nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2014‒08‒28
34 papers chosen by

  1. European Farmers intentions to invest in 2014-2020: survey results By Marianne Lefebvre; Kim De Cuyper; Ellen Loix; Davide Viaggi; Sergio Gomez y Paloma
  2. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Resilience and Livelihoods in Mixed Crop-Livestock Systems in East Africa By Mario Herrero; Peter G Jones; Stanley Karanja; Ianetta Mutie; Mariana C Rufino; Philip K Thornton
  3. Aid effectiveness in Ghana: How’s the L’Aquila food security initiative doing?: By Benin, Samuel; Makombe, Tsitsi; Johnson, Michael E.
  4. Basic Agricultural Public Expenditure Diagnostic Review : Ghana's Ministry of Food and Agriculture By World Bank
  5. Prospects of the farming sector and rural development in view of food security: the case of the Russian Federation By Vassily Uzun; Valery Saraikin; Ekaterina Gataulina; Natalia Shagayda; Renata Yanbykh; Sergio Gomez y Paloma; Sébastien Mary
  6. Myanmar : Capitalizing on Rice Export Opportunities By World Bank
  7. Food Security in Asia and the Pacific By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  8. Republic of India : Accelerating Agricultural Productivity Growth By World Bank
  9. ADB Briefs 12: The Irrigation Service Fee Waiver in Viet Nam By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  10. Regiões e Especialização na Economia Cafeeira: São Paulo no Início do Século XX By Renato Colistete
  11. Understanding the context for agriculture for nutrition research: Identifying country typologies of child-stunting determinants: By Maruyama, Eduardo; Unnevehr, Laurian J.; Wang, Jiarui
  12. Rising food prices and inflation in the Asia-Pacific region: causes, impact and policy response By Development Policy Section
  13. Can market-based approaches to technology development and dissemination benefit women smallholder farmers? A qualitative assessment of gender dynamics in the ownership, purchase, and use of irrigation pumps in Kenya and Tanzania: By Njuki, Jemimah; Waithanji, Elizabeth; Sakwa, Beatrice; Kariuki, Juliet; Mukewa, Elizabeth; Ngige, John
  14. KEYNOTE ADDRESS: The roles of agriculture and mining in pro-poor sustainable development in Africa By Mogae, Festus G.
  15. The impact of shocks on gender-differentiated asset dynamics in Bangladesh: By Rakib, Muntaha; Matz, Julia Anna
  16. Ghana : Cocoa Supply Chain Risk Assessment By World Bank
  17. Fundamentals or financialisation of commodity markets: What determines recent wheat prices? By Troester, Bernhard; Staritz, Cornelia
  18. Russia's agricultural modernisation policy under WTO commitments: Why the EU's Common Agricultural Policy is a poor model By Petrick, Martin
  19. Agro-Logistics for Nutmeg and Cocoa Exports from Grenada : A Logistics Chain Approach By Gwyneth Fries; Eli Weiss; Kendra White
  20. Agricultural Supply Chain Risk Assessment in the Caribbean By Diego Arias Carballo; dos Reis Laura
  21. ADB Briefs No. 13: Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions for Grassland and Livestock Management in Mongolia By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  22. SIR JOHN CRAWFORD MEMORIAL ADDRESS: Opportunities in the midst of the global food crisis By Chenoweth, Florence
  23. Liberia : Agriculture Sector Public Expenditure Review By World Bank
  24. Land Use in Rural New Zealand: Spatial Land Use, Land-use Change, and Model Validation By Simon Anastasiadis; Suzi Kerr; Wei Zhang; Corey Allan; William Power
  25. Improving Basic Services for the Bottom Forty Percent : Results of the Poverty and Social Impact Assessment of Decentralized Basic Service Delivery in Ethiopia By World Bank
  26. Asymmetric Price Transmission in Indonesia’s Wheat Flour Market By Varela, Gonzalo J.; Taniguchi, Kiyoshi
  27. Seeing is believing ? evidence from an extension network experiment By Kondylis, Florence; Mueller, Valerie; Zhu, Siyao Jessica
  28. Portfolio management of mixed-species forests By Marielle Brunette; Arnaud Dragicevic; Jonathan Lenglet; Alexandra Niedzwiedz; Vincent Badeau; Jean-Luc Dupouey
  29. The role of agriculture in the fast-growing Rwandan economy: Assessing growth alternatives: By Diao, Xinshen; Bahiigwa, Godfrey; Pradesha, Angga
  30. Mobile phone coverage and producer markets : evidence from West Africa By Aker, Jenny C.; Fafchamps, Marcel
  31. Price Asymmetry in Farm-Retail Price Transmission in the Turkish Dairy Market By Bor, Özgür; İsmihan, Mustafa; Bayaner, Ahmet
  32. Children of Drought: Rainfall Shocks and Early Child Health in Rural India By Santosh Kumar; Ramona Molitor; Sebastian Vollmer
