nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2014‒06‒14
47 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. Multi-scale bio-economic modeling for the generation of innovative cropping system mosaics increasing food self-sufficiency By Pierre Chopin; Jean-Marc Blazy; Loic Guinde; Thierry Doré
  2. Impact of domestic support and border measures for developing countries’ food security By Catherine Laroche-Dupraz; Marilyne Huchet-Bourdon
  3. Agricultural assistance, exchange rate and developing countries’ food security By Catherine Laroche-Dupraz; Marilyne Huchet-Bourdon
  5. The influence of agricultural support on sale prices of french farmland: a comparison of different subsidies, accounting for the role of environmental and land regulations By Laure Latruffe; Laurent Piet; Pierre Dupraz; Chantal Le Mouel
  6. Influence of agricultural support on sale prices of french farmland: a comparison of different subsidies, accounting for the role of environmental and land regulations By Laure Latruffe; Laurent Piet; Pierre Dupraz; Chantal Le Mouel
  7. Poverty, food prices and supply shocks of agricultural products in Indonesia By Arief Anshory Yusuf
  8. Connecting the supply and demand via labelling options for the sustainability of a food sector. The example of the yam sector in Guadeloupe By Carla Barlagne; Jean-Marc Blazy; François Causeret; Marianne Le Bail; Louis Georges Soler; Alban Thomas; Harry Ozier-Lafontaine
  9. Natura 2000 and climate change—Polarisation, uncertainty, and pragmatism in discourses on forest conservation and management in Europe By Marieke Blondet; G. Winkel; M. Sotirov; Marieke Blondet; L. Borras; F. Ferranti; G. Geitzenauer
  10. Characterization of yam business diversity in Guadeloupe (French Antilles) By Carla Barlagne; Jean-Marc Blazy; Camille Le Roux; Jean-Louis Diman; Harry Ozier-Lafontaine
  11. The impact of regional trade agreements on agrifood trade flows: Agricultural vs. food products, developed vs. developing countries By Marilyne Huchet-Bourdon; Chantal Le Mouel; Mariana Vijil
  12. Factors favouring and hindering the development of organic farming in France: a multilevel analysis By Laure Latruffe; Céline Nauges; Gilles Allaire; Eric Cahuzac; Alexis Garapin; Stephane Lemarié; Thomas Poméon
  13. The end of seasonality ? new insights from Sub-Saharan Africa By Kaminski, Jonathan; Christiaensen, Luc; Gilbert, Christopher L.
  14. Farmer bargaining power and market information services By Pierre Courtois; Julie Subervie
  15. Simulating long term effects of policies in the agrifood sector: requirements, challenges and recommendations By Axel Tonini; Jerzy Michalek; Thomas Fellmann; Robert M'baretk; Jacques Delincé; George Philippidis; Maciej Bukowski; Piero Conforti; Alexandre Gohin; Andrey Krasovskii; Hans Van Meijl; Dominique Van Der Mensbrugghe; Janos Varga; Michael Wickens; Heinz-Peter Witzke; Geert Woltjer
  16. Technical efficiency and conversion to organic farming: the case of France By Laure Latruffe; Céline Nauges
  17. Farm size and growth in field crop and dairy farms growth in France, Hungary and Slovenia By Zoltan Bakucs; Stefan Bojnec; Imre Ferto; Laure Latruffe
  18. A Branch-and-Price-and-Cut Approach for Sustainable Crop Rotation Planning By Alfandari, Laurent; Plateau, Agnès; Scheplerc, Xavier
  19. How is environmental awareness expressed in our eating habits? By Sophie-Anne Sauvegrain; Fatiha Fort
  20. Assessing the sustainability of activity systems to support households' farming projects By Méduline Terrier; Pierre Gasselin; Joseph Le Blanc
  21. Public and private regulation of sanitary risks in fresh produce marketing chains: the case of Morocco and Turkey By Jean Marie Codron; Hakan Hadanacioglu; Magali Aubert; Zouhair Bouhsina; Abdelkader Ait El Mekki; Sylvain Rousset; Selma Tozanli; Murat Yercan
  22. A dynamic analysis of causality between prices of corn, crude oil and ethanol By Papież, Monika
  23. Drivers inducing and preventing conversion to organic farming for dairy and vegetable farmers: findings of a large-scale survey in the French regions of Brittany and Pays de la Loire By Laure Latruffe; Céline Nauges; Yann Desjeux
  24. Willingness to pay for pesticide reduction in the EU: nothing but organic? By Pascale Bazoche; Pierre Combris; Eric Giraud-Heraud; Alexandra Seabra Pinto; Franck Bunte; Efthimia Tsakiridou
  25. The price of empowerment : experimental evidence on land titling in Tanzania By Ali, Daniel Ayalew; Collin, Matthew; Deininger, Klaus; Dercon, Stefan; Sandefur, Justin; Zeitlin, Andrew
  26. Le rôle des facteurs économiques dans la décision de conversion à l’agriculture biologique By Laure Latruffe; Céline Nauges; Yann Desjeux
  27. Effets du changement climatique sur le système prairie-élevage: analyse économique à l'échelle européenne By Parisa Aghajanzadeh-Darzi
  28. The US farm bill: lessons for CAP reform? By Jean-Christophe Bureau
  29. When fairtrade contracts for some are profitable for others By Claire Chambolle; Sylvaine Poret
  30. The impact of retail mergers on food prices: evidence from France By Marie-Laure Allain; Claire Chambolle; Stéphane Turolla; Sofia Villas-Boas
  31. Comparing conventional and organic citrus grower efficiency in Spain By Mercedes Beltrán; Ernest Reig
  32. Using panel econometric methods to estimate the effect of milk consumption on the mortality rate of prostate and ovarian cancer By Hagen, Tobias; Waldeck, Stefanie
  33. Direct payments, crop insurance and the volatility of farm income. Some evidence in France and in Italy By Geoffroy Enjolras; Fabian Capitanio; Magali Aubert; Felice Adinolfi
  34. Changes of China's agri-food exports to Germany caused by its accession to WTO and the 2008 financial crisis By Zhichao Guo; Yuanhua Feng; Thomas Gries
  35. From the tank to climate change: multiple environmental impacts of wastewater management By Sophie Legras
  36. Food security and storage in the Middle East and North Africa By Donald F. Larson; Julian Lampietti; Christophe Gouel; Carlo Cafiero; John Roberts
  37. Can payments solve the problem of undersupply of ecosystem services? By Anne Stenger-Letheux; Nicolas Robert
  38. On the optimal timing of agricultural policy reform By Fabienne Femenia; Alexandre Gohin
  39. The Role of Market Structure and Federal Renewable Fuel Standards in the Growth of the Cellulosic Biofuel Sector By Tristan Skolrud; Gregmar Galinato; Suzette Galinato; Richard Shumway; Jonathan Yoder
  40. Determinants of firm relocation. A study of agro-food processors By Vanessa Persillet; John Scott Shonkwiler
  41. International Commodity Prices and Inequality in Indonesia By Arief Anshory Yusuf
  42. Urbanization and impact on sustainability of agrifood systems. By Carl Gaigné
  43. EU trade regulation for baby food: protecting health or trade? By Federica DeMaria; Sophie Drogue
  44. Influence of environmental policies on farmland prices in the Bretagne region of France By Elodie Letort; Chalachew Temesgen Jemberie
  45. The Environmental Kuznets Curve: A Primer By David I. Stern
  46. New trade in renewable resources and consumer preferences for diversity By Quaas, Martin F.; Stöven, Max T.
  47. The determinants of private flood mitigation measures in Germany: Evidence from a nationwide survey By Osberghaus, Daniel

  1. By: Pierre Chopin (Agrosystèmes tropicaux, INRA); Jean-Marc Blazy (Agrosystèmes tropicaux, INRA); Loic Guinde (Agrosystèmes tropicaux, INRA); Thierry Doré (Agronomie, INRA; UMR 0211 Agronomie, AgroParisTech : Institut des Sciences et Industries du Vivant de l'Environnement)
    Abstract: The achievement of sustainable agriculture, economically viable, socially equitable, environmentally sound and capable of providing sufficient amounts of food in both quantity and quality for a population is a major challenge of agricultural research. In Guadeloupe, a French overseas territory located in the Caribbean, agriculture is currently facing some difficulties for reaching food self-sufficiency. Crop production weakly covers the needs of the population and consumers must buy expensive imported foodstuff. In this context, local and national decision-makers started thinking about the emergence of new local agricultural production in favor of food security by “the diversification of agricultural productions†towards local vegetables and fruits. However, achieving food self-sufficiency is highly complicated due to the multi-scale nature of this topic. Constraints for food crops cultivation can be found at each scale, the field with cropping systems not well adapted for the production of food crops, the farm with limited production resources, e.g. workforce, the region with a lack of water provision by specific water services. Agricultural policies can overcome these constraints by modifying the current state of the agricultural system at each spatial scale. In order to understand what would be the conditions for achieving food self-sufficiency, we built a static multi-scale bioeconomic model based on mathematical programming. This model simulates the decision process of 5336 farmers in Guadeloupe in terms of choice of cropping systems for their 25054 fields. A geographic database and activities compose the inputs of the model. The geographic database is built with a large range of geographical information encompassing the slope, the soil type, the altitude, the access to irrigation while the activities are a set of cropping systems determined by the expert knowledge of local farm advisers. that defined both allocation rules of the cropping systems at each spatial scale and mean outputs of cropping systems. A explorative scenario with new food crop systems at field scale, increased quantities of workforce at farm scale and extension of water provision areas at regional scale showed a large increase in food self-sufficiency. Such changes tested in our model appear as possible levers for actions that could be targeted by agricultural policies.
