nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2014‒08‒25
thirty-one papers chosen by

  1. Agribusiness Indicators : Kenya By World Bank
  2. Economic Impact of Climate Change on the Turkish Economy: Selected Results from CGE Applications By Dudu, Hasan; Çakmak, Erol Hasan
  3. Solomon Islands Cocoa Value Chain Analysis By Dan Vadnjal; Moses Pelomo
  4. Global population growth, technology, and Malthusian constraints: a quantitative growth theoretic perspective By Bruno Lanz; Simon Diet; Tim Swanson
  5. Philippines : PPP Options in Irrigation Sector By World Bank
  6. How to assess agricultural water productivity ? looking for water in the agricultural productivity and efficiency literature By Scheierling, Susanne M.; Treguer, David O.; Booker, James F.; Decker, Elisabeth
  7. Tanzania Public Expenditure Review : National Agricultural Input Voucher Scheme By World Bank
  8. Deforestation Trends in the Congo Basin : Agriculture By Joel Hourticq; Carole Megevand; Eric Tollens; Johanna Wehkamp; Hari Dulal
  9. Bursting the Bubble: A Long Run Perspective on Crop Commodity Prices By Baldos, Uris Lantz; Thomas Hertel
  10. Assessing the economic benefits of sustainable land management practices in Bhutan: By Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Anderson, Weston; Kato, Edward
  11. Compilation and Synthesis of Major Agricultural Value Chain Analysis in the Philippines By Briones, Roehlano M.
  12. Modernizing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures to Facilitate Trade in Agricultural and Food Products: Report on the Development of an SPS Plan for the CAREC Countries By Asian Development Bank (ADB); ; ;
  13. Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of : Analysis of the Agricultural Support Programs By World Bank
  14. Bargaining power and biofortification: The role of gender in adoption of orange sweet potato in Uganda: By Gilligan, Daniel O.; Kumar, Neha; McNiven, Scott; Meenakshi, J.V.; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
  15. Strengthening Africa’s capacity for innovation in animal agriculture: the agriculture–mining conundrum of grass or brass, bread or stones By Akinbamijo, Yemi
  16. Examining the sense and science behind Ghana’s current blanket fertilizer recommendation: By Chapoto, Antony; Tetteh, Francis
  17. Microalgae-based products for the food and feed sector: an outlook for Europe By Christien Enzing; Matthias Ploeg; Maria Barbosa; Lolke Sijtsma
  18. Land Titling and Investment In Tanzania: An Empirical Investigation By Kassa, Woubet
  19. Agricultural Trade Liberalization between the EU and Mediterranean Partner Countries: An Impact Analysis By Eruygur, Ozan
  20. Inter-generational distribution of resources in a model of economic growth: Taking the land vs. food trade-off into account By Voosholz, Frauke
  21. European Coexistence Bureau. Best Practice Documents for coexistence of genetically modified crops with conventional and organic farming. 2. Monitoring efficiency of coexistence measures in maize crop production By Ivelin Iliev Rizov; Emilio Rodríguez Cerezo
  22. Mining and agriculture for development: exploring the nexus By Urama, Kevin Chika
  23. Impacts of Climate Change on Brazilian Agriculture By Eduardo Assad; Hilton S. Pinto; Andre Nassar; Leila Harfuch; Saulo Freitas; Barbara Farinelli; Mark Lundell; Erick C.M. Fernandes
  24. Opportunity cost of environmental preservation: the case of the Brazilian Legal Amazon By André Luis Squarize Chagas; Luiza Cardoso de Andrade
  25. The Renewable Fuel Standard: Issues for 2014 and Beyond By Congressional Budget Office
  26. Improving Nutrition through Multisectoral Approaches By World Bank
  27. On Thin Ice : How Cutting Pollution Can Slow Warming and Save Lives By World Bank; International Cryosphere Climate Initiative
  28. Investing in the Livestock Sector : Why Good Numbers Matter, A Sourcebook for Decision Makers on How to Improve Livestock Data By Ugo Pica-Ciamarra; Derek Baker; Nancy Morgan; Alberto Zezza; Carlo Azzarri; Cheikh Ly; Longin Nsiima; Simplice Nouala; Patrick Okello; Joseph Sserugga
  29. Weather Data Grids for Agriculture Risk Management : The Case of Honduras and Guatemala By World Bank
  30. Are special economic zones a curse on those "chosen" to be evicted? : evidence form West Bengal, India By Paul, Saumik; Sarma, Vengadeshvaran
  31. The Agricultural Insurance Market in the Caribbean By Diego Arias Carballo; Laura dos Reis

  1. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Crops and Crop Management Systems Agriculture - Agricultural Research Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Environmental Economics and Policies Agriculture - Agribusiness Environment
    Date: 2013–01