  33. Principal-agent relationship in resource management, multiple principals and spatial dynamics By Philippe Delacote; Arnaud Dragicevic; Serge Garcia
  34. KEYNOTE ADDRESS: Developing opportunities and challenges for mining and agriculture By Pezzini, Mario

  1. By: Marianne Lefebvre (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Kim De Cuyper (GfK); Ellen Loix (GfK); Davide Viaggi (Dipartimento di Economia e Ingegneria Agrarie Facoltà di Agraria, Alma Mater Studiorum - Università di Bologna); Sergio Gomez y Paloma (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The present study aims to analyse farmers’ intentions to invest in the period 2014-2020. It focused on investments in land, machinery, building, training and quota and production rights. It provides up-to-date information on EU farm investment patterns, which is not otherwise available in traditional agricultural statistics (FADN, Eurostat Farm Structure Survey). Given the limitations of the sample, the data cannot be used to predict farm investment in EU-28 over the period 2014-2020, nor to evaluate to what extent CAP payments stimulate investment in EU farms. Nevertheless it contributes to the understanding of the determinants of investment decisions and farmers’ reaction to the EU Agricultural policy.
    Keywords: Investment, Common Agricultural Policy, Rural Development, Intentions, Survey
    JEL: Q12 Q18
    Date: 2014–07
  2. By: Mario Herrero; Peter G Jones; Stanley Karanja; Ianetta Mutie; Mariana C Rufino; Philip K Thornton
    Keywords: Livestock and Animal Husbandry Crops and Crop Management Systems Environment - Wildlife Resources Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems
    Date: 2013–02
  3. By: Benin, Samuel; Makombe, Tsitsi; Johnson, Michael E.
    Abstract: This paper assesses the degree to which the L’Aquila Food Security Initiative (AFSI) has been implemented in Ghana within the framework of managing for development results (MfDR), and to evaluate progress in various outcomes, including economic governance, agricultural growth, poverty, and food and nutrition security. The MfDR approach, which has gained widespread support globally for obtaining results, is endorsed by the government of Ghana and reflected in the Ghana Aid Policy and Strategy.
    Keywords: Agricultural development, rural areas, food security, Poverty, Agricultural growth, Nutrition security, aid programmes, L’Aquila Food Security Initiative,
    Date: 2014
  4. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development - Access to Finance Agriculture - Agricultural Research Rural Development Knowledge and Information Systems Finance and Financial Sector Development - Debt Markets Public Sector Expenditure Policy Public Sector Development Rural Development
    Date: 2013–04
  5. By: Vassily Uzun; Valery Saraikin; Ekaterina Gataulina; Natalia Shagayda; Renata Yanbykh; Sergio Gomez y Paloma (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Sébastien Mary (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: As the recent situation on world food markets has been increasingly volatile and has been associated with relatively higher food prices, contributing to demonstrations and riots across the world, Russia's agriculture has attracted much attention from economists, experts and policy-makers because they believe that the country could become the world's largest and most reliable grain producer and exporter. In that context, the aim of this report is to evaluate the role of the Russian Federation towards fulfilling domestic food security and more importantly global food security in the short and medium run. In particular, the study aims at examining if Russian farms could substantially increase further their respective output and export levels. The methodology followed in this report is a bottom-up approach, i.e. going from the farm (i.e. microeconomic level) to the food market (i.e. macroeconomic level), that explicitly considers the analysis of food security at the farm level and therefore complements well other works which study the agri-food sector in Russia at a more aggregated level. The perspective of the report is made possible by the use of a wide range of farm-level databases that are, for most, only available to Russian researchers and allow going into a more disaggregated and detailed level of analysis.
    Keywords: Sustainable agriculture, Russia, food security, grain supply, rural development, European Development Cooperation.