    Keywords: agriculture durable, programmation mathématique, modèle bioéconomique, modèle statique, choix de culture, modélisation multi échellepolitique de recherche, recherche agronomiqueautonomie alimentaire, processus de décisionguadeloupe, antilles, caraïbesdiversification agricole
    JEL: Q12 Q15 Q16 Q18 Q19
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Catherine Laroche-Dupraz (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA); Marilyne Huchet-Bourdon (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA)
    Abstract: Food security is a major concern, especially for developing countries where a large percentage of population lives in rural areas and where agricultural sector represents an important weight in their economy. Agricultural and food imports play a particular key role in terms of food security in low income countries. Indeed, dependency on imports for food may raise a problem for food security in particular in the case of sudden price increase which put up national food bill. The national state of food availability combining food imports and domestic food production thus constitutes some crucial information. Following Diaz-Bonilla et al. (2000), this contribution aims to shed light on the determinants of food security at national level. We first build a theoretical framework linking explicitly food security measured by the Bonilla index (BI) and national intervention policy intervention in agriculture. Second, the empirical methodology aims at assessing the impact of national policy responses to 2008 price surge in terms of food security using the national rate assistance (NRA) index on importable food products for 42 countries over the period 1995-2010. Our results suggest that most developing countries have largely used their possibility to play with the NRA level in order to moderate BI during the 2008 food price surge.
    Keywords: border measures , developing countries, food security, domestic support, sécurité alimentaireméthode empirique, indiceindice de Bonilla, importationsoutien interne
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Catherine Laroche-Dupraz (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA); Marilyne Huchet-Bourdon (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA)
    Abstract: Food security is a major concern, especially for developing countries where a large percentage of population lives in rural areas and where agricultural sector represents an important weight in their economy. Agricultural and food imports play a particular key role in terms of food security in low income countries. Indeed, dependency on imports for food may raise some food insecurity issues in particular in the case of sudden price increase which raises national food bill. The national state of food availability combining food imports and domestic food production thus constitutes some crucial information. Following Diaz-Bonilla et al. (2000), this contribution aims to shed light on the determinants of food security at national level. We first build a theoretical framework linking explicitly food security measured by the Bonilla index (BI) and national policy intervention on agricultural sector or on exchange rate. Second, we focus on the link between exchange rate effects on food security, using observed data for a panel of 24 developing countries during the period 1995-2010. This empirical work shows that exchange rate may have significant impact on national food security level, especially for vulnerable developing countries; but it also confirms that exchange rate is not the main determinant. Third, the empirical methodology aims at assessing the impact of national policy responses to 2008 price surge in terms of food security using the national rate assistance (NRA) index on importable food products for 42 countries over the period 1995-2010. Our results suggest that most developing countries have largely used their possibility to play with the NRA level in order to moderate BI during the 2008 food price surge.
    Keywords: securité alimentaire, pays en voie de développement, secteur agricole, indice de Bonillaméthode empirique, taux de change
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Stefania Lovo (Legatum Institute, London); Marcella Veronesi (Department of Economics (University of Verona))
    Abstract: Malnutrition is recognized as a major issue among low-income households in developing countries with long-term implications for economic development. Recently, agricultural diversification has been recognized as a strategy to improve nutrition and health, and a risk coping strategy used by farmers in the face of climate change. However, there is no systematic empirical evidence on the role played by crop diversification in improving human health. We use the Tanzania National Panel Survey for years 2008 and 2010, which includes about 3,700 children, to investigate the effect of crop diversification on child health. Using an instrumental variable approach we estimate the effect of crop diversification on child growth and control for unobserved heterogeneity. We show that crop diversification has a positive and significant impact on long-term child nutritional status, in particular for girls. An increase in crop diversification has a positive and significant effect on children’s height, while it has no effect on weight, and BMI.
    Keywords: agriculture, children, health, crop diversification, food security, nutrition, Tanzania
    Date: 2014–06
  5. By: Laure Latruffe (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires); Laurent Piet (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA); Pierre Dupraz (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA); Chantal Le Mouel (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA)
    Abstract: We investigate the determinants of agricultural land price in several regions in France over the period 1994-2011 using individual plots transaction data, with a particular emphasis on agricultural subsidies and nitrate zoning regulations. We found a positive but relatively small capitalisation effect of the total subsidies per hectare. We found evidence that agricultural subsidies capitalised at least to some extent. However, the magnitude of such a capitalisation depends on the region considered, on the type of subsidy considered, and on the location of the plot in a nitrate surplus zone or not. Only land set-aside premiums significantly capitalise into land price, while single farm payments have a significant positive capitalisation impact only for plots located in a nitrate surplus zone.
    Keywords: France, regulations, subsidies, capitalisation, nitrate surplus area, farm land prices, France, regulations, subsidies, capitalisation, nitrate surplus area, farm land prices, franceprix de la terre, parcelle agricolesubvention, capitalisation, réglementationnitrate
    Date: 2013
  6. By: Laure Latruffe (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA); Laurent Piet (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA); Pierre Dupraz (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA); Chantal Le Mouel (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the determinants of agricultural land price in several regions in France over the period 1994-2011, using individual plot transaction data, with a particular emphasis on agricultural subsidies and nitrate zoning regulations. It found a positive but relatively small capitalisation effect of the total subsidies per hectare. The data revealed that agricultural subsidies capitalised, at least to some extent, but the magnitude of such a capitalisation depends on the region considered, on the type of subsidy considered, and on the location of the plot in a nitrate surplus zone or not. Only land setaside premiums significantly capitalise into land price, while single farm payments have a significant positive capitalisation impact only for plots located in a nitrate-surplus zone.
    Keywords: farmland price, agricultural subsidies, environmental regulations, france, prix de la terre, terre agricolesubventionfrance
    Date: 2013
  7. By: Arief Anshory Yusuf (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University)
    Abstract: Agricultural products constitute a significant component of food consumption in Indonesia particularly among the poor. The prices of these products are relatively volatile and susceptible to occasional disruption in their supply originating from both domestic and overseas. Without good understanding of the effect of agriculture product price volatility on poverty incidence, it will be more difficult for the government to devise appropriate policy measures. Using a general equilibrium model of the Indonesian economy, this paper simulates the effect of the increase in the prices of various important agriculture product caused by supply shocks originating from both domestic and oversea supplies. The result suggests that Indonesian poor, both in urban and rural areas are most vulnerable to the volatility of the price of rice, Indonesians’ main staple food. However, the poverty impact of an increase in the price of other product such as soybean is also non-trivial suggesting the relative importance of these products for the poor. Results also revealed that increases in the price of agriculture food product tend to increase inequality and the increase in poverty incidence is larger in rural areas than in urban areas. The model also accommodates the channel through which increase in the price of agriculture product may affect household income through the factor market. However, the result suggests that those effects are much smaller compared to the effect through increases in the cost of living. Policy implications are discussed.