  2. By: Dudu, Hasan (EC JRC-JRC IPTS, Sevilla, Spain); Çakmak, Erol Hasan (TED University, Department of Economics, Ankara, Turkey)
    Abstract: This study quantifies the economic effects of climate change on Turkey. We use an integrated framework that combines a static regional and a dynamic national economy-wide model with a crop water requirement model. Results suggest that the economic effects of climate change will not be significant until late 2030s. This provides Turkey an excellent opportunity to design and implement appropriate adaptation policies. The impact varies across regions. Agriculture and food production will be heavily affected, and irrigated production will decline as water stress increases. Together, this causes significant decline in agricultural production and national welfare. Part of agriculture’s decline is compensated by imports, thus deteriorating Turkey’s food trade balance.
    Keywords: Computable general equilibrium, climate change, agriculture, productivity
    JEL: C68 D24 Q1 Q54
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Dan Vadnjal; Moses Pelomo
    Keywords: Crops and Crop Management Systems Agriculture - Agricultural Research Food and Beverage Industry Private Sector Development - E-Business Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Markets and Market Access Industry
    Date: 2014–02
  4. By: Bruno Lanz; Simon Diet; Tim Swanson
    Abstract: We study the interactions between global population, technological progress, per capita income, the demand for food, and agricultural land expansion over the period 1960 to 2100. We formulate a two-sector Schumpeterian growth model with a Barro-Becker representation of endogenous fertility. A manufacturing sector provides a consumption good and an agricultural sector provides food to sustain contemporaneous population. Total land area available for agricultural production is finite, and the marginal cost of agricultural land conversion is increasing with the amount of land already converted, creating a potential constraint to population growth. Using 1960 to 2010 data on world population, GDP, total factor productivity growth and crop land area, we structurally estimate the parameters determining the cost of fertility, technological progress and land conversion. The model closely fits observed trajectories, and we employ the model to make projections from 2010 to 2100. Our results suggest a population slightly below 10 billion by 2050, further growing to 12 billion by 2100. As population and per capita income grow, the demand for agricultural output increases by almost 70% in 2050 relative to 2010. However, agricultural land area stabilizes by 2050 at roughly 10 percent above the 2010 level: growth in agricultural output mainly relies on technological progress and capital accumulation.
    Date: 2014–07
  5. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Agriculture - Agricultural Irrigation and Drainage Private Sector Development - Enterprise Development & Reform Water Resources - Irrigation and Drainage
    Date: 2013–06
  6. By: Scheierling, Susanne M.; Treguer, David O.; Booker, James F.; Decker, Elisabeth
    Abstract: Given population and income growth, it is widely expected that the agricultural sector will have to expand the use of water for irrigation to meet rising food demand; at the same time, the competition for water resources is growing in many regions. As a response, it is increasingly recommended that efforts should focus on improving water productivity in agriculture, and significant public and private investments are being made with this goal in mind. Yet most public communications are vague on the meaning of agricultural water productivity, and on what should be done to improve it. They also tend to emphasize water as if it were the only input that mattered. This paper presents findings from a first attempt to survey the agricultural productivity and efficiency literature with regard to the explicit inclusion of water aspects in productivity and efficiency measurements, with the aim of contributing to the discussion on how to assess and possibly improve agricultural water productivity. The focus is on studies applying single-factor productivity measures, total factor productivity indices, frontier models, and deductive models that incorporate water. A key finding is that most studies either incorporate field- and basin-level aspects but focus only on a single input (water), or they apply a multi-factor approach but do not tackle the basin level. It seems that no study on agricultural water productivity has yet presented an approach that accounts for multiple inputs and basin-level issues. However, deductive methods do provide the flexibility to overcome many of the limitations of the other methods.
