nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2014‒09‒08
twenty-two papers chosen by

  1. Understanding the agricultural input landscape in Sub-Saharan Africa : recent plot, household, and community-level evidence By Sheahan, Megan; Barrett, Christopher B.
  2. Who bears the costs of climate change? Evidence from Tunisia By Manfred Wiebelt; Perrihan Al-Raffai; Richard Robertson
  3. Dynamic and Long-term Linkages among Growth, Inequality and Poverty in Developing Countries By Katsushi S. Imai; Raghav Gaiha
  4. Agricultural extension and technical efficiency of tea production in northeastern Vietnam By Phu Nguyen-Van; Nguyen To-The
  5. Assessing the efficiency of payments for biodiversity conservation: A bio-econometric analysis of Natura 2000 contracts in forest By Emeline Hily; Serge Garcia; Anne Stenger; Gengyang Tu
  6. Livestock as an Imperfect Buffer Stock in Poorly Integrated Markets By Simon Lange; Malte Reimers
  7. Social Hierarchies and Public Distribution of Food in Rural India By Deepankar Basu; Debarshi Das
  8. Is Knowledge Power? Competition and Information in Agricultural Markets By Tara Mitchell
  9. Testing for asymmetric causality from U.S. equity returns to commodity futures returns By Duc Khuong Nguyen; Ricardo M. Sousa; Gazi Salah Uddin
  10. Regulation of water demand in arid and semi-arid countries By Lanouar Charfeddine; Ali Bouchrika; Mohamed Arouri; Frédéric Teulon
  11. Barriers to the implementation of environmental policies at the local level in China By Kostka, Genia
  12. Consequences of Climate Change Damages for Economic Growth: A Dynamic Quantitative Assessment By Rob Dellink; Elisa Lanzi; Jean Chateau; Francesco Bosello; Ramiro Parrado; Kelly de Bruin
  13. Is Chad Affected by Dutch or Nigerian Disease? By Sandrine Kablan; Josef Loening
  14. Adapting to Climate Change: Long-Term Effects of Drought on Local Labor Markets By Paulo Bastos; Matias Busso; Sebastian Miller
  16. Modernisation of urban water services management in Europe and prospects for sustainability: an analysis in terms of institutional resource regimes By Thomas Bolognesi
  17. Transfers to Households with Children and Child Development By Del Boca, Daniela; Flinn, Christopher; Wiswall, Matthew
  18. How Can Latin America Help the World to Cope with Climate Change? By Sebastian Galiani; Manuel Puente; Federico Weinschelbaum
  20. Commodity Price Booms and Breaks: Detection, Magnitude and Implications for Developing Countries By Rodrigo Mariscal; Andrew Powell
  21. Are Environmental Taxes Affected by Legislatures` Ideological Positions? By Sebastian Miller; Mauricio Vela
  22. Long-Term Effect of Climate Change on Health: Evidence from Heat Waves in Mexico By Jorge Aguero

  1. By: Sheahan, Megan; Barrett, Christopher B.
    Abstract: Conventional wisdom holds that Sub-Saharan African farmers use few modern inputs despite the fact that most growth-inducing and poverty-reducing agricultural growth in the region is expected to come largely from expanded use of inputs that embody improved technologies, particularly improved seed, fertilizers and other agro-chemicals, machinery, and irrigation. Yet following several years of high food prices, concerted policy efforts to intensify fertilizer and hybrid seed use, and increased public and private investment in agriculture, how low is modern input use in Africa really? This paper revisits Africa's agricultural input landscape, exploiting the unique, recently collected, nationally representative, agriculturally intensive, and cross-country comparable Living Standard Measurement Study-Integrated Surveys on Agriculture covering six countries in the region (Ethiopia, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda). The study uses data from more than 22,000 households and 62,000 plots to investigate a range of commonly held conceptions about modern input use in Africa, distilling the most striking and important findings into 10 key takeaway descriptive results.