    Date: 2014–01
  6. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Crops and Crop Management Systems Food and Beverage Industry Health, Nutrition and Population - Nutrition Economic Theory and Research Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Macroeconomics and Economic Growth Industry
    Date: 2014–02
  7. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (Economics and Research Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: This synthesis report is the result of close, collaborative research initiated by the Asian Development Bank in partnership with Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada; the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation; and the Liu Institute for Global Issues at the University of British Columbia. Fourteen background papers were commissioned to investigate food security issues particularly pertinent for Asia and the Pacific. The report synthesizes and collates the primary findings from these papers to articulate key policy challenges and opportunities related to food security in the region.
    Keywords: food security, poverty, sustainable development, hunger, food prices, food safety, subsistence farming, agricultural trade, access to food, food systems, food markets and stocks, two faces of asia
    Date: 2013–08
  8. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Research Environmental Economics and Policies Economic Theory and Research Rural Development Knowledge and Information Systems Agriculture - Agribusiness Environment Rural Development Macroeconomics and Economic Growth
    Date: 2014–05
  9. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (East Asia Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: This policy brief aims to inform policy makers in the Government of Viet Nam and development partners involved in developing the water and irrigation subsector about the irrigation service fee waiver and related issues. This is intended to stimulate debate and plan for rational solutions to unintended impacts of government policy. The policy brief is the summary of a larger study, Review of the Impact of the Viet Nam Government’s Waiver of Irrigation Service Fees (31 August 2012), which was financed with a grant from the Water Financing Partnership Facility.
    Keywords: adb, asian development bank, asdb, asia, pacific, poverty asia, viet nam, vietnam, agriculture, irrigation, agricultural production, farmers, farms, irrigation management, crops, crop yields, rice, rice paddies, cereals, irrigation service fee waiver, participatory irrigation management
    Date: 2013–04
  10. By: Renato Colistete
    Abstract: This article deals with agricultural specialization in regions and farms of the state of São Paulo in the early nineteenth century, after several decades of changes caused by the coffee boom. I use data from more than forty thousand farms to examine the agrarian structure and specialization in eleven regions which cover the whole state of São Paulo at the time. The article also shows how farmers chose between export (coffee) and internal market crops. The results lend support to a part of the literature but add new evidence which diverges from established notions among historians. In the early twentieth century, all regions of São Paulo cultivated coffee, but nearly all of them specialized in more than one agricultural product, except the Mogiana region. Alongside the plantations highlighted by the literature, small farms were drawn into export production and also specialized in coffee. In turn, large properties not only specialized in food crops (apart from coffee), but dominated the supply of the main products for internal markets.
    Keywords: Coffee economy, agricultural specialization, São Paulo
    JEL: N53 O13 Q12
    Date: 2014–08–18
  11. By: Maruyama, Eduardo; Unnevehr, Laurian J.; Wang, Jiarui
    Abstract: We use data from 52 countries on child stunting, poverty, determinants of food security, environmental health, and quality of maternal and child care to carry out a cluster analysis of country typologies. The purpose is to identify where agriculture-led interventions might address binding constraints to progress in improving nutrition outcomes and to identify how existing research on the links between agriculture and nutrition in particular country contexts may or may not be representative.
    Keywords: Nutrition, Developing countries, Children, Stunting, malnutrition, Cluster sampling, Typology, Poverty, food security, Environmental health, interventions,
    Date: 2014
  12. By: Development Policy Section (Macroeconomic Policy and Development Division, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific)
    Abstract: High food prices have put increasing inflationary pressures across the Asia-Pacific region and are seen as a key downside risk to sustaining recovery in 2011. Bad weather in important food-producing countries, increasing use of crops in biofuels and speculation in commodity markets have added to a long-term decline in agriculture investment and affected global food supplies. In 2010, high food prices kept 19.4 million people in poverty in the region, who otherwise would be out of poverty. Estimates considering different scenarios for the year ahead suggest that high food and oil prices may slow down poverty reduction even further affecting from 10 to 42 million additional people and postponing the achievement of the MDG on poverty reduction by half a decade in many countries, including Bangladesh, India, Lao Peoples Democratic Republic and Nepal. This policy brief outlines short-, medium- and long-term policy responses and interventions that governments and central banks in the region can make to counter the adverse impact of food inflation in the Asia-Pacific region for such an effort in the context of the Fourth United Nations Conference on the Least Developed Countries (LDC-IV).