    Keywords: Water Supply and Systems,Water Supply and Sanitation Governance and Institutions,Water and Industry,Town Water Supply and Sanitation,Water Conservation
    Date: 2014–07–01
  7. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Finance and Financial Sector Development - Access to Finance Crops and Crop Management Systems Economic Theory and Research Food and Beverage Industry Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Regional Economic Development Industry Agriculture
    Date: 2014–02
  8. By: Joel Hourticq; Carole Megevand; Eric Tollens; Johanna Wehkamp; Hari Dulal
    Keywords: Environment - Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases Crops and Crop Management Systems Food and Beverage Industry Health, Nutrition and Population - Population Policies Rural Development - Forestry Industry Agriculture
    Date: 2013–04
  9. By: Baldos, Uris Lantz; Thomas Hertel
    Abstract: Contrary to the opinions expressed by many commentators, the recent price spike in agricultural commodities is a transitory phenomenon. Using projections from SIMPLE – a global model of the farm and food system – we argue that, in the long run, food prices will most likely resume their historical downward trend. We begin with an evaluation of the historical period 1961 to 2006 wherein the growth in agricultural productivity outpaced that of global crop demand, the latter being fueled by rising population and incomes. As a consequence, we observed a historical decline in global crop prices, which the SIMPLE model faithfully reproduces. Moving forward to 2051, we establish a set of projections in global crop prices given expected developments in population, incomes, agricultural productivity and biofuel use. We project that global crop prices will continue their long run decline in the coming decades, albeit at a slower pace. However, we recognize that, under some circumstances, global crop prices could still increase by mid-century. To formally assess the likelihood of future price changes, we conduct Monte Carlo simulations given distributions in the growth rates of both drivers and economic responses. Results show that 72% of the realizations produce price declines from 2006 to 2051.
    Date: 2014
  10. By: Nkonya, Ephraim M.; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Anderson, Weston; Kato, Edward
    Abstract: This study was conducted with the objective of determining the returns to sustainable land management (SLM) at the national level in Bhutan. The study first uses satellite data on land change (Landsat) to examine land use change in 1990–2010 and its impact on sediment loading in hydroelectric power plants. The study then uses the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model to analyze the impact of land use change and land management on sediment loading. The results from the land use change and SWAT analyses are used to assess the economic benefits of SLM.
    Keywords: Land management, Land degradation, Soil fertility, Sustainability, Hydroelectric power, Land use, sustainable land management, Soil and water assessment tool,
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: Recently, the agricultural sector in the Philippines has enjoyed robust growth driven by rapid price increases in key subsectors, namely, rubber, sugarcane, and coconut. The largest subsectors, however, namely, rice and corn, relatively experienced slower growth and exhibited lower competitiveness than high-value crops (e.g., fruits and vegetables). This study undertakes a stock-taking of value chain studies and gap analysis for major agricultural commodities. It finds that value chain opportunities seem to be well-substantiated for export-oriented crops. The sites suitable for these value chains are those in which primary production and marketing systems are fairly well-established. The value chain studies also take note that risks and entry barriers do pose challenges toward agri-enterprises even in the high-opportunity areas. Value chain activities or niche products may also be found even for the less competitive, import-competing products.