    Keywords: Crops and Crop Management Systems,Climate Change and Agriculture,Fertilizers,Regional Economic Development,Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems
    Date: 2014–08–01
  2. By: Manfred Wiebelt; Perrihan Al-Raffai; Richard Robertson
    Abstract: In order to estimate the economic costs of climate change for Tunisia, this paper uses a combination of biophysical and economic models. In addition, the paper draws on the literature to complement the quantitative analysis with policy recommendations on how to adapt to the changing climate. The results bear out the expectation that climate change has a negative but weak overall effect on the Tunisian economy. Decomposing the global and local effects shows that global climate change may benefit the agricultural sector since higher world market prices for agricultural commodities are likely to stimulate export expansion and import substitution. Locally felt climate change, however, is likely to hurt the agricultural sector as lower yields reduce factor productivities lead to lower incomes and higher food prices. The combined local and global effects are projected to be mostly negative and the costs will have to be carried mainly by urban and richer households. From a policy perspective, the results suggest that Tunisia should try to maximize the benefits from rising global agricultural prices and to minimize (or reverse) declining crop yields at home
    Keywords: climate change, agricultural growth, general equilibrium analysis, Tunisia, Middle East and North Africa
    JEL: O5 O13 D13 C68
    Date: 2014–08
  3. By: Katsushi S. Imai (School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester (UK ) and RIEB, Kobe University (Japan)); Raghav Gaiha
    Abstract: Drawing upon cross-country panel data for developing countries, the present study sheds new empirical light on dynamic and long-term linkages among growth in agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, inequality and poverty. Agricultural growth is found to be the most important factor in reducing inequality and poverty. The role of agricultural growth in reducing inequality is undermined by ethnic fractionalisation which tends to make inequality more persistent. Our analysis points to a drastic shift away from rural-urban migration and urbanisation as main drivers of growth and elimination of extreme poverty, and towards revival of agriculture in the post-2015 policy discourse.
    Keywords: Inequality, Poverty, Growth, Agriculture, Non-agriculture, MDG
    JEL: C20 I15 I39 O13
    Date: 2014–08
  4. By: Phu Nguyen-Van; Nguyen To-The
    Abstract: This study uses the stochastic production frontier to analyze technical efficiency of tea production in northeastern Vietnam. Our study estimated that the average technical efficiency of tea production is very low, only about 32%. Technical efficiency can be improved by having a training on sale skills whereas it can be negatively affected by access to information on tea market. The results indicated that there are a big potential for improving technical efficiency in tea production by using the available inputs and technology. For the purpose of improving efficiency, efforts should be made on agricultural extension (keeping the current form of training on sale skills, modifying the provision of information on tea market). Producers are also recommended to be more careful on the adoption of tea variety for their cultivation.
    Keywords: Agriculture extension; technical efficiency; stochastic frontier; translog; tea production
    JEL: C21 D24 Q12 Q18
    Date: 2014–08–29
  5. By: Emeline Hily (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière, INRA - AgroParisTech); Serge Garcia (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière, INRA - AgroParisTech); Anne Stenger (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière, INRA - AgroParisTech); Gengyang Tu (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière, INRA - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: In this article, we empirically assess the efficiency of Natura 2000 contracts in forest, a payment for environmental service (PES) scheme, aiming at biodiversity conservation. To do so, we perform a bio-econometric analysis of public and private contracts in France. We estimate a cost function for biodiversity provision, in which the level of biodiversity output is quantified by a biodiversity index value. Estimation results show that payments for Natura 2000 contracts are inadequately defined. While payments’ definition considers opportunity costs linked to landvalue, the latter neglects opportunity costs associated with foregone profits from timber production. This impedes satisfactory participation, especially from private forest owners, whose forests could bring interesting results in terms of cost-efficiency. We show that the cost elasticity of biodiversity provision is significantly lower than one, suggesting to implement ecologically more ambitious contracts with lower average costs. Public owners are able to bear higher opportunity costs than private owners.
    Keywords: Resource management, Payment for environmental service, forest, biodiversity index, provision cost of biodiversity
    JEL: C31 D04 Q23 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2015–01
  6. By: Simon Lange (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Malte Reimers (Georg-August-University Göttingen)
    Abstract: Livestock holdings in rural areas of the West African Semi-arid Tropics (WASAT) are often substantial yet there is little evidence for precautionary saving in the form of livestock out of transitory income. The present paper re-visits farm households’ ability to smooth consumption ex post via savings in the form of livestock. Exploiting two comprehensive panel datasets covering Burkina Faso’s 2004 drought, we find that livestock sales increase significantly in response to drought. Consistent with consumption smoothing, the motive frequently cited by households for these extra sales is the need to finance food consumption. Using deviations in rainfall to extract the transitory component of crop profit, we find evidence that shocks are nevertheless to a large extent passed on to consumption expenditure. In line with the literature, our results suggest that some consumption smoothing is achieved via adjustments to grain stocks while households apparently fail to smooth consumption by adjusting livestock holdings. We argue that this seemingly contradictory finding is largely due to a decrease in relative livestock prices during droughts. This suggests that selling livestock is a costly coping strategy which may be the reason that households rely on it only to a limited extent.