  13. By: Njuki, Jemimah; Waithanji, Elizabeth; Sakwa, Beatrice; Kariuki, Juliet; Mukewa, Elizabeth; Ngige, John
    Abstract: This paper reports findings from a qualitative study undertaken in Tanzania and Kenya to examine women’s access to and ownership of KickStart pumps and the implications for their ability to make major decisions on crop choices and use of income from irrigated crops. Results from sales-monitoring data show that women purchase less than 10 percent of the pumps and men continue to make most of the major decisions on crop choices and income use. These findings vary by type of crop, with men making major decisions on high-income crops such as tomatoes and women having relatively more autonomy on crops such as leafy vegetables.
    Keywords: Gender, Women, Irrigation, technology, households, decisionmaking, Smallholders, income, assets, Markets, farm inputs, income management, market approaches,
    Date: 2014
  14. By: Mogae, Festus G.
    Abstract: Africa has an abundance of energy and mineral assets and agricultural land. In spite of the variety of outlooks across its numerous countries there is a common understanding that these natural resources need to be used carefully and thoughtfully if there is to be sustainable development across Africa as a whole, especially pro-poor sustainable development. Botswana has poor soils and climate for agricultural production, but it has developed some of its other resources. That development, combined with far-sighted policy, has taken Botswana from being one of the world’s least developed countries in 1966 at independence, to a middle-income economy now. Agriculture makes a small contribution to economic growth, while mining, manufacturing, construction, trade and hotels contribute much more. Botswana currently has mines for diamonds, copper, nickel, coal, gold and various industrial minerals used in the construction industry. Its mineral policies enable many international companies to prospect for and mine these minerals. Competitive mining laws, low sovereign and social risks, relatively good infrastructure and easy access to land, security of tenure, and low levels of corruption, are among reasons for Botswana having a favourable reputation with international investors. Still, the country’s climate and soils make agriculture challenging, and Botswana focuses on food security rather than food self-sufficiency. It remains heavily dependent on mineral revenue.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Development,
    Date: 2013
  15. By: Rakib, Muntaha; Matz, Julia Anna
    Abstract: Assets are an important means of coping with adverse events in developing countries but the role of gendered ownership is not yet fully understood. This paper investigates changes in assets owned by the household head, his spouse, or jointly by both of them in response to shocks in rural agricultural households in Bangladesh with the help of detailed household survey panel data. Land is owned mostly by men, who are wealthier than their spouses with respect to almost all types of assets, but relative ownership varies by type of asset.
    Keywords: Gender, Women, assets, Ownership, households, income, Economic development, Land ownership, Food production, shocks, coping strategies,
    Date: 2014
  16. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Crops and Crop Management Systems Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Markets and Market Access Social Protections and Labor - Labor Policies Food and Beverage Industry International Economics and Trade - Access to Markets Agriculture Industry
    Date: 2013–01
  17. By: Troester, Bernhard; Staritz, Cornelia
    Abstract: Food price developments have various impacts at the country and household level, in particular in developing countries with severe implications on food security, poverty and economic stability. The focus of this paper is on wheat as it is, together with rice, the most important food crop. The analysis focuses on the determinants of recent wheat price developments, in particular on the role of fundamental supply and demand factors and the financialisation of commodity markets, i.e. the increasing presence of financial investors. The paper gives an overview of the relevance of wheat in the global food production system, recent wheat price developments, and different determinants of wheat prices stated in the literature, in particular the controversial debate on the influence of financial investors. It adds to this debate by employing a basic supply and demand model for global wheat prices based on the main fundamental demand and supply factors stated in the literature. The model can replicate actual wheat prices up to 2006/07 but a significant divergence appears thereafter. This gap may be explained by non-fundamental factors, most importantly financialisation. --
    Date: 2013
  18. By: Petrick, Martin
    Abstract: How to revitalise the agricultural sector under the commitments of membership in the World Trade Organisation (WTO) has emerged as a major policy challenge for the Russian government. According to the current State Programme for the Development of Agriculture, a key support channel is via concessional credits to the livestock sector, which was singled out as the largest recipient of interest subsidies in 2013 - 2020. Currently, these payments are not considered green box compatible under WTO commitments, whereas similar measures within the EU's Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) are. While the Russian government may face little difficulty in dressing up its investment subsidies to make them look like green box compatible, the CAP is regarded here as a poor guide for policy reform. The available evidence shows that structural policy elements of the CAP were inefficient in reaching any of the manifold goals they were hoped to achieve. Drawing on the example of East Germany, it is argued that reforms of the institutional environment of agriculture are at least as important for successful agricultural modernisation as the generous availability of funding. --