    Keywords: Poverty, food prices, agriculture, Indonesia
    JEL: I32
    Date: 2014–06
  8. By: Carla Barlagne (Agrosystèmes tropicaux, INRA); Jean-Marc Blazy (Agrosystèmes tropicaux, INRA); François Causeret (Agrosystèmes tropicaux, INRA); Marianne Le Bail (Sciences pour l'Action et le Développement : Activités, Produits, Territoires, INRA; UMR SADAPT, AgroParisTech); Louis Georges Soler (Alimentation et Sciences Sociales, INRA); Alban Thomas (Economie des Ressources Naturelles, INRA); Harry Ozier-Lafontaine (Agrosystèmes tropicaux, INRA)
    Abstract: Nowadays, consumers are more and more concerned about the traceability of the food they purchase. As a response to this phenomenon, labels have flourished highlighting the environmental impact of products for some, their nutritive characteristics or their origin for others. In this context, we wonder about how food production sectors can meet the consumers’ demand and about the role of labeling as a tool to foster the sustainable development of food sectors. We base our analysis on the case of the yam sector in Guadeloupe. Food sectors in the tropics face heavy constraints (Scott, Rosegrant et al. 2000; Charlery de la Masselière 2002). Yam is the first food crop in Guadeloupe both in area (450 ha) and production (6 300 t). It covers 78% of the needs of the territory (Agreste 2009; Chambre Agriculture 2010). Nevertheless, the decrease by half of its cultivated area during the last decade reveals that it is on the decline (Agreste 2009). During this period of time, the production and consumption of yam has been highly impacted by the discovery of a long-lasting pollution of soils by chlordecone, a pesticide that was previously used in banana fields. Today, by decree, farmers who want to grow yam in the contaminated perimeter have to get their production analyzed before selling it on the marketplace. Guadeloupian consumers are quite suspicious regarding the presence of pesticides in local food but still yam is still part of the diet of the population (Merlo, 2007). Given the above we wondered about consumers’ perception of local yam if they could be reassured regarding the absence of pesticides in yam tubers. We also investigate the interest and implication of certification for yam farmers. Our work aims to shed light on how farmers and consumers can interact to design a sustainable food production sector. We look at both the supply and demand side and discuss about the ways to connect both views in a labeling scheme. According to the existing literature about farmers’ decision making (Cerf and Sébillotte 1988; Duru, Papy et al. 1988; Sébillotte and Soler 1988; Bonneval 1993; Marshall, Bonneviale et al. 1994), we studied farmers’ productive and commercial strategies regarding yam and accordingly built a typology of the different farming systems that exist in Guadeloupe. We then looked for each type at the costs and returns of growing yam – using the economic results simulation tool of yam crop: Ignamarge© - and examined the economic implications of certification. Our analysis revealed the existence of six types of yam producing farms for commercial purposes. For some types, yam appears to be the most important crop and is mostly sold in direct sale therefore procuring the highest returns to the farmers. For some others, it is only part a diversification crop among others and is traded via a farmers’ cooperative or thanks to intermediaries. In those last schemes, the value is shared among the different actors along the food chain. Getting certified could match with some of the strategies developed by farmers but would imply them to change some of their production and commercial practices. Additionally certification would require the yam sector to increase its organizational capacity since farmers’ strategies are rather individual at present. On the other hand we set up a laboratory experiment to investigate whether consumers were willing to pay a premium for two different types of labels since Levitt and List (2007) showed that laboratory behavior is a good indicator of behavior in the field. We based our experiment on the protocol developed by Lange et al. (2002) and adopted by Bougherara and Combris (2009). The experimental method makes it feasible to estimate consumers’ valuation of specific characteristics by controlling precisely the information on products. Therefore it is possible to compare consumers’ willingness-to-pay for a little variation in characteristics of otherwise identical products. This comparison allows appraising the substitution relation among two characteristics. To achieve this goal, we used the BDM procedure (Beker, De Groot, Marshak, 1964) to elicit the willingness-to-pay for locally produced yams (outside of the contaminated perimeter) and organically grown yams. Consumers were recruited according to a set of criteria such as their yam consumption habits, getting involved in food purchasing at home and not being regular participants of marketing studies. Then we estimated tobit models of the participants’ willingness to pay, one for each profile. Results showed a significant change of the participants’ WTP when yams were labeled (figure 1) and that they were ready to pay a premium for locally produced yam and organically grown yam. Considering the above we discuss the consequences of labeling for farmers and consumers and how the strategies of those different actors can coincide. Our work raises the question of the type of policy instruments that need to be implemented to ensure that certification schemes help food sectors to guaranty quality and achieve sustainability.
    Keywords: guadeloupe, antilles, caraïbesétude de filière, dioscorea, filière agroalimentaire, offre et demande, stratégie de production, stratégie commerciale, chlordecone, consentement à payer, typologie d'exploitation agricole, économie expérimentale, préférence des consommateurs, politique agroalimentairelabellisation, demande alimentairesigne de qualité, durabilité, agriculture biologiquepollutionmodèle tobit
    JEL: Q13 Q12 Q18 R15 Q01
    Date: 2013
  9. By: Marieke Blondet (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière); G. Winkel (Institute of Environmental Social Sciences and Geography, Forest and Environmental Policy Group, University of Freiburg); M. Sotirov (Institute of Environmental Social Sciences and Geography, Forest and Environmental Policy Group, University of Freibourg); Marieke Blondet (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière, INRA); L. Borras (Institute of Environmental Social Sciences and Geography, Forest and Environmental Policy Group, University of Freiburg); F. Ferranti (European Forest Institute Central Regional Office); G. Geitzenauer (Central East-European Regional Office of the European Forest Institute; Institute of Forest, Environmental and Natural Resource Policy, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences)
    Abstract: European forests are a resource that is targeted by several EU environmental and land use policies as forests can be of critical importance to mitigate climate change. At the same time, they are central to the EU's biodiversity policy, and particular the Natura 2000 network of protected areas. Yet, the interlinkage between climate change and biodiversity policy is complex and discursively contested. In this paper, we assess how the debate on climate change adaptation affects forest conservation and management under Natura 2000. Drawing on the concept of argumentative discourse analysis, we present evidence from 213 qualitative interviews with policy stakeholders and practitioners that were conducted at both the European policy level and the local country level in 6 EU member states. Our results demonstrate that the nexus between climate change adaptation and forest conservation policy is conceptualised differently by different stakeholders and practioners at different levels. Three major discourses can be made out (pragmatic discourse, dynamics discourse, threat discourse), which are characterised by a set of partially overlapping story lines. These discourses are employed by four discourse coalitions (environmental, forest users’, expert, and grass root coalition). As a general rule, debates at the European level are more polarised and politicised, while the local debates on climate change and Natura 2000 remain rather vague and are less polarised. This seems to indicate that the link between climate change adaptation and forest conservation is mostly an issue for an abstract high-level policy debate. At this level, climate change is used to influence well-known policies, and to legitimise distinct interests that were already present before the climate change debate has emerged.
    Keywords: Natura 2000, forest policy, european nature conservation policy, biodiversity, climate change, argumentative discourse analysis
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Carla Barlagne (Agrosystèmes tropicaux, INRA); Jean-Marc Blazy (Agrosystèmes tropicaux, INRA); Camille Le Roux (Agrosystèmes tropicaux, INRA); Jean-Louis Diman (Agrosystèmes tropicaux, INRA); Harry Ozier-Lafontaine (Agrosystèmes tropicaux, INRA)
    Abstract: In 2009, yam production was 50 million tons all over the world (FAO, 2009). It is the main food crop in Guadeloupe and the fourth crop after sugar cane, banana and melon (Chambre d’Agriculture, 2009), all threes targeting the European market in majority. One priority and objective of agronomic research in the French Antilles is to foster the development of agrifood chains. Next to the well structured and dominating crops that are sugar and banana, yam production appears to be an informal and still not very well known sector. The objective of the present study is to characterize yam marketing chains in Guadeloupe. Yam producers and distributors were inquired for that purpose. The actors of yam marketing are numerous and the diversity of the marketing chains is high. Whereas imported yam is mostly sold via a structured network, locally produced yam is sold via informal networks in which the rules of coordination between actors are based on truthfulness and moral contracts. Marketing chains are contrasted and imply different types of exchange. For example in the direct sale chain, yam is sold directly from the producer to the consumer whereas yam that is sold in the supermarkets goes through a more important number of intermediaries. The different types of market retailing channels imply different requirements and constraints that influence farmers’ choices of commercialization. These reveal farmers’ strategies. Some producers rely mainly on yam for their income and prefer to maximize their profit by selling their production on farms or markets. For others, growing yam is only one production alongside their main crop and they prefer to sell it quickly thanks to intermediaries. Our results suggest that a way to develop yam agrifood chain is by improving the matching between supply and demand. Therefore, it is necessary to better know consumers’ expectations and to study the determinants of their buying choices for yam (warranty of origin and way of production, taste criteria, prices…).
    Keywords: dioscorea, étude de filière, enquête, enquête auprès des consommateurs, enquête auprès des utilisateurs, enquête auprès des professionnels, filière légumes, circuit de commercialisation, stratégieattenteguadeloupe, antilles, caraïbesstratégie des acteurs
    JEL: Q12 Q13 Q19
    Date: 2013
  11. By: Marilyne Huchet-Bourdon (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA; Institut Supérieur des Sciences Agronomiques, Agroalimentaires, Horticoles et du Paysage); Chantal Le Mouel (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA); Mariana Vijil (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA)
    Abstract: Regional trade agreements (RTAs) have become increasingly prevalent since the early 1990s. However few studies exist on the effects of RTAs on agrifood trade and very little differentiate trade in raw agricultural products from trade in processed food products. This paper focuses on the agrifood trade. We consider nearly all countries (180 countries over 4 time periods: 2001, 2004, 2007, 2011) and all RTAs in force in agrifood trade. Then we distinguish trade in raw agricultural products and trade in processed food products in order to compare the trade impacts of RTAs in both sectors. Using a gravity model, we introduce dummies for controlling for the multilateral resistance terms and we use the Poisson-Pseudo Maximum Likelihood (PPML) estimation method to deal with zero trade flows. We find a clear positive impact of RTAs on trade between involved countries. As expected, the trade impact of RTA is lower in the case of food products relative to agricultural products. Finally our results show that the positive impact of RTAs on trade between involved countries is greater for South-South trade flows than for North-South trade flows.