    Keywords: precautionary saving; livestock; risk and coping strategies; price risk; Africa; WASAT
    JEL: D14 D91 O16 Q12
    Date: 2014–08–20
  7. By: Deepankar Basu (University of Massachusetts Amherst); Debarshi Das (Indian Institute of Technology)
    Abstract: In this paper, we develop a simple model that shows that consumption of PDS food grains is significantly different between rich and poor households in states where the PDS functions relatively well; in places where the PDS is non-functional, the difference is not significant. Using household-level data from three recent thick rounds of the consumption expenditure survey (2004-2005, 2009-2010 and 2011-2012), we find evidence in support of the predictions from the model. This suggests that one way to make the PDS functional is to make it more accessible to poor and underprivileged households.
    Keywords: public distribution system, India, development policy, food security
    JEL: O2 I38
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Tara Mitchell (Institute for International Integration Studies, Trinity College Dublin)
    Abstract: This paper investigates an important channel through which access to market information could increase the prices that producers receive from middlemen. I develop a model of trade between a farmer and a middleman, allowing for different types of middlemen, and provide an empirical test of the theory from a framed field experiment carried out in India. The model predicts a non-monotonic relationship between the benefit of information and the cost of switching to a new middleman. I find that middlemen differ in their attitudes towards fairness and the benefit of information to the farmer varies with the cost of switching.
    Keywords: Development, Agriculture, Information, Middlemen
    JEL: O12 O13 Q13
    Date: 2014–08
  9. By: Duc Khuong Nguyen; Ricardo M. Sousa; Gazi Salah Uddin
    Abstract: This paper shows that fluctuations in the U.S. equity returns signal information about the behavior of the returns of energy, metal and agricultural commodity futures. We find that asymmetry plays an important role in this relationship. In addition, while asymmetry seems to be more relevant for metal commodities in the nineties, it emerges more powerfully for agricultural commodities since 2000. Moreover, the asymmetric linkages are observed both when returns are measured in nominal and real terms and at different time horizons, even though they are especially strong in the case of short-term commodity futures returns.
    Keywords: equity returns, commodity futures returns, asymmetric causality.
    JEL: C58 G10
    Date: 2014–08–29
  10. By: Lanouar Charfeddine; Ali Bouchrika; Mohamed Arouri; Frédéric Teulon
    Abstract: Water deficiency is a major concern in several arid and semi-arid countries, affecting public utilities, sustainable development, and economic welfare. This paper aims to empirically investigate the structure of water demand in residential, industrial, and tourism sectors in Tunisia by using semi-aggregate time series data on water use and employing co-integration and error correction models to estimate water demand equations. Through our analysis, we seek to propose some policy recommendations for the company SONEDE (the regulator) to improve water supply management. Our findings indicate that the water price is not a key determinant of water consumption for the three sectors. As consequence, we recommend a modification of water tariff structure in an attempt that water consumption will be more sensitive to water price. Especially, for the residential sector, we suggest to modify the tariff of the four first brackets where priceelasticity of water is very low in absolute value compared to the last bracket. We propose also some others non-price water policies in order to improve water regulation.
    Keywords: water management, water tariffs, co-integration, VECM model, monopoly.