    Date: 2014
  19. By: Gwyneth Fries; Eli Weiss; Kendra White
    Keywords: Crops and Crop Management Systems Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Markets and Market Access Food and Beverage Industry Transport and Trade Logistics Transport Economics Policy and Planning Transport Industry Agriculture
    Date: 2013–06
  20. By: Diego Arias Carballo; dos Reis Laura
    Keywords: Insurance and Risk Mitigation Social Protections and Labor - Labor Policies Urban Development - Hazard Risk Management Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Markets and Market Access Crops and Crop Management Systems Finance and Financial Sector Development Agriculture
    Date: 2013–03
  21. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (East Asia Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: Mongolia has made relatively minor contributions to global climate change, although its emissions per capita are relatively high and continuing to rise. In 2006, Mongolia’s total net (sources minus sinks) greenhouse gas emissions were approximately 15.6 million tons carbon dioxide equivalent. Emissions come primarily from the energy (65.4%) and agriculture (34.3%) sectors. Most agricultural emissions are from livestock. In addition, peatland conversion and degradation are also likely large emission sources. Climate change is acknowledged as a significant threat to Mongolia’s fragile environment, economic growth, and sustainable development. Given the negative impact of climate change on Mongolia, it is crucial to select mitigation actions that reduce vulnerability to climate change, support the achievement of national development goals, and are feasible given local constraints.
    Keywords: climate change mongolia, mitigation, nama, nationally appropriate mitigation actions, greenhouse gas, ghg, ghg emissions, grassland, livestock, desertification, low carbon, methane, cows, goats, sheep, horses, cattle, camels. dzud, drought
    Date: 2013–05
  22. By: Chenoweth, Florence
    Abstract: The Sir John Crawford Memorial Address has been presented since 1985, in honour of the distinguished Australian civil servant, educator and agriculturalist in whose name the Crawford Fund was established. Sir John Crawford was a remarkable Australian who contributed at the highest levels, and was a passionate supporter of international agricultural research for development.
    Keywords: Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2013
  23. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Research Public Sector Expenditure Policy Rural Development Knowledge and Information Systems Finance and Financial Sector Development - Debt Markets Public Sector Economics Public Sector Development Rural Development
    Date: 2013–01
  24. By: Simon Anastasiadis (Stanford University); Suzi Kerr (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Wei Zhang (Ministry for Primary Industries); Corey Allan (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); William Power (GNS Science)
    Abstract: Land is an important social and economic resource. Knowing the spatial distribution of land use and the expected location of future land-use change is important to inform decision makers. This paper documents and validates the baseline land-use maps and the algorithm for spatial land-use change incorporated in the Land Use in Rural New Zealand model (LURNZ). At the time of writing, LURNZ is the only national-level land-use model of New Zealand. While developed for New Zealand, the model provides an intuitive algorithm that would be straightforward to apply to different locations and at different spatial resolutions. LURNZ is based on a heuristic model of dynamic land-use optimisation with conversion costs. It allocates land-use changes to each pixel using a combination of pixel probabilities in a deterministic algorithm and calibration to national-level changes. We simulate out of sample and compare to observed data. As a result of the model construction, we underestimate the “churn” in land use. We demonstrate that the algorithm assigns changes in land use to pixels that are similar in quality to the pixels where land-use changes are observed to occur. We also show that there is a strong positive relationship between observed territorial-authority-level dairy changes and simulated changes in dairy area.
    Keywords: Agriculture; land use; LURNZ; maps; rural; spatial; land-use model; model validation
    JEL: R52 R13 Q15 C52
    Date: 2014–08
  25. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Health Monitoring and Evaluation Rural Development - Regional Rural Development Rural Development Knowledge and Information Systems Health, Nutrition and Population - Population Policies Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems Health Nutrition and Population Agriculture
    Date: 2014–01
  26. By: Varela, Gonzalo J. (World Bank); Taniguchi, Kiyoshi (Asian Development Bank)
    Abstract: Data indicate that its domestic price in Indonesia has been increasing regardless of movements in the international price of wheat. A test for asymmetric price transmission from international wheat to domestic wheat flour markets is conducted using an error correction model and find the presence of asymmetric price transmission. The upward adjustment in the domestic price of wheat flour is much faster than its adjustment downward when it deviates from long-run equilibrium. Our results are robust to use of disaggregated data as well as to inclusion of additional of control variables such as prices of other inputs. We argue that asymmetric transmission occurs due to market concentration of wheat flour milling. We offer some policy suggestions for correcting these.