    Keywords: regional trade agreements, agricultural trade, food trade, developing countries, gravity, Poisson-Pseudo Maximum Likelihood, commerce agroalimentaire, accord commercial régionalmaximum de vraisemblance, méthode de estimation
    JEL: F1 Q17 O11
    Date: 2013
  12. By: Laure Latruffe (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires); Céline Nauges (University of Queensland); Gilles Allaire (Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural , INRA); Eric Cahuzac (Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural , INRA); Alexis Garapin (Economie Appliquée de Grenoble, INRA); Stephane Lemarié (Economie Appliquée de Grenoble, INRA); Thomas Poméon (Observatoire des Programmes Communautaires de Développement Rural , INRA)
    Abstract: Organic farming covers just 3.5% of the utilised agricultural area (UAA) in France (2011 Agence Bio figures). Sales statistics show that a mere 2.3% of the French food market came from organic farming in 2008. The French government’s Environment Forum (“Grenelle de l’Environnementâ€) set as a target to triple the size of the organic farming area in five years. Yet if this is to happen, it is vital to gain a better understanding of the socio-economic factors that drive and hinder conversion to organic farming, whether farm factors (structure and practices) or market access factors. The PEPP project is original in that it draws on three studies conducted at different levels, which bring complementary perspectives to the debate: the farm (Part 1), the municipality in which the farm is established (Part 2), and the sector (especially the downstream part) to which the farm belongs (Part 3).
    Keywords: organic farming, france, agriculture biologiquefrance
    Date: 2013
  13. By: Kaminski, Jonathan; Christiaensen, Luc; Gilbert, Christopher L.
    Abstract: This paper revisits the extent of seasonality in African livelihoods, which has disappeared from Africa's development debate. Through econometric analysis of monthly food price series across 100 locations in three countries during 2000-12, it is shown that seasonal movements in maize wholesale prices explain 20 (Tanzania, Uganda) to 40 (Malawi) percent of their monthly volatility. Monthly maize peak prices are on average 30 (Tanzania, Uganda) to 50 (Malawi) percent higher than their monthly troughs and two to three times higher than the seasonal gaps observed for white maize at the South African Futures Exchange. Furthermore, household food consumption is found to inversely track food prices in each country, decreasing when staple prices increase and increasing when they decline. Clearly, (excess) seasonality in African food markets and consumption persists, necessitating policy attention.
    Keywords: Food&Beverage Industry,Markets and Market Access,Access to Markets,Emerging Markets,Economic Theory&Research
    Date: 2014–06–01
  14. By: Pierre Courtois (Laboratoire Montpelliérain d'Economie Théorique et Appliquée, INRA); Julie Subervie (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA)
    Abstract: In many Sub-Saharan African countries, farmers typically have a choice between selling their pro ducts to traders who travel between villages and markets and transporting their products to the nearest market themselves. Because of communities' remoteness and poor communications with marketplaces, farmers' uncertainty about market prices is usually high. Traders may take advantage of farmers' ignorance of the market price and extract a rent from them by offering very low prices for their pro ducts. In this article, we model bargaining interactions between a farmer and a trader who incur different transportation costs, and we study how price information affects the bargain and the balance of power. We then estimate the causal effect of a Market Information System (MIS) working through mobile phone networks on Ghanaian farmers' marketing performances. We find that farmers who have benefited from the MIS program received significantly higher prices for maize and groundnuts: about 12.7% more for maize and 9.7% more for ground-nuts than what they would have received had they not participated in the MIS program. These results suggest that the theoretical conditions for successful farmer use of MIS may be met in field.
    Keywords: market information system, agricultural markets, bargaining power, africa
    Date: 2013
  15. By: Axel Tonini (Agricultural Economics Research Institue, Wageningen UR); Jerzy Michalek (Agricultural Economist, Senior Consultant); Thomas Fellmann (Institute for Prospective Technological Studies of the JRC); Robert M'baretk (Institute for Prospective Technological Studies of the JRC); Jacques Delincé (Institute for Prospective Technological Studies of the JRC); George Philippidis (Institute for Prospective Technological Studies of the JRC); Maciej Bukowski (The Institute for Structural Research); Piero Conforti (Agricultural Development Economics Division, Global Perspective Studies Team, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations); Alexandre Gohin (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA); Andrey Krasovskii (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis); Hans Van Meijl (Wageningen University and Research Center); Dominique Van Der Mensbrugghe (Agricultural Development Economics Division, Global Perspective Studies Team, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations); Janos Varga (Directorate General for Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Comission); Michael Wickens (University of York); Heinz-Peter Witzke (European Centre for Agricultural, Regional and Environmental Policy Resarch); Geert Woltjer (Wageningen University and Research Center)
    Abstract: Food security, natural resources and climate change related questions focusing on a longer time horizon (2050+) are gaining importance. To assess the requirements and challenges entailed with the simulation of long-term issues in the agri-food sector the JRC-IPTS carried out the project “Methodological requirements of a modelling tool for simulation of long-term (2050) effects of policies affecting the agricultural and food sectorsâ€, involving experts for different methodologies. Partial and General Equilibrium models are covered as well as Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) and Optimal Control Theory (OCT) approaches are taken into account, evaluated and discussed.[résumé des auteurs]
    Keywords: secteur agroalimentairesécurité alimentaire, changement climatiqueressource naturelle, évolution à long termeméthode de simulation, modèle
    Date: 2013
  16. By: Laure Latruffe (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA; Agrocampus Ouest); Céline Nauges (University of Brisbane)
    Abstract: Using a panel of French crop farms, we test whether farmers' technical efficiency (TE) under conventional practices is a significant driver of the conversion to organic farming. We find that the probability of conversion depends on the TE preceding the conversion, but that the direction of the effect depends on the farm size and type of production. This result is found to be robust whichever method of calculation of efficiency scores is used – parametric or non-parametric.
    Keywords: organic farming, conversion, Technical efficiency, france, conversion d'exploitationefficacité techniqueagriculture biologique
    Date: 2014
  17. By: Zoltan Bakucs (Institute of Economics. Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Corvinus University of Budapest); Stefan Bojnec (Faculty of Management, University of Primorska); Imre Ferto (Institute of Economics. Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences; Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Corvinus University of Budapest); Laure Latruffe (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA)
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between size and farm growth. The existing theories of the association between size and farm growth give mixed results by countries and over time. This paper pursues a twofold objective: on one hand, to test the validity of Gibrat’s Law for French, Hungarian and Slovenian specialized dairy and crop farms during the pre- and post-accession period to the European Union membership. Dairy and crops farms are prevailing in the farming structure of these countries. Using Farm Accountancy Data Network datasets makes it necessary to avoid biases due to heterogeneous structures across the farming systems. Thus we use quantile regressions to control for farm size related heterogeneity in the samples. On the other hand, the main novelty of this paper is the comparative analysis of the relationship between farm size and farm growth between transition Hungarian and Slovenian and non-transition French farming sectors, characterized by rather different farm structures. The results reject the validity of Gibrat’s Law for crop farms in Hungary and to a lesser extent in France, and for French and Slovenian dairy farms. We provide evidence that smaller farms grew faster than larger ones over the studied period 2001-2007 for France, 2001-2008 for Hungary, and 2004-2008 for Slovenia. Conversely, the results for Slovenia suggest that the rate of growth of crop farms in terms of its land is independent from its size.
    Keywords: farm size, farm growth, Gibrat’s Law, quantile regression, taille de l'exploitation, régression quantilecroissance agricole
    Date: 2013
  18. By: Alfandari, Laurent (ESSEC Business School); Plateau, Agnès (Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers (CNAM)); Scheplerc, Xavier (Université du Havre, LITIS et LMAH)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study a multi-periodic production planning problem in agriculture. This problem belongs to the class of crop rotation planning problems, which have received increased attention in the literature in recent years. Crop cultivation and fallow periods must be scheduled on land plots over a given time horizon so as to minimize the total surface area of land used, while satisfying crop demands every period. This problem is proven strongly NP-hard. We propose a 0-1 linear programming compact formulation based on crop-sequence graphs. An extended formulation is then provided with a polynomial-time pricing problem, and a Branch-and-Priceand- Cut (BPC) algorithm is presented with adapted branching rules and cutting planes. The numerical experiments on instances varying the number of crops, periods and plots show the effectiveness of the BPC for the extended formulation compared to solving the compact formulation, even though these two formulations have the same linear relaxation bound.
    Keywords: OR in agriculture; crop rotations; production planning; column generation; branch-and-price-and-cut
    JEL: Q10
    Date: 2014–04
  19. By: Sophie-Anne Sauvegrain (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA; Montpellier SupAgro - Centre International d'Etudes Supérieures en Sciences Agronomiques); Fatiha Fort (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA; Montpellier SupAgro-Institut des Régions Chaudes)
    Abstract: Objectives: The concept of food sustainability is still new and quite ambiguous. The aim of this paper is to explore the perceptions of consumers concerning sustainability criteria and to describe some of their practices and daily habits regarding food. Method: A sample of thirty people, living in the South of France, originally from Turkey, Morocco and France, participated in our qualitative anthropological study concerning their relationship to the environment, their perception of sustainable food and their food habits. Results: From a consumer point of view, sustainability of food products includes three main aspects: the origin of the product, the respect of the production season and the organic production label. These three dimensions are gradually integrated into people’s mentality. The majority of respondents have a positive attitude towards “sustainable†products and are aware of the environmental impact of the dominant agro-food system production. Concerning consumption, the adoption of more environmentally friendly practices requires better communication and transparency of information about the challenges of the sustainable food.