    Keywords: Philippines, rice, corn, value chain studies, niche product, high-value crops
    Date: 2014
  12. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); (East Asia Department, ADB); ;
    Abstract: This project study was initiated by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) as part of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy. Its objective is to identify areas for improvement in the administration and application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) regulations, procedures, and standards in the CAREC region. It recommends a set of concerted, coordinated measures designed to improve and reduce delays in handling perishable goods in transit (and particularly at border crossing points), ensure that food is safe for consumers, and prevent the spread of pests and diseases among animals and plants. The study is based on an examination of SPS measures as applied in the People’s Republic of China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Uzbekistan. The study involved a wide-ranging assessment of current procedures for animal and plant quarantine, veterinary inspection, food safety inspection, and risk analysis and assessment, assessing conformity with internationally accepted standards.
    Keywords: adb, asian development bank, asdb, asia, pacific, poverty asia, trade facilitation, agricultural products, food products, carec, Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation, afghanistan, azerbaijan, china, prc, kazakhstan, kyrgyz republic, mongolia, pakistan, tajik, sanitary and phytosanitary standard, perishable goods
    Date: 2013–05
  13. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Poverty Reduction - Rural Poverty Reduction Agriculture - Agricultural Research Economic Theory and Research Rural Development Knowledge and Information Systems Environmental Economics and Policies Environment Macroeconomics and Economic Growth Rural Development
    Date: 2013–10
  14. By: Gilligan, Daniel O.; Kumar, Neha; McNiven, Scott; Meenakshi, J.V.; Quisumbing, Agnes R.
    Abstract: We examine the role of gender in adoption and diffusion of orange sweet potato, a biofortified staple food crop being promoted as a strategy to increase dietary intakes of vitamin A among young children and adult women in Uganda. As an agricultural intervention with nutrition objectives, intrahousehold gender dynamics regarding decisions about crop choice and child feeding practices may play a role in adoption decisions. Also, most households access sweet potato vines through informal exchange, suggesting again that gender dimensions of networks may be important to diffusion of the crop. We use data from an experimental impact evaluation of the introduction of OSP in Uganda to study how female bargaining power, measured by share of land and nonland assets controlled by women, affect adoption and diffusion decisions.
    Keywords: Gender, Women, technology adoption, Biofortification, Nutrition, Vitamin A, Micronutrients, Sweet potato,
    Date: 2014
  15. By: Akinbamijo, Yemi
    Abstract: In spite of its abundant mineral resources and the activities of many mining companies extracting those resources from only a very small part of the total land area, much of Africa is still in penury. Animal agriculture is a major contributor to the economy of many African countries, especially in the arid and semi-arid areas where it occupies about 80% of the land. The sector employs some 50% of the total agricultural labour force, contributes about 10% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and accounts for 40% of agricultural GDP. An estimated 100 million people work in the pastoral economy alone. Yet the livestock sector receives less than 2% of the national budgetary allocation for development, in spite of facing changing conditions and needing innovative thinking. African governments need to find the will to insist that mining companies contribute to country revenues, so that development of mineral wealth can provide financial resources to support agricultural development and innovation. Through their sense of corporate social responsibility mining companies already contribute to improved infrastructure and local community well-being. African governments need to adopt an ‘Innovation Platform approach’, to understand how to use mineral-derived revenue to overcome technological and institutional constraints in dealing with the ever-changing needs, environments and advances in agriculture, including the livestock sector, to achieve economic benefits.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2013
  16. By: Chapoto, Antony; Tetteh, Francis
    Abstract: This paper was written to help bolster the case and present visual evidence demonstrating why it is important to seriously consider spatial soil fertility variability in Ghana and to promote area-specific fertilizer recommendations. Using geostatistical analysis of soil samples collected from farmer plots in three districts (Tamale Municipality, Savelugu-Nanton, and West Mamprusi in northern Ghana), the paper analyzes spatial variations in soil fertility. The results clearly show that there are variations in soil pH, organic matter content, and available phosphorous even at the community level, supporting the need for Ghana to seriously consider location-specific fertilizer recommendations.