    Keywords: spatial integration; asymmetric price transmission; monopolistic competition; commodity prices; agricultural market; wheat flour
    JEL: F12 L11 Q11 Q13 Q17
    Date: 2014–03–01
  27. By: Kondylis, Florence; Mueller, Valerie; Zhu, Siyao Jessica
    Abstract: Extension services are a keystone of information diffusion in agriculture. This paper exploits a large randomized controlled trial to track diffusion of a new technique in the classic Training and Visit (T&V) extension model, relative to a more direct training model. In both control and treatment communities, contact farmers (CFs) serve as points-of-contacts between agents and other farmers. The intervention (Treatment) aims to address two pitfalls of the T&V model: i) infrequent extension agent visits, and ii) poor quality information. Treatment CFs receive a direct, centralized training. Control communities are exposed to the classic T&V model. Information diffusion was tracked through two nodes: from agents to CFs, and from CFs to others. Directly training CFs leads to large gains in information diffusion and adoption, and CFs learn by doing. Diffusion to others is limited: other males adopt the technique perceived as labor saving, with an effect size of 75 percent.
    Keywords: Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems,Rural Development Knowledge&Information Systems,Crops and Crop Management Systems,Population Policies,Housing&Human Habitats
    Date: 2014–08–01
  28. By: Marielle Brunette (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière, INRA - AgroParisTech); Arnaud Dragicevic (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière, INRA - AgroParisTech; Chaire Forêts pour Demain, Agro ParisTech–Office National des Forêts); Jonathan Lenglet (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière, INRA - AgroParisTech); Alexandra Niedzwiedz (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière, INRA - AgroParisTech); Vincent Badeau (UMR INRA – Université de Lorraine Écologie et Écophysiologie Forestières, 54280 Champenoux, France); Jean-Luc Dupouey (UMR INRA – Université de Lorraine Écologie et Écophysiologie Forestières, 54280 Champenoux, France)
    Abstract: We propose to test the portfolio selection theory on the historical data of tree species’ productivities obtained from the French National Forest Inventory (IFN). We determine the optimal timber productivity-vulnerability arrangements out of the combinations of tree species and map the optimal compositions per administrative department in France. We also estimate the survivals of optimal portfolios using the species’ probabilities of presence. Our results show that greater weights in the optimal portfolios correspond to higher probabilities of presence.
    Keywords: Forest Management, Portfolio Management, Mixed-Species Forests, Climate Change
    JEL: G17 Q2 Q54
    Date: 2014–08
  29. By: Diao, Xinshen; Bahiigwa, Godfrey; Pradesha, Angga
    Abstract: This study assesses the future growth prospects of Rwanda. The report first focuses on broad economic growth using a rather aggregated 18-sector dynamic general equilibrium model to display the trade-off between rapid growth and structural change. The analysis shows that with the current investment pattern, rapid growth is possible but structural transformation is slow. With an overvalued exchange rate, growth in the tradable sector slows down and its share in the economy stays small. The importance of agriculture thus should be considered in the broad development strategy, for its role not only in poverty reduction but also in economic growth.
    Keywords: agricultural investments, Public investment, Agricultural growth, economic growth, Poverty, exports, Economic policies, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model,
    Date: 2014
  30. By: Aker, Jenny C.; Fafchamps, Marcel
    Abstract: Mobile phone coverage has expanded considerably throughout the developing world, particularly within sub-Saharan Africa. Existing evidence suggests that increased access to information technology has improved agricultural market efficiency for consumer markets and certain commodities, but there is less evidence of its impact on producer markets. Building on the work of Aker (2010), this paper estimates the impact of mobile phone coverage on producer price dispersion for three commodities in Niger. The results suggest that mobile phone coverage reduces spatial producer price dispersion by 6 percent for cowpea, a semi-perishable commodity. These effects are strongest for remote markets and during certain periods of the year. The introduction of mobile phone coverage has no effect on producer price dispersion for millet and sorghum, two staple grains that are less perishable and are commonly stored by farmers. There are no impacts of mobile phone coverage on traders'gross margins or producer price levels, but mobile phone coverage is associated witha reduction in the intra-annual price variation for cowpea. These results are potentially explained by the fact that farmers engage in greater storage for storable commodities such as millet and sorghum.