    Keywords: food habits, perception of sustainability, respect of environment, habitude alimentaire, anthropologieconsommation durableprotection de l'environnement
    Date: 2013
  20. By: Méduline Terrier (Mutations des Activités, des Espaces et des Formes d'Organisation dans les Territoires Ruraux, INRA; Unité de recherche DTM Développement des territoires montagnards, Institut National de Recherche en Sciences et Technologies pour l'Environnement et l'Agriculture); Pierre Gasselin (Innovation et Développement dans l'Agriculture et l'Agro-alimentaire, INRA); Joseph Le Blanc (ADEAR Languedoc Roussillon)
    Abstract: This chapter aims to introduce the setting up of an evaluation tool assessing the sustainability of activity systems and supporting farming households' projects at the establishment stage. This chapter analyses three methods used to appreciate the farm sustainability and identifies not only their limits but also their contributions to our own methodology, at the level of complex activity systems in which farming production is combined with transformation, sales or outside activities. We propose to recognise two different contributions to sustainable agriculture: a farm-focused sustainability and an extended sustainability, which means a contribution to the sustainable development at a regional scale. These theoretical elements were regularly confronted with the analysis of advisors' practices and comprehensive surveys with households in Southern France, where an analysis was carried through a partnership with researchers and local actors. It produced a tool to appraise agricultural projects, with pluriactivity or without, distinguishing farm-focused and extended sustainability.
    Keywords: sustainability assessment, farm sustainability assessment methods, farming households' projects, pluriactivity, organisation scales, système d'activités, pluriactivité, durabilité de l'activité agricolefrance
    Date: 2013
  21. By: Jean Marie Codron (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA); Hakan Hadanacioglu (Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics, Ege university); Magali Aubert (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA); Zouhair Bouhsina (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA); Abdelkader Ait El Mekki (National School of Agiculture); Sylvain Rousset (UR ADBX, Institut National de Recherche en Sciences et Technologies pour l'Environnement et l'Agriculture); Selma Tozanli (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA; Centre International de Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes); Murat Yercan (Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Economics, Ege university)
    Abstract: Chemical contamination of fresh produce through pesticide spraying is considered a minor risk for consumer health. As a result, a high proportion of safety controls may be delegated to the private sector by public agencies. Private control is even greater when fresh produce is sold to safety-conscious consumers, given the high exposure of retailers' commercial reputations. Performed within the framework of the European project Sustainmed, our paper is a case study of public and private management and control of safety risks and the determinants thereof in the fresh produce industry of two contrasting Mediterranean countries: Morocco and Turkey. Based on expert surveys and face-to-face interviews with a high number of tomato growers, it provides an insight into the factors influencing the role of the different players in managing and controlling safety risks. A clear distinction is made between the individual parameters at growing and shipping levels and country-wide parameters at the market and institutional level. Both categories of parameters significantly influence the level of safety management at production level (IPM schemes and GAP certificates) and help understand the respective contributions of public and private operators in the safety risk management of the whole system.
    Keywords: food safety, pesticide, integrated pest management, IPM, good agricultural practices, GAP, private regulation, vertical organization, fresh vegetables, turquie, marocpesticide, sécurité des alimentsgestion de risques, intégration verticale, fruit, légume, produit fraissécurité sanitaire, pratique agricolerégulation
    Date: 2013
  22. By: Papież, Monika
    Abstract: The objective of the paper is to analyse causality between prices of corn, crude oil and ethanol. The analysis conducted in this paper is a dynamic one, and the data used consist of weekly futures prices of crude oil, corn, and ethanol from January 5, 2007 till April 11, 2014. The assessment of causal links between prices of corn, crude oil and ethanol is carried out with the use of rolling regression applied to augmented-VAR framework proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). The application of the rolling regression procedures into the modified Wald (MWALD) causality test allows for the investigation of the persistence of stability in causal relations between analysed prices. The results obtained indicate that the linkages between energy prices and agricultural commodity prices change in the period analysed. The results of Granger causality tests reveal that in the analysed period the price of corn influences the price of energy (crude oil and ethanol). Also crude oil prices influence corn prices and ethanol prices. However, the influence of ethanol prices on crude oil prices and corn prices has not been observed.
    Keywords: Granger causality, rolling regression, Toda -Yamamoto tests, commodity prices.
    JEL: C32 Q13 Q41
    Date: 2014–06–09
  23. By: Laure Latruffe (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA); Céline Nauges (University of Queensland); Yann Desjeux (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA)
    Keywords: conversion, France, dairy, vegetables, organic farming, france, bretagne, pays de la loireproducteur agricoleproduction de lait, production legumiere, analyse statistiqueconversion d'exploitation, enquêteagriculture biologique
    Date: 2013
  24. By: Pascale Bazoche (Alimentation et Sciences Sociales); Pierre Combris (Alimentation et Sciences Sociales, INRA); Eric Giraud-Heraud (Alimentation et Sciences Sociales, INRA); Alexandra Seabra Pinto (National Institute for Agricultural and Veterinarian Research, Oeiras, Portugal); Franck Bunte (Wageningen UR); Efthimia Tsakiridou (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki)
    Abstract: Using experimental auctions carried out on apples in different European countries, this paper contributes to the assessment of consumer willingness to pay for the reduction of pesticides. We study several systems of good agricultural practices, possibly signalled to consumers, ranging from Integrated Pest Management certifications to organic production methods. The results show a relatively homogeneous behaviour of European consumers and reveal that improving the information on pesticide reduction may have unintended consequences. Results also suggest that taste characteristics and reference to a Protected Denomination of Origin should not be overlooked.
    Keywords: pesticide use reduction, organic production, integrated pest management, experimental auction, wilingness to pay, réduction de pesticidesconsentement à payer du consommateur, économie expérimentaleproduction biologique, lutte intégréecertification
    Date: 2013
  25. By: Ali, Daniel Ayalew; Collin, Matthew; Deininger, Klaus; Dercon, Stefan; Sandefur, Justin; Zeitlin, Andrew
    Abstract: This paper reports on a randomized field experiment that uses price incentives to address economic and gender inequality in land tenure formalization. During the 1990s and 2000s, nearly two dozen African countries proposed de jure land reforms extending access to formal, freehold land tenure to millions of poor households. Many of these reforms stalled. Titled land remains the de facto preserve of wealthy households and, within households, men. Beginning in 2010, the study tested whether price instruments alone can generate greater inclusion by offering formal titles to residents of a low-income, unplanned settlement in Dar es Salaam at a range of subsidized prices, as well as additional price incentives to include women as owners or co-owners of household land. Estimated price elasticities of demand confirm that prices -- rather than other implementation failures or features of the titling regime -- are a key obstacle to broader inclusion in the land registry, and that some degree of pro-poor price discrimination is justified even from a narrow budgetary perspective. In terms of gender inequality, the study finds that even small price incentives for female co-titling achieve almost complete gender parity in land ownership with no reduction in demand.
    Keywords: Markets and Market Access,Economic Theory&Research,Banks&Banking Reform,Municipal Housing and Land,Political Economy
    Date: 2014–06–01
  26. By: Laure Latruffe (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA); Céline Nauges (University of Queensland); Yann Desjeux (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires)
    Abstract: Cet article présente les résultats d’une enquête récente conduite auprès de 307 producteurs laitiers et 99 producteurs de légumes de l’ouest de la France. Cette enquête a porté à la fois sur des agriculteurs pratiquant une agriculture conventionnelle et sur des agriculteurs ayant récemment converti leur exploitation à l’agriculture biologique. Nos résultats mettent en évidence les différences entre les deux groupes d’exploitants, différences en termes de caractéristiques personnelles (âge, niveau d’éducation, sensibilité aux problèmes d’environnement) et de caractéristiques de l’exploitation (taille, quantité de travail, structures de sol). Ce travail met également en évidence le rôle des facteurs économiques dans la décision de conversion à l’agriculture biologique. Nos résultats montrent que les aspects économiques tiennent une place majeure dans la décision de conversion à l’agriculture biologique des producteurs de légumes interrogés, alors que les aspects idéologiques et surtout techniques jouent un rôle prépondérant pour les producteurs laitiers.
    Abstract: This article presents the main findings of a recent survey of 307 dairy producers and 99 vegetable producers from Western France. Conventional farmers as well as organic farmers who recently switched to organic farming have been surveyed. Our results illustrate the differences between the two groups of farmers in terms of personal characteristics (age, education level, sensitivity to environmental problems) and in terms of characteristics of their farm (size, labor, soil type). Our findings also show that economic factors are the main drivers of conversion to organic farming in the vegetable sector while ideological factors and, above all, technical factors are most important in the dairy sector.
    Keywords: organic farming, conversion, farm survey, economic factors, Western France, dairy sector, vegetable sector, agriculture biologiqueconversionenquête, facteur économiquefrance, ouest de la franceproduction laitière, production legumiere
    Date: 2013
  27. By: Parisa Aghajanzadeh-Darzi (Economie Publique, INRA)
    Abstract: Le système “prairies-élevage†joue un rôle majeur dans le secteur agricole et son environnement. D’une part, il assure la préservation de l’environnement grâce au rôle multifonctionnel des prairies à travers le stockage naturel du carbone, la protection contre l’érosion et la dégradation des sols. Il assure d’autre part la sécurité alimentaire par la production de viande et de lait. Ce système est étroitement lié à de nombreux déterminants, notamment le réchauffement climatique. Il est à la fois l’une des principales source d’émission de gaz à effet de serre (protoxyde d’azote et méthane issues de l’élevage) et est affecté par l’évolution du climat. Dans ce cadre, cette thèse vise à estimer la valeur économique des prairies et à évaluer le système agricole européen, en centrant l'évaluation sur les prairies et l’élevage, dans le contexte du changement climatique. Pour ce faire, l’étude est basée sur un modèle économique (AROPAj) couplé à trois différents modèles: un modèle de culture (STICS), un modèle économique global en équilibre partiel (GLOBIOM) et un modèle d’un écosystème prairial (PaSim). La méthodologie utilisée constitue donc un instrument utile qui vise à produire une évaluation intégrée des impacts économiques du changement climatique et de ses rétroactions sur les systèmes de production agricole.