    Keywords: Agricultural production, productivity, fertilizer use, Geographical information systems, Fertilizers, Soil fertility, farm inputs,
    Date: 2014
  17. By: Christien Enzing (Technopolis group); Matthias Ploeg (Technopolis group); Maria Barbosa (Food and Biobased Research - Wageningen UR); Lolke Sijtsma (Food and Biobased Research - Wageningen UR)
    Abstract: The European Union has adopted recently an ambitious strategy for developing the Bioeconomy in Europe. In this context, algae represent an emerging biological resource of great importance for its potential applications in different fields, including food and feed. Algae have been already used as food, feed and fertilizers for centuries, and nowadays approximately 200 species of algae and micro-algae are used worldwide in different sectors, like energy, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. This report provides an analysis of the technological and market developments in the field of microalgae-based food and feed products. The analysis is based on literature search, interviews to experts and Delphi survey to stakeholders. It provides important insights on four issues concerning microalgae-based products: production systems; current markets, products and future developments; R&D and prospects for micro-algae biotechnology and genetic engineering; safety and regulatory aspects of food and feed applications in Europe and the USA. Main results show that the global market for microalgae-based food and feed supplements/nutraceuticals is well developed and with a great potential for growth. Europe has the potential to become market leader in micro-algae based products for the food and feed markets in the next decade, in particular thanks to scientific and technological developments going on in this field. However, experts highlight two major factors limiting the European potential: the insufficient European domestic demand for microalgae products and the difficulties in achieving commercial authorization of algae-derived products in the EU markets due to the complexity of the regulation of novel foods in Europe.
    Keywords: Algae, Innovation, Biotechnology, Bioeconomy, Socio-Economic impacts, Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), new technologies, competitiveness
    JEL: O13 O31 O32 Q16 Q18 Q22
    Date: 2014–01
  18. By: Kassa, Woubet
    Abstract: The role of property rights in resource allocation has been one of the central themes in development economics. There exists extensive theoretical arguments that property rights in land are closely associated with the productive efficiency of agricultural resources as well as investment decisions. However, empirical findings have not been conclusive. This has been complicated due to possible endogeneity of titles, unobserved hetrogeneities and the non-experimental nature of the data. To overcome these problems, the study employs an instrumental variable and fixed effect models. The inheritance status of a plot is used as an IV for the titling status of a plot. Using the 2010/2011 Tanzania National Survey data, it is shown that the effects of titling on investment is positive and sizable. Formal tests of endogeneity are presented to establish the claim that titles are endogenous.
    Keywords: Land Titling, Property Rights and Investment, Land tenure, Africa, Tanzania
    JEL: O10 O13 Q0 Q01 Q15
    Date: 2014–08–16
  19. By: Eruygur, Ozan (Gazi University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper, the impacts of an agricultural trade liberalization between the EU and mediterranean partner countries (MPCs) including Turkey are analyzed by employing an Armington trade model structure for both the imports and exports of the EU. The study uses EU’s agricultural trade data at 8 digit level (Combined Nomenclature, CN) and disaggregates EU’s agricultural trade into 207 agricultural goods. In addition, the agricultural commodities, intermediate and final products are differentiated according to the WTO definitions. The global trade of EU has been disaggregated into 27 regions to distinguish the regional impacts. All Mediterranean partner countries including Turkey are explicitly included. In the import model, a nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) function consisting of 27 import sources (regions) is employed. Similarly, the exports of EU are modeled by a nested constant elasticity of transformation (CET) function aggregator. The structure of the model assumes perfectly elastic export supplies for EU imports hence the model simulates the maximum possible change in the EU’s imports for each goods given the set of import demand and substitution elasticities. By the same token, the model simulates the maximum possible change in the EU’s exports as the export model assumes perfectly elastic import demands for EU exports.
    Keywords: Armington model, mediterranean partner countries, fixed effect panel, agricultural trade, EU, Turkey.