    Date: 2014–08–29
  11. By: Kostka, Genia
    Abstract: China's national leaders have recently made a priority of changing lanes from a pollution-intensive, growth-at-any-cost model to a resource-efficient and sustainable one. The immense challenges of rapid urbanization are one aspect of the problem. Central-local government relations are another source of challenges, since the central government's green agenda does not always find willing followers at lower levels. This paper identifies barriers to a more comprehensive implementation of environmental policies at the local level in China's urban areas and suggests ways to reduce or remove them. The research focuses particularly on the reasons for the gap between national plans and policy outcomes. Although environmental goals and policies at the national level are quite ambitious and comprehensive, insufficient and inconsistent local level implementation can hold back significant improvements in urban environmental quality. By analyzing local institutional and behavioral obstacles and by highlighting best-practice examples from China and elsewhere, the paper outlines options that can be used at the national and local levels to close the local"environmental implementation gap."The findings emphasize the need to create additional incentives and increase local implementation capacities.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Climate Change Economics,Public Sector Management and Reform
    Date: 2014–08–01
  12. By: Rob Dellink; Elisa Lanzi; Jean Chateau; Francesco Bosello; Ramiro Parrado; Kelly de Bruin
    Abstract: This report focuses on the effects of climate change impacts on economic growth. Simulations with the OECD’s dynamic global general equilibrium model ENV-Linkages assess the consequences of a selected number of climate change impacts in the various world regions at the macroeconomic and sectoral level. This is complemented with an assessment of very long-run implications, using the AD-RICE model. The analysis finds that the effect of climate change impacts on annual global GDP is projected to increase over time, leading to a global GDP loss of 0.7% to 2.5% by 2060 for the most likely equilibrium climate sensitivity range. Underlying these annual global GDP losses are much larger sectoral and regional variations. Agricultural impacts dominate in most regions, while damages from sea level rise gradually become more important. Negative economic consequences are especially large in South and South-East Asia whereas other regions will be less affected and, in some cases, benefit thanks to adjustments from international trade. Emissions to 2060 will have important consequences in later decades and centuries. Simulations with the AD-RICE model suggest that if emissions continue to grow after 2060, annual damages of climate change could reach 1.5%-4.8% of GDP by the end of the century. Some impacts and risks from climate change have not been quantified in this study, including extreme weather events, water stress and large-scale disruptions. These will potentially have large economic consequences, and on balance the costs of inaction presented here likely underestimate the full costs of climate change impacts. More research is needed to assess them as well as the various uncertainties and risks involved. However, this should not delay policy action, but rather induce policy frameworks that are able to deal with new information and with the fact that by their nature some uncertainties and risks will never be resolved. Conséquences des impacts du changement climatique sur la croissance économique : Une évaluation quantitative en dynamique Ce rapport approfondit les impacts du changement climatique sur la croissance économique. Sur la base de simulations dynamiques, effectuées avec le modèle d'équilibre général de l'OCDE ENV-Linkages, les conséquences sur la croissance de long terme d'un certain nombre d'impacts du changement climatique sont évaluées. Une appréciation des conséquences à très long terme avec le modèle AD-RICE complète cette analyse. L'analyse révèle que les effets des impacts du changement climatique sur le PIB annuel mondial devraient s’accroître à l’avenir, conduisant à une perte de PIB mondial de 0,7% à 2,5% en 2060, selon un éventail raisonnable de sensibilités climatiques. L’analyse souligne en outre de fortes disparités dans les impacts selon les secteurs et les régions concernées. Dans la plupart des régions, les impacts sur les rendements agricoles dominent, cependant la raréfaction des surfaces cultivables due à la montée des océans prend de plus en plus d’importance. Les conséquences économiques négatives devraient être particulièrement élevées dans le Sud et Sud-Est de l'Asie, tandis que les autres régions seraient moins affectées et, pourraient même, dans certains cas, bénéficier du changement climatique, grâce notamment aux ajustements du commerce international. Les émissions de gaz à effets de serre dégagées jusqu’en 2060 auront d'importantes conséquences dans les décennies et des siècles qui suivront. Des simulations effectuées avec le modèle AD-RICE suggèrent que si les émissions continuent à augmenter après 2060, les dommages annuels du changement climatique pourraient atteindre 1,5% -4,8% du PIB d'ici la fin du siècle. Certains impacts et risques du changement climatique ne sont pas quantifiés dans ce rapport, y compris des événements météorologiques extrêmes, le stress hydrique et des perturbations à grande échelle. Ceux-ci pourraient avoir de grandes conséquences économiques et, finalement, les coûts de l'inaction présentés dans ce rapport sous-estiment probablement les coûts totaux des impacts du changement climatique. Un progrès de la science dans ces domaines seraient nécessaire afin de mieux comprendre ces sujets ainsi que les divers incertitudes et risques associés. Toutefois, cela ne devrait pas retarder l'action politique, mais plutôt inciter à circonscrire des cadres politiques capables de faire face à de tenir compte de ces nouvelles informations.