    Abstract: “Grassland-breeding†systems play a major role in both the agricultural and environmental communities. It ensures the preservation of the environment through the multifunctional role of grasslands in carbon sequestration, soil protection against erosion and degradation. It provides food security through the production of meat and milk. This system is closely related to many determinants, including global warming. It is an important source of greenhouse gas emissions (nitrous oxide and methane from livestock production) and is concurrently affected by changing climatic conditions. The aim of this thesis is to estimate the economic value of grass and assess the European agricultural system, including grassland-breeding, and its interactions with climate change. To do this, we use a modelling framework coupling the AROPAj agricultural supply model to three different models: a crop growth model (STICS), a global partial equilibrium model (GLOBIOM) and a dynamic grassland ecosystem model (PaSim). The methodology used provides a useful tool to assess the economic impacts of climate change and its feedback on the agricultural production systems.
    Keywords: système prairie-élevage, changement climatique, modélisation agro-économique, alimentation animale, prix fictif, union européenne, système agraireprairieélevage, gaz à effet de serre, modélisation, modèle économique, modèle agronomiquechangement climatique
    Date: 2014
  28. By: Jean-Christophe Bureau (Economie Publique, INRA)
    Abstract: La loi agricole américaine telle qu'elle est votée par le Sénat et par le comité de l'agriculture de la Chambre des Représentants, revient en arrière par rapport aux évolutions passées. Elle ré-instaure des soutiens assuranciels couplés aux productions. La PAC a suivi une voie inverse et il n'est pas certain qui l'Europe puisse seule continuer dans la voie de soutiens forfaitaires.
    Abstract: In an analysis first posted on his blog at, the author considers differences between the agricultural support programmes of the United States of America and those of the European Union, in terms both of levels of support and of institutional processes. The likely content of the forthcoming US Farm Bill is discussed, including the likelihood of a rebalancing of direct and indirect farm support away from `decoupled' payments. One possible consequence is reinforcement of the arguments of those who feel that the CAP should move back towards more product-specific subsidy and away from environmental support - as many emerging countries are already doing. Bad economic ideas, such as recoupling or making payments countercyclical, will gain influence in the EU if it becomes the only `country' sticking to the spirit of the WTO discipline.
    Keywords: Common agriculural policy farm bill, réforme de la pac, assurance agricoleétats-unisunion européenne
    Date: 2013
  29. By: Claire Chambolle (Alimentation et Sciences Sociales); Sylvaine Poret (Alimentation et Sciences Sociales, INRA)
    Abstract: We analyse a vertical chain with perfectly competitive farmers who offer raw products on a spot market to manufacturers who resell the finished goods to a distributor. Absent Fairtrade, the entire raw product is sold on the spot market. A Fairtrade organisation can offer to part of farmers a contract consisting of a guaranteed minimum price and a direct relationship with a distributor. A snowball effect arises when farmers who are not involved in Fairtrade benefit from a higher spot price. This article highlights several mechanisms, either linked to the demand or the market structure, that may explain this snowball effect.
    Keywords: fair trade, guaranteed minimum price, vertical chain, contract, disintermediation, commerce équitable, prix minimum, relation verticale, stratégie d'entreprisecontrat
    Date: 2013
  30. By: Marie-Laure Allain (Ecole Nationale Polytechnique); Claire Chambolle (Alimentation et Sciences Sociales); Stéphane Turolla (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA); Sofia Villas-Boas (ARE, University of California, Berkeley)
    Abstract: Using consumer panel data, we analyze the impact of a merger in the retail sector on food prices in France. In order to capture the local dimension of retail competition, we define local markets as catchment areas around each store. We develop a difference-in-differences analysis to compare price changes in local markets where the merger did modify the ownership structure (treated group) to price changes in local markets where the merger did not affect the ownership structure (control group). We find that prices of competing firms in areas where the merger occurred (treated group) increased significantly relative to the control areas where existing firms were not affected by a merger. In fact, our findings suggest that the merger significantly raised the competitors' prices. These results are consistent with a combination of local concentration and a decrease in differentiation.
    Keywords: Ex-post merger evaluation, Retail grocery sector, Difference-in-differences, commerce de detail, prix à la consommation, marché local, enquêtealimentation, compétitivitéconsommateurfrance
    JEL: K21 L11 L66
    Date: 2013
  31. By: Mercedes Beltrán (Universidad de Valencia (Spain)); Ernest Reig (Universidad de Valencia (Spain))
    Abstract: This paper compares the organic and conventional citriculture systems in Spain from the perspective of their technical efficiency. The efficiency of the two growing systems is compared in relation to a metafrontier that envelops both technologies in order to identify the limitations each farming system faces. In addition, the paper analyzes how efficient each growing system is at using its own technology, that is, their efficiency in relation to the best practices in their group. Contrary to conventional practice, farms’ performance is analyzed in terms of the cost of specific growing tasks: soil and plant cover management, pruning, fertilization and phytosanitary treatments. The results highlight that both organic and conventional orchards would achieve substantial global cost savings if they reached the maximum level of efficiency that their technological restrictions permit. The gap between the levels of efficiency on the frontier of each of the systems and the metafrontier is much wider in the case of organic than in conventional citriculture. Consequently, there is evidence that the limitations imposed on organic citriculture by regulatory and technological determinants have a significant impact on the relative efficiency of organic orchards in citrus fruit production, with potential consequences as regards their financial viability.
    Keywords: Organic citrus farming, technical efficiency, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), meta-frontier
    Date: 2014–06
  32. By: Hagen, Tobias; Waldeck, Stefanie
    Abstract: Recently prostate and ovarian cancer has been related to milk consumption. However, existing observational studies based on country level data do not attempt to identify causal effects since they are only based on simple cross-sectional analyses. This paper takes a step toward estimating of causal effects of milk consumption on cancer by applying panel econometric models and by using the within-country variation of the mortality rates and food consumption instead of the between-country variation in a panel of up to 50 countries for 1990 to 2008. Possible methodological problems arising from omitted variables (confounding factors), heterogeneity, and outliers are carefully discussed and a wide range of recent panel econometric estimators are applied. The results indicate fairly well that milk consumption increases both the mortality rate of prostate cancer as well as the mortality rate of ovarian cancer. The estimated effects are also important in quantitative terms, i.e., a reduction in the consumption of milk products can reduce the number of people dying of prostate and ovarian cancer appreciably. Furthermore, the consumption of other animal food products as well as sugar seems to be harmful. For the mortality rate of ovarian cancer we find that total calories intake increases the mortality rate too. --
    Keywords: Panel Econometrics,GMM,Dynamic Panel Data Methods,Fixed-Effects,Quantile Regression,Prostate Cancer,Ovarian Cancer,Cross-Country Analysis,Causal Effect,Quantile Regression,Bayesian Model Averaging,Extreme Bounds Analysis
    JEL: C33 Q18 I19
    Date: 2014
  33. By: Geoffroy Enjolras (CERAG. Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Appliquées à la Gestion, Université Pierre Mendès-France (Grenoble 2)); Fabian Capitanio (Dipartimiento di Economia e Politica Agraria, Universita degli Studi di Napoli); Magali Aubert (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA); Felice Adinolfi (Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche Veterinarie, University of Bologna)
    Abstract: Volatility in farm income represents a major challenge for farm management and for the design of public policies. This paper measures the extent to which risk management tools, especially direct payments and crop insurance, can significantly reduce crop income volatility in France and in Italy. We use an original dataset of 9,555 farms for the period 2003-2007 drawn up from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) and three different econometric models to explain the volatility of crop income. The results are contrasted between the specialization of the farms and the two countries. Italian farms use management tools (European payments, crop insurance and inputs) to improve their income and reduce its volatility. French farms use the same tools to raise incomes and their volatility and tend to substitute European payments with production. These results question the efficiency of structural policies aimed at stabilizing farmers' incomes.
    Abstract: La volatilité du revenu agricole représente un défi majeur pour la gestion des exploitations et pour la mise au point des politiques publiques. L’objectif de ce travail est d’évaluer dans quelle mesure les instruments de gestion des risques, en particulier les paiements directs et l’assurance agricole, peuvent réduire la volatilité du revenu agricole en France et en Italie. Les données retenues concernent 9555 exploitations et se réfèrent à la période 2003-2007. Elles ont été obtenues à partir du Réseau d’Information Comptable Agricole (RICA) et de trois différents modèles économétriques, élaborés pour expliquer la volatilité du revenu agricole. Les résultats diffèrent considérablement selon le type de spécialisation des exploitations et entre les deux pays. Les exploitations italiennes utilisent des instruments de gestion (paiements européens, assurance agricole et intrants) pour améliorer leur revenu et en réduire la volatilité. Les exploitations françaises utilisent les mêmes instruments pour accroître leur revenu et la volatilité du revenu et tendent à remplacer les paiements européens par la production. Ces résultats amènent à remettre en cause les politiques structurelles visant à stabiliser le revenu des agriculteurs.