    JEL: C50 Q17 F17
    Date: 2013
  20. By: Voosholz, Frauke
    Abstract: This paper considers a model with three overlapping generations of which only the middle one is able to work. There is a trade-off between food and bio-fuel pro- duction. We try to study this trade-off, its influence on economic growth and on resource consumption. The paper should state that even, if the current generation has the total autonomy of decision about the usage of all resources, they will never use them completely. The memebers of the current generation will always leave some resources for production because in the phase of retirement they depend on the income of the next generation, the latter paying back the credit obtained when beeing young. Furthermore, it states that as long as land is an essential input for producing the final product (including food) the amount of land devoted to bio-fuel production will not raise endlessly. The pure consumption loan model by Samuelson (1958) serves as basis for our Overlapping-Generations-Model, which we will integrate into a model of endogenous economic growth with resources, exogenous technical progress and land as a further input. For realization of the optimal consumption pattern, which leads to the maximum of utility, individuals have to make four decisions. They have to commit themselves on the exploitation rate of the non-renewable resource and on the amount of renewable resource used for production. Coincidentally, the allocation of land, necessary for food production and for renewable resource regeneration, and the amount of leisure time devoted for resource production have to be determined. The results are confirmed by numerical examples and will be reviewed by empirical data. --
    Keywords: economic growth,overlapping generations,non-renewable resources,renewable resources,land vs. food trade-off
    JEL: D91 O13 Q24 Q32
    Date: 2013
  21. By: Ivelin Iliev Rizov (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Emilio Rodríguez Cerezo (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The present technical report deals with monitoring the efficiency of measures/strategies for coexistence between genetically modified (GM) and non-GM maize crop production. The report is a follow up of the best practices for coexistence in maize crop production proposed by the Technical Working Group (TWG) for Maize of the European Coexistence Bureau (ECoB). The ECoB TWG maize held three meetings in October 2010, June 2012 and November 2012 and examined state-of-art-knowledge from scientific literature, research projects and empirical evidence provided by numerous finished and ongoing studies looking at the appropriate level of monitoring; monitoring strategy; sampling and testing issues; detection methods; analysis of results and possible follow-up. The review of this information (coming from a total of 51 references) is presented in a structured manner in Section 3 and 4 of the document. The overview of the activities carried out by EU Member States for monitoring effectiveness/efficiency of coexistence measures in maize crop production (Section 3), shows a still limited experience in practical terms, due to the limited experience in commercial cultivation of GM maize in most EU member states. However, the present report provides technical guidance to those responsible for monitoring the efficiency of coexistence strategies.
    Keywords: Inovation, Biotechnology, Coexistence Efficiency, Genetically Modified Organism (GMOs), Maize, Monitoring, Best Agricultural Practices, Agronomy, Policy support, Standatization, Compititivness.
    Date: 2013–05
  22. By: Urama, Kevin Chika
    Abstract: Can agriculture and mining work together to improve food security? How can policy, investment and research provide for benefits? Agriculture and mining rely on similar inputs, outputs and externalities. In both Africa and Australia the relationship between the two industries can be symbioitic or competitive, depending on the situation. Mining makes profits from its mined products. Agriculture also needs mined products such as potash for soil improvement. Mining requires upgraded or new infrastructure, for transport and export, and may open up new areas, and these can benefit agriculture and other aspects of a country’s economic development. Mining uses less land and leads to less degradation of water and land than does agriculture, but both do good if done well. In terms of corporate social responsibility, mining companies have to answer to shareholders. Nevertheless, there is evidence that multiplier effects improve income and employment opportunities in the regions around mines. However, Africa is challenged by non-inclusive growth despite resource development. There are perceptions in society and the media that mining takes rather than giving back, although there is evidence of the reverse. It is recommended that the huge knowledge gaps around mining and its nexus with agriculture be tackled through research into the true impacts of mining on food production and poverty. There is an urgent need to build better awareness of the realities, and to engage with affected communities.
