategy aimed at halting the loss of biodiversity and services natural and semi-natural ecosystems provide to human populations. The Member States are mainly responsible to implement conservation strategies through management plans and conservation measures, but in many cases the level of development and execution of these instruments is very low due to scarce financial resources, and management effectiveness is rarely achieved. This paper presents first insights from Life+ Making Good Natura (MGN) project and highlights costs and benefits associated to 2 out of 21 Natura 2000 study sites in Italy in order to define the basis for a new governance approach relied on the qualitative and quantitative valuation of ecosystem services (ES) and suitable for reaching management effectiveness. To date, the habitat cover of the agro-forest sites and socio-economic data for the core area and a buffer zone of 20 km, gathered through questionnaires to management authority, have been analyzed. After mapping and assessing the most important ES for each site based on spatial data and on the information from the questionnaires, meetings with local public and private stakeholders were organized in order to discuss the identified ES and their social and economic importance for the area. Preliminary results suggest that quantification of costs related to the Natura 2000 network is a crucial point within a systematic approach to environmental accountability that allows to measure and assess management bodies’ management strategy effectiveness and efficiency and to redefine Natura 2000 sites conservation priorities. Furthermore, in a general context of stagnant and uncertain funding for biodiversity conservation, also the need of defining a wide range of governance and management tools, referring to the policy mix instruments, seems urgent.
    Keywords: Natura 2000 network, ecosystem services, PES, local communities, governance, management, natural resources, protected area, Environmental Economics and Policy, Q570,
    Date: 2014
  22. By: Clovis Freire (Macroeconomic Policy and Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
    Abstract: Least developed countries (LDCs) in the Asia-Pacific region face severe structural impediments to growth and sustainable development.1 The majority of their population makes living from agriculture, including horticulture, livestock, fisheries and forestry, and the development of that sector is a key priority of action for their inclusive and sustainable development. Given their particular situation, LDCs in Asia-Pacific should consider an integrated strategy that uses intersectoral linkages and labour movements between agriculture and agro-industries to promote balanced and inclusive development.
  23. By: Esther Regnier (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris); Katheline Schubert (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris)
    Abstract: This article analyzes the impact of aquaculture on wild fish stocks and on fish consumption, taking into account its dependence on reduction fisheries for the feeding of the farmed species and consumet preferences. The model includes the demand side and three sectors : and edible fish fishery and a reduction fishery, both in open access, and an aquaculture sector. We assume on the one hand that consumer preferences are carnivorous species biased, and on the other hand that the efficiency of the aquaculture sector depends on the diet of the farmed species. We show that consumers are better-off in presence of aquaculture. Furthermore, the income level for which collapse of the wild edible fishery occurs is postponed. However, the choice of the farmed species entails a trade-off between the edible fishery and the reduction fishery which stems from the characteristics of the demand side. Therefore, we explore the consequences of the sensitivity of consumers to the farmed fish type. We also analyze the dynamics of fish stocks, supplies and prices and find that the steady state is a stable node.
    Keywords: Fisheries; aquaculture; consumer preferences; food safety
    Date: 2013–01
  24. By: Alessandro Antimiani; Valeria Costantini; Anil Markandya; Chiara Martini; Alessandro Palma; ; Maria Cristina Tommasino
    Abstract: We investigate the trade-offs between economic growth and low carbon targets for developing and developed countries in the period up to 2035. Policy options are evaluated with an original version of the dynamic CGE model GDynE. Abatement costs appear to be strongly detrimental to economic growth for developing countries. We investigate options for reducing these costs that are consistent with a green growth strategy. We show that Green Climate Fund financed through a levy on carbon taxation can benefit all parties, and larger benefits are associated with investment of the Green Climate Fund to foster energy efficiency in developing countries.
    Keywords: Climate Change Policies, Green Growth, Developing Countries, Dynamic CGE Energy Model, Green Climate Fund
    Date: 2014–05
  25. By: Vassiliki Manoussi; Anastasios Xepapadeas
    Abstract: We study a dynamic game of climate policy design in terms of emissions and solar radiation management (SRM) involving two heterogeneous regions or countries. Countries emit greenhouse gasses (GHGs), and can block incoming radiation by unilateral SRM activities, thus reducing global temperature. Heterogeneity is modelled in terms of the social cost of SRM, the environmental damages due to global warming, the productivity of emissions in terms of generating private benefits, the rate of impatience, and the private cost of geoengineering. We determine the impact of asymmetry on mitigation and SRM activities, concentration of GHGs, and global temperature, and we examine whether a tradeoff actually emerges between mitigation and SRM. Our results could provide some insights into a currently emerging debate regarding mitigation and SRM methods to control climate change, especially since asymmetries seem to play an important role in affecting incentives for cooperation or unilateral actions.
    Keywords: Climate change, mitigation, solar radiation management, cooperation, differential game, asymmetry, feedback Nash equilibrium.
    JEL: Q53 Q54
    Date: 2014–09–02
  26. By: Rémy Herrera (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne); Poeura Tetoe (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne)
    Abstract: After Papua New Guinea's society has been presented in a first part of this paper, the second part focuses on traditional land institutions and relationships to land - often considered to be "archaic". The third part exposes the process of lanf registration during the colonial and since the independence, in order to examine finally the modernity of peasant resistance forms in this country (fourth part).
    Keywords: Development; state; access to land; peasant societies; social conflicts
    Date: 2013–01

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