    Keywords: volatility, farm income, farm management, insurance, fadn, france, italierevenu agricoleexploitation agricole, assurance agricole, paiement direct, revenu des agriculteurs, réseau d'information comptable agricolevolatilitégestion du risque
    Date: 2014
  34. By: Zhichao Guo (Beijing Technology and Business University); Yuanhua Feng (University of Paderborn); Thomas Gries (University of Paderborn)
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate changes of China's agri-food exports to Germany caused by China's accession to WTO and the global financial crisis in a quantitative way. The paper aims to detect structural breaks and compare differences before and after the change points. The structural breaks detection procedures in this paper can be applied to find out two different types of change points, i.e. in the middle and at the end of one time series. Then time series and regression models are used to compare differences of trade relationship before and after the detected change points. The methods can be employed in any economic series and work well in practice. The results indicate that structural breaks in 2002 and 2009 are caused by China's accession to WTO and the financial crisis. Time series and regression models show that the development of China's exports to Germany in agri-food products has different features in different sub-periods. Before 1999, there is no significant relationship between China's exports to Germany and Germany's imports from the world. Between 2002 and 2008 the former depends on the latter very strongly, and China's exports to Germany developed quickly and stably. It decreased however suddenly in 2009, caused by the great reduction of Germany's imports from the world in that year. But China's market share in Germany still had a small gain. Analysis of two categories in agri-food trade also leads to similar conclusions.
    Keywords: Agri-food trade, structural breaks, China's accession to WTO, financial crisis, change of trade relationship financial crisis of 2008, growth causes, structural breaks
    Date: 2013–11
  35. By: Sophie Legras (Centre d'Economie et de Sociologie Rurales Appliquées à l'Agriculture et aux Espaces Ruraux)
    Abstract: In this paper we study the interplay between residential location choice, sprawl and water quality. We propose an urban economics model of a, ï¬rst, monocentric, then, polycentric city with two di erent residential areas : sewer-serviced suburbia, with small residential lot size, and exurbia where wastewater management is individual and on-site and residential lots are larger to accomodate sanitary requirements. Sewer and septic are also characterized by di erent abatement e ciencies. Within this framework, where development is assumed contiguous, we analyse how wastewater management and commuting costs impact on residential location choice and consequently on sprawl and water quality. According to the abatement e ciency gap between sewer and septic technologies, improving water quality may be achieved at the expense of higher or lower sprawl. The extension to the polycentric setting allows introducing heterogeneities in wastewater and commuting costs that illustrate how independant policy makers may impact the sprawl and water quality of the entire metropolis.
    Keywords: wastewater management, septic system, sewer system, residential water pollution, land use, commuting, polycentrism.
    Date: 2013
  36. By: Donald F. Larson (Development Research Group, The World Bank - Banque mondiale); Julian Lampietti (Sustainable Development Department for Latin America, The World Bank - Banque mondiale); Christophe Gouel (Economie Publique, INRA; CEPII ; CIREM); Carlo Cafiero (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations); John Roberts (Agricultural and Resource Economics Department, University of Maryland)
    Abstract: In times of highly volatile commodity markets, governments often try to protect their populations from rapidly-rising food prices, which can be particularly harsh for the poor. A potential solution for food-deficit countries is to hold strategic reserves, which can be called on when international prices spike. But how large should strategic stockpiles be? This paper develops a dynamic storage model for wheat in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, where imported wheat dominates the average diet. The paper uses the model to analyze a strategy that sets aside wheat stockpiles, which can be used when needed to keep domestic prices below a targeted price. This paper shows that if the target is set high and reserves are adequate, the strategy can be effective and robust. Contrary to most interventions, strategic storage policies are counter-cyclical and, when the importing region is sufficiently large, a regional policy can smooth global prices. This paper shows that this is the case for the MENA region. Nevertheless, the policy is more costly than the pro-cyclical policy of a targeted intervention that directly offsets high prices with a subsidy similar to food stamps.
    Abstract: Lorsque les prix des matières premières sont très volatiles, les gouvernements essayent généralement de protéger leur population d'une augmentation rapide des prix agricoles. Une solution potentielle pour des pays importateurs nets de produits agricoles est de maintenir des stocks de réserve, qui peuvent être utilisés lorsque les prix mondiaux augmentent fortement. Mais quelle doit être la taille de telles réserves? Cet article développe un modèle dynamique de stockage pour le marché du blé dans la région Moyen Orient et Afrique du Nord, où le blé importé représente une part prépondérante de l'alimentation. Ce modèle est utilisé pour analyser une stratégie dans laquelle des stocks servent à maintenir les prix domestiques en dessous d'une cible. Nous montrons que si la cible est choisie suffisamment haute et les réserves sont adéquates, la stratégie peut être effective et robuste. Contrairement à la plupart des interventions, une politique de stockage stratégique est contra-cyclique et, lorsque la région importatrice est suffisamment large, une telle politique régionale peut lisser les variations du prix mondial. C'est le cas, dans ce travail, pour la région Moyen Orient et Afrique du Nord. Néanmoins, cette politique est plus coûteuse qu'une politique d'intervention ciblée qui limitent directement les hausses de prix par une subvention.
    Keywords: Food security, Middle East and North Africa, Price volatility, Strategic reserve, Wheat, Blé, securité alimentaire, volatilité des prix, prix agricolestockage, modèlemoyen orient, afrique du nord
    JEL: F1 O13 Q11 Q18
    Date: 2014
  37. By: Anne Stenger-Letheux (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière); Nicolas Robert (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière, INRA; Institut Géographique National)
    Abstract: Profits from forest management generally originate from harvested wood products or hunting leases. Other joint services such as biodiversity protection or landscape beauty are rarely paid for and are insufficiently provided. Payment schemes are designed to reduce this undersupply. In this paper, we analyze how paying for the additional provision of some services might affect the production of joint services. Payments should at least compensate for the loss of revenue resulting from providing more services. These opportunity costs can be estimated using a production possibility frontier in which the maximum profit from currently marketed outputs is a function of the externalities. We show that payment for a single service can threaten other services if there are diseconomies of scope. If at least two services are considered, then payments can either be made independently for each of them (stacking) or simultaneously in a bundle. In the case of bundling, the minimum payment amount corresponds the total opportunity cost whatever the interactions between services. In the case of stacking, if there are diseconomies of scope and if the amount paid for in- creasing each service equals the individual opportunity cost, then the total payment would not compensate for the total cost. Some services might remain undersupplied. On the contrary, if there are economies of scope then the total stacked amount will be greater than the total opportunity cost. Hence, it is critical to analyze interactions between ecosystem services because they are likely to change the profitability or the opportuni- ty costs related to increasing the production of the ecosystem services and so the schemes of payments
    Keywords: Ecosystem services, payments, joint production, Stacking, Bundling, service écosystémiquemodélisation économique, paiementgestion forestière
    Date: 2013
  38. By: Fabienne Femenia (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA; International Food Policy Research Institute); Alexandre Gohin (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA; Centre d'Etudes Prospectives et d'Informations Internationales)
    Abstract: Economic analyses of farm policies generally focus on long run, steady state impacts while the transition dynamics are often overlooked. In this paper we develop a determinist dynamic computable general equilibrium analysis allowing agents to form adaptive versus perfect expectations. Using an illustrative CAP reform scenario, we simulate an abrupt versus a gradual implementation of this reform. Our results show that if economic agents are able to perfectly anticipate the impacts of the reform, delaying its implementation is never optimal. On the other hand, if agents gradually learn from market developments, we find some cases where a gradual implementation of this reform is welfare improving. Such gradual implementation allows minimizing adjustment costs.
    Keywords: politique agricole, réforme de la pacbien-êtreeuropedynamique
    Date: 2013
  39. By: Tristan Skolrud; Gregmar Galinato; Suzette Galinato; Richard Shumway; Jonathan Yoder (School of Economic Sciences, Washington State University)
    Abstract: This article examines the effect of the Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS) and market power on the growth potential of the cellulosic biofuel sector. We develop a general equilibrium model to show how changes in the regulations governing cellulosic fuel production affect the equilibrium quantity of cellulosic ethanol. We find that an increase in the cellulosic biofuel production mandate does not have any significant effect on the equilibrium quantity of cellulosic ethanol given the opportunity to purchase waiver credits at low waiver prices. In contrast, raising waiver price slightly relative to the status quo significantly increases the equilibrium quantity of cellulosic ethanol. Given the relative infancy of the cellulosic ethanol sector, the market structure may change over time. When more firms enter and market power decreases, there is an increase in the equilibrium quantity of cellulosic ethanol. As market power declines, the marginal effect of an increase in the waiver price on equilibrium quantity of cellulosic ethanol rises which accelerates growth of the sector.