    Keywords: Industrial Organization, International Development, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2013
  23. By: Eduardo Assad; Hilton S. Pinto; Andre Nassar; Leila Harfuch; Saulo Freitas; Barbara Farinelli; Mark Lundell; Erick C.M. Fernandes
    Keywords: Environment - Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases Water Resources - Wetlands Agriculture - Climate Change and Agriculture Science and Technology Development - Science of Climate Change Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Climate Change Economics
    Date: 2013
  24. By: André Luis Squarize Chagas; Luiza Cardoso de Andrade
    Abstract: Currently, the Brazilian Legal Amazon (BLA) represents the agricultural frontier of Brazil and concentrates the deforestation processes. A recurrent discussion involves what to do to reduce the deforestation process. A compensation to no-deforestation is a way to this, but involves an opportunity cost for agents in BLA, represented by the expected cash flow that these agents are expected to lose by not using the land for agricultural production in the future. The expectation formation process is uncertain, but the occupation in Brazil’s Midwest, a region near the BLA, in the 1970s can provide a proxy value. We use the stochastic frontiers method to compare both regions and conclude that the actual production mode in the BLA is very similar to that in the Midwest in the past. Thus, we take the production function estimate to project the future income flow for this region. The results show that producers in the BLA region can expect a 9% to 13% increase in average annual income over the next forty years, depending on the discount rate of the cash flow
    Keywords: Environmental preservation; climate change; land use; Brazilian Legal Amazon; deforestation
    JEL: Q51 Q56 R14
    Date: 2014–07–31
  25. By: Congressional Budget Office
    Abstract: Using the rising amounts of renewable transportation fuels required by the Renewable Fuel Standard will be difficult. CBO looks at how those requirements and alternatives would affect fuel and food prices and greenhouse gas emissions.
    JEL: Q10 Q16 Q18 Q20 Q28 Q40 Q42 Q48 Q50 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2014–06–26
  26. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Food and Beverage Industry Health, Nutrition and Population - Nutrition Poverty Reduction - Rural Poverty Reduction Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Regional Economic Development Industry
    Date: 2013–01
  27. By: World Bank; International Cryosphere Climate Initiative
    Keywords: Environment - Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases Water Resources - Water Resources Assessment Environment - Coastal and Marine Environment Environment - Global Environment Facility Science and Technology Development - Science of Climate Change
    Date: 2013–10
  28. By: Ugo Pica-Ciamarra; Derek Baker; Nancy Morgan; Alberto Zezza; Carlo Azzarri; Cheikh Ly; Longin Nsiima; Simplice Nouala; Patrick Okello; Joseph Sserugga
    Keywords: Livestock and Animal Husbandry Dairies and Dairying Environment - Wildlife Resources Rural Development Knowledge and Information Systems Private Sector Development - E-Business Agriculture Rural Development
    Date: 2014
  29. By: World Bank
    Keywords: Environment - Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases Science and Technology Development - Science of Climate Change Geographical Information Systems Environment - Global Environment Facility Environment - Climate Change Impacts
    Date: 2013–01
  30. By: Paul, Saumik; Sarma, Vengadeshvaran
    Abstract: Using data from a self-administered survey of 1,017 households we assess the long-term impact of establishing a special economic zone, on those who are exogenously selected to be displaced. We find those who are displaced suffer from lower land compensation and lack of adequate property rights. There is also some evidence of lower labour market participation among those who are displaced. However, in the long term, across measurable welfare indicators, we do not find that displaced households are significantly different from other households. One source of this resilience is through employment at the special economic zone – which is higher among displaced households compared to other households. Another factor that contributed to the absence of differences is spill-over effects; which made access to employment, education and other facilities about homogenous across displaced and non-displaced households.
    Keywords: India, Special economic zone, Employment, Compensation, Rights of property, Rural societies, Settlements, Property Right, Rural livelihoods
    JEL: F16 O18 R23
    Date: 2014–07
  31. By: Diego Arias Carballo; Laura dos Reis
    Keywords: Law and Development - Insurance Law Insurance and Risk Mitigation Urban Development - Hazard Risk Management Banks and Banking Reform Macroeconomics and Economic Growth - Climate Change Economics Finance and Financial Sector Development
    Date: 2013–03

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