    Keywords: Markets and Market Access,E-Business,Access to Markets,Debt Markets,Emerging Markets
    Date: 2014–07–01
  31. By: Bor, Özgür (Atilim University/Department of Economics); İsmihan, Mustafa (Atilim University/Department of Economics); Bayaner, Ahmet (Akdeniz University/Department of Management)
    Abstract: This study investigates the price asymmetry in farm-retail price transmission in the Turkish milk market. An asymmetric error correction model is applied on the monthly price data, and the results suggest that there is a positive price asymmetry in the farm-retail price transmission in the Turkish dairy market. That is, the retail prices tend to adjust more quickly to the input price increases than to its decreases which yield welfare losses to the consumers. In addition, cointegration results imply that there is a significant market power in the dairy market.
    Keywords: Price Asymmetry, Turkey, Milk, Error Correction Model
    JEL: Q11 C22
    Date: 2013
  32. By: Santosh Kumar (Department of Economics and International Business, Sam Houston State University); Ramona Molitor (University of Passau); Sebastian Vollmer (University of Gottingen)
    Abstract: Barker's fetal origins hypothesis suggests a strong relationship between in utero conditions, health, and overall child development after birth. Using a nationally representative population survey, this paper analyzes the impact of rainfall on early child health in rural India. We find that drought experienced in utero has detrimental effects on the nutritional status of children. Effects appear to be stronger for boys, low caste children, and children exposed to drought in the first trimester of the mother's pregnancy. Results are robust to alternative definitions of drought. Our estimates speculate that policies aimed at reducing vulnerability to negative rainfall shock may result into improved health and higher human capital accumulation in rain-dependent agrarian countries.
    Date: 2014–08
  33. By: Philippe Delacote (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière, INRA - AgroParisTech; Climate Economic Chair); Arnaud Dragicevic (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière, INRA - AgroParisTech; Chaire Forêts pour Demain, Agro ParisTech–Office National des Forêts); Serge Garcia (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière, INRA - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: Public authorities (often local) frequently mandate public or private agencies to manage their natural resources. Contrary to the agency, which is an expert in resource management, public authorities usually do not know the sustainable harvest level. In this paper, we model the contractual relationship between a principal, who owns the resource, and an agent, who holds private information on its sustainable harvest level, and look for the Pareto-optimal allocations. The agent can strategically use his private information to harvest outside the sustainability interval. We consider the case where the agent simultaneously interacts with several principals. From a simple dynamic spatial game, we show how the existence of multiple interacting principals with diverse qualities on information can help the least wellinformed principals to reduce the information rent and lead to the Pareto-optimal allocation.
    Keywords: Resource management, Sustainable harvesting, Principal-agent model, Spatial dynamics
    JEL: D82 Q20
    Date: 2014–10
  34. By: Pezzini, Mario
    Abstract: Countries in sub-Saharan Africa have experienced growth in gross domestic product (GDP) averaging 5% per annum over the last ten years. It is a growth rate that outstrips that of many other countries except some in South-East Asia, but unlike in Asian countries the growth has not translated into employment. Very large numbers of young people across Africa hope to enter the workforce with salaried jobs and career prospects, but though jobs have increased it has been at too slow a rate to absorb these people. This is ‘the Africa challenge’, and it could lead to increasing social tension unless growth can create jobs soon based on the economic advantages that have flowed from Africa’s wealth of natural resources. One solution is for African countries to strengthen their existing local economic fabric, such as by focusing support on small to medium-size firms and farms. Structural transformation in Africa cannot rely only on traditional job creation or direct foreign investment: too many thousands of people need work. Mineral and agricultural resources in Africa are actually underdeveloped in comparison to similarly resource-rich countries in other continents which have invested more heavily in exploration and export initiatives. African economies should encourage diverse primary production activities, to take advantage of their resource wealth without becoming dependent on a dominant natural resource: for example, by developing new plant and animal industries as well as mining, and by cross-investment and using revenue to create strong secondary and tertiary sectors. Industrial development needs wellstructured public services and business environments which can support mining and agriculture as well as manufacturing and knowledge industries. Such development may require more fiscal revenue as a percentage of GDP than may be available. Government investment in development projects to build local capacity, with or without contributions from foreign mining companies, will have social, environmental and economic implications.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Development, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2013

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