    Keywords: economic growth, climate change, computable general equilibrium model, changement climatique, modèle d’équilibre général calculable, croissance économique
    JEL: D58 O44 Q54
    Date: 2014–06–30
  13. By: Sandrine Kablan; Josef Loening
    Abstract: We examine the effects of the ‘natural resource curse’ on Chad and find little evidence for Dutch disease. Structural vector auto-regression suggests that changes in domestic output and prices are overwhelmingly determined by aggregate demand and supply shocks, and while oil production and high international prices negatively affect agricultural output, the effects are small. Consistent with empirical evidence for neighbouring Cameroon, we observe minimal impact on Chad’s manufacturing sector. We associate our findings with structural underemployment and the inefficient use of existing production factors. In this context, increased public expenditures in tradable sectors present the opportunity to make oil revenues an engine of national development.
    Keywords: Natural resource curse, Dutch disease, Chad, Structural VAR.
    JEL: C30 E32 E61 O11 O13
    Date: 2014–08–29
  14. By: Paulo Bastos; Matias Busso; Sebastian Miller
    Abstract: We examine the long-term impacts of drought on local labor markets in Brazil. Us- ing rainfall data going back over a century, we build contemporaneous and historical drought indices for more than 3,000 local areas, and examine them in conjunction with five waves of population census data spanning 1970-2010. Results from a difference- in-differences design reveal that increased drought frequency in the previous decade reduces local value added, employment and wages in the agricultural sector; leads to job losses and pay cuts in the local manufacturing and services sectors; and induces out-migration, especially among younger cohorts, leading to relative population de- cline. These findings are in line with standard general-equilibrium theory featuring imperfect labor mobility across space.
    JEL: J61 N96 O15 Q54 R11 R23
    Date: 2013–12
  15. By: Thai-Thanh Dang; Annabelle Mourougane
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to estimate time variant shadow prices for CO2, SOx, NOx and PM10 in 19 OECD countries over the period 1990-2008 relying on an output distance function approach. Shadow prices for pollutants are found to vary widely across countries, depending on national environmental regulations, the use of inefficient abatement technologies and the structure of the economy. All countries but Korea experienced a decline in CO2 and NOx prices over the period 1990-2008, with the bulk of the decrease occurring since 2000. This suggests that most OECD countries have strengthened their regulatory framework and encouraged the adoption of clean technologies since the 2000s. Estimates of shadow prices of PM10 appear to be extremely variable across countries. Contrary to what is observed for CO2 and NOx, steep declines have occurred in both 1990-2000 and 2000-2008 sub-periods. The empirical work undertaken in this paper could easily be replicated to other countries, and is relatively parsimonious in terms of data.
    Date: 2014–08–29
  16. By: Thomas Bolognesi (PACTE - Politiques publiques, ACtion politique, TErritoires - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Grenoble - CNRS : UMR5194 - Université Pierre-Mendès-France - Grenoble II - Université Joseph Fourier - Grenoble I)
    Abstract: This article assesses the sustainability potential of the urban water sector in Europe following its modernisation. The analysis uses the theoretical framework of institutional resource regimes. This interpretative framework provides us with a typology of natural resource governance systems based on their coherence and their extent. Then, based on the interplay of hypothesis and conjecture, the framework is used to deduce the capacity of a regime to provide sustainable governance. We conclude that modernisation offers a path for progress which though necessary is not sufficient. This pessimistic assessment is based mainly on the observation of a lack of coherence in urban water systems in Europe. The study is divided into three parts: description of the modernisation process; presentation of the interpretative framework used in analysing institutional resource regimes; application of the framework to the urban water sector in Europe.
    Date: 2014–08–26
  17. By: Del Boca, Daniela (University of Turin); Flinn, Christopher (New York University); Wiswall, Matthew (Arizona State University)
    Abstract: In this paper we utilize a model of household investments in the development of children to explore the impact of various transfer policies on the distribution of child outcomes. We develop a cost criterion that can be used to compare the cost effectiveness of unrestricted, restricted, and conditional cash transfer systems, and find that an optimally chosen conditional cash transfer program is the most cost efficient way to attain any given gain in average child quality. We explore several design elements for the conditional cash transfer system and discuss the role of production function uncertainty and measurement error.
    Keywords: child development, time allocation, income transfers, conditional cash transfers
    JEL: J13 D1
    Date: 2014–08
  18. By: Sebastian Galiani; Manuel Puente; Federico Weinschelbaum
    Abstract: Latin America has a comparative advantage in deforestation compared to other forms of climate change mitigation. Thus, to the extent that Latin America should engage in mitigation, the optimal climate change policy should manage these advantages by generating incentives in Latin America to deal with forestry. This paper describes the problem of deforestation and studies the market failures that arise in relation to forestry emission problems, analyzing them from a global public good perspective. The paper additionally describes other problems related to forestry emission issues and presents a non-exhaustive review of the solutions currently proposed to address this issue. The paper concludes with policy recommendations.
    JEL: D71 D79 F18 F53 Q54
    Date: 2013–08
  19. By: Thai-Thanh Dang; Annabelle Mourougane
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to estimate the effect on MFP of air pollution in 7 ASEAN economies (Cambodia, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam) and China. For this purpose, standard measures of MFP are corrected for the impact of pollution applying the framework developed by Brandt et al. (2013), and valuing pollution through country-specific time-varying shadow price estimates for CO2, SOx, NOx and PM10, derived from an output distance function approach. Shadow prices of pollutants, the opportunity cost of abating pollution in the form of reduced output, are found to vary widely across economies, depending on national environmental regulations, the use of inefficient abatement technologies, and the structure of the economy. In all countries but Cambodia, shadow prices of the various pollutants experience a downward trend since the Asian crisis, suggesting that ASEAN countries and China have strengthened their regulatory framework and encouraged the adoption of clean technologies. Accounting for pollution leads to very different adjustments to standard MFP measures across countries. In most countries the adjustment is positive, suggesting that standard MFP measures have tended to underestimate the true measure. Such correction would be above 2 percentage points in Lao PDR and the Philippines. It is estimated to be around 1 percentage point in China, Indonesia and Thailand and about half that size in Malaysia. It would be negative in Cambodia in this country and nil in Vietnam.
    Date: 2014–08–29
  20. By: Rodrigo Mariscal; Andrew Powell
    Abstract: There has been much interest of late regarding the current commodity “super cycle”. However, even sizing the current boom implies knowledge of long-run trends that are notoriously difficult to estimate. This paper uses new techniques to identify breaks in commodity prices and estimate trends and cointegrating relationships and argues that the weight of evidence is against a stable declining commodity terms of trade. The results are used to characterize the current boom and, assuming no new break, how commodity prices would be expected to return to the estimated “equilibrium”. The paper also discusses implications for commodity-dependent developing countries.
    JEL: C32 C52 Q02 Q33
    Date: 2014–01
  21. By: Sebastian Miller; Mauricio Vela
    Abstract: Environmental taxes have been discussed as one of the main mechanisms to deal with environmental problems. Nonetheless, instruments of this type have rarely been implemented, and the adoption of new or higher environmental taxes has faced resistance in some countries. The purpose of this work is to identify one possible political answer to why adoption of environmental taxes varies. One explanation is that legislatures’ ideological position affects the degree of usage of taxes generally and environmental taxes in particular. For example, right-wing parties tend to be less associated with environmental concerns and more associated with lower government intervention. This paper presents evidence that reflects this relationship, showing the positive association of more left-wing legislatures with higher levels of environmental taxation. A panel of data for 37 developed and developing countries over 16 years is used considering the percentage of total revenue from environmentally related taxes, the ratio of this revenue to total energy use and tax levels in industry and household sectors. The results show that most of these impacts involve environmentally related taxes in the industry sector. Proportional representation electoral systems and high seat concentration by few parties appear to be necessary conditions for the negative relation of right-wing ideology with environmental taxes.
    JEL: H23 P16 Q58
    Date: 2013–09
  22. By: Jorge Aguero
    Abstract: This paper uses year-to-year variation in temperature to estimate the long-term effects of climate change on health outcomes in Mexico. Combining temperature data at the district level and three rounds of nationally representative household surveys, an individual’s health as an adult is matched with the history of heat waves from birth to adulthood. A flexible econometric model is used to identify critical health periods with respect to temperature. It is shown that exposure to higher temperatures early in life has negative consequences on adult height. Most importantly, the effects are concentrated at the times where children experience growth spurts: infancy and adolescence. The robustness of these findings is confirmed when using health outcomes derived from accidents, which are uncorrelated with early exposure to high temperatures.
    JEL: I12 Q41 Q54
    Date: 2014–01

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