    Keywords: Cellulosic Biofuel, Renewable Fuel Standards, Waiver, Market Structure
    JEL: Q48 Q16 Q43
    Date: 2014–05
  40. By: Vanessa Persillet (Laboratoire d'Études et de Recherches en Economie, INRA); John Scott Shonkwiler (Agricultural and Applied Economics Department, University of Georgia)
    Abstract: The agro-food sector is strategic for the regions of the Great West of France. Based on interviews of 27 companies in the two industrial sectors of poultry and processed food, we show that the internal resources of the firm and its territorial embeddedness may be important factors determining the relocation decision.
    Keywords: délocalisation, secteur agro-alimentaire, ancrage territorial, variable latente, réponse binaire, entreprise agroalimentaire, industrie de la volaille, industrie de transformation, délocalisationfrancegrand ouest de la france
    Date: 2013
  41. By: Arief Anshory Yusuf (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University)
    Abstract: There has been an increasing attention to the recent increase in Indonesian inequality. From 2009 to 2011, Gini coefficient increased from 0.37 to 0.41, the highest ever recorded in Indonesian history. During the same period, the world prices of many Indonesian export commodities doubled. As those sectors, particularly mining, is highly capital intensive and skilled-labor intensive, this may increase the returns to factors more intensively used in those sectors, and thus has a tendency to increase inequality. Using the INDONESIA-E3 model, a Computable General Equilibrium model of an Indonesian economy, this paper investigates to what extent the increase in the world prices of Indonesian main commodity export (estate crops and mining) contributes to the increase in inequality in Indonesia. The impact of increases in the prices of 8 main Indonesian export commodities was simulated during the period of 2009-2011. The result suggests that they indeed increase inequality, yet with a magnitude of only a quarter of the increase in Gini coefficient observed during the period of 2009 to 2011. The dominant factors behind the increase in Gini coefficient can be traced to the increase in the world price of mining commodities rather than estate crops. The effect of increases in the world prices of rubber, palm oil, coffee, and tea is negligible and poverty-reducing in rural areas. On the other hand, the effect of the increase in the world price of coal, oil, gas, and metals generates a significant increase in inequality. These findings suggest that, from the perspective of equality, restricting export of estate crops commodities in the midst of the commodity booms will not be favorable to the poverty reduction agenda, particularly in rural areas.
    Keywords: Commodity prices, inequality, Indonesia, General Equilibrium, CGE
    JEL: I32 D58
    Date: 2014–06
  42. By: Carl Gaigné (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires)
    Keywords: système agroalimentaireurbanisationalimentation durable
    Date: 2013
  43. By: Federica DeMaria (Dipartimento di Economia e Statistica, Università degli Studi della Calabria); Sophie Drogue (Marchés, Organisations, Institutions et Stratégies d'Acteurs, INRA)
    Abstract: This article explores the effect of European Union (EU)’s food safety regulations on the trade of baby food products. A large number of medical studies have shown that pesticides and contaminants contribute to various health problems including cancer, lung disease or reproductive, endocrinal and immune system disorders. They also agree that children are more vulnerable to the dangers of pesticides and contaminants because as soon as they start eating solid foods, they eat a limited number of food items most of which are fruits and vegetables. In order to protect the health of the most vulnerable part of the population, the EU’s regulations establish that no more than 0.01 mg/kg of any single pesticide residue is permitted in baby food products. In this respect, the EU differs from most of its trading partners, the majority of which do not differentiate food safety regulations according to the consumer population age. The purposes of this paper is to compare the EU regulations on Maximum Residual Level of pesticides to those of its major trading partners through a severity index and quantify the impact of the specific European regulations on the trade of baby food products. Results show that the specific EU regulations may be considered as a tool protecting vulnerable population.
    Abstract: Cet article explore l'effet des réglementations de l'Union européenne (UE) sur la sécurité des aliments sur le commerce d'aliments pour bébé. Un grand nombre d'études médicales ont montré que les pesticides et les contaminants contribuent à divers problèmes de santé comme cancers, maladies pulmonaires ou des désordres du système immunitaire, endocrine ou reproducteur. Ces études s'accordent aussi sur le fait que les enfants sont plus vulnérables aux dangers des pesticides et contaminants car dès qu'ils commencent à manger des aliments solides, ils mangent un nombre limité de produits dont la plupart sont des fruits et légumes. Pour protéger la santé de la partie la plus vulnérable de sa population, l'UE a mis en place une réglementation qui établit que la limite maximale de résidus (LMR) pour n'importe quel pesticide ne doit pas excéder 0.01 mg/kg dans les aliments pour bébé. A ce niveau, la réglementation européenne est très différente de celle de la plupart de ses partenaires commerciaux qui ne différencient pas les réglementations en fonction de l'âge. L'objectif de cet article est de comparer la réglementation de l'UE sur les LMR de pesticides par rapport à celle de ses partenaires commerciaux grâce à un indicateur de sévérité et de quantifier l'impact de de cette réglementation européenne spécifique sur le commerce des produits pour bébé. Les résultats montrent que la réglementation de l'UE représente une barrière à l'entrée sur ses marchés, mais qu'elle a aussi un effet positif sur le volume du commerce.
    Keywords: food safety, pesticides, baby food products, market access, gravity modeling, sécurité des aliments, pesticidesécurité sanitaire, alimentation du nourrisson, modèlealimentation infantileaccès au marché
    Date: 2013
  44. By: Elodie Letort (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA; Association Régionale pour l'Agriculture Paysanne); Chalachew Temesgen Jemberie (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires, INRA)
    Abstract: The Bretagne region is an agricultural area located in the north-west of France. In addition to urban pressure, the competition for farmland is enhanced by strong environmental regulations and incentives. The objective of this paper is to study the determinants of farmland prices and especially the effects of environmental regulations to explain the spatial disparities observed in Bretagne. This paper mainly focuses on environmental policies which are intended to reduce the agricultural pollution of water with nitrates. Several environmental regulations have been implemented in the Bretagne region, which resulted in a complex zoning system with specific measures. To account for this local characteristic, we use the hedonic pricing model and take into account the potential spatial dependencies between farmland prices. For empirical application, we use a dataset of individual transactions in Bretagne from 2007 to 2010. The estimation results show an increase or a decrease in farmland prices in environmentally sensitive areas depending on the types of regulations applied in these areas. The results also emphasize the importance of spatial interaction in the farmland market.
    Abstract: La Bretagne est une importante région agricole située au nord-ouest de la France. En plus de la pression urbaine, les concurrences sur le marché de la terre agricole sont accentuées par les incitations publiques, qui sont très fortes en Bretagne pour la protection de l’environnement et de la qualité de l’eau. Cet article vise à mettre en évidence les différents facteurs qui influencent le prix de la terre agricole en Bretagne, et particulièrement les effets des régulations environnementales mises en place pour lutter contre les pollutions de l’eau par les nitrates d’origine agricole. Ces politiques ont abouti à la création de différentes zones environnementales sensibles soumises à différents types de mesures réglementaires ou incitatives. Un modèle de prix hédonique tenant compte des potentielles dépendances spatiales entre les prix est estimé à partir de données concernant toutes les transactions de terres agricoles notifiées par les notaires réalisées en Bretagne de 2007 à 2010. Les résultats obtenus montrent une augmentation ou une diminution du prix des terres agricoles dans ces zones environnementales sensibles en fonction du type de régulation appliquée. Les résultats montrent également l’importance des interactions spatiales sur le marché de la terre agricole.
    Keywords: politiques environnementales, fonction de prix hédonique, économétrie spatiale
    Date: 2013
  45. By: David I. Stern
    Abstract: The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is a hypothesized relationship between various indicators of environmental degradation and income per capita. As economies get richer environmental impacts first rise but eventually fall. In reality, though some types of environmental degradation have been reduced in developed countries others have not. Furthermore, the statistical evidence for the EKC is not robust and the mechanisms that might drive such patterns are still contested.
    Keywords: Economic growth, decoupling, pollution, environmental Kuznets curve, convergence
    JEL: Q53 Q56
    Date: 2014–06
  46. By: Quaas, Martin F.; Stöven, Max T.
    Abstract: The literature on trade in renewable resources implicitly assumes that the traded resources are perfect substitutes. We model trade in renewable resources as stipulated not only by autarky price differences, but also by consumers' love of variety. We show that the love-of-variety effect enables welfare gains from trade even if total consumption decreases. Total consumption may decrease because the love of variety weakens the link between resource scarcity and demand. If consumers are willing to pay the rising prices for harvests from increasingly depleted stocks, trade liberalization may end in stock collapse. The love of variety may thus threaten variety. --
    Keywords: trade,environment,renewable resources,open access,love of variety
    JEL: Q21 Q22 Q23 Q27 F18
    Date: 2014
  47. By: Osberghaus, Daniel
    Abstract: Public flood protection cannot totally eliminate the risk of flooding. Hence, private mitigation measures which proactively protect homes from being flooded or reduce flood damage are an essential part of modern flood risk management. This study analyses private flood mitigation measures among German households. The dataset covers more than 6000 households from all parts of the country, including flood plains as well as areas which are typically not at a high risk of riverine flooding. The results suggest that the propensity to mitigate flood damage increases i.a. with past damage experience and damage expectations for the future. The latter effect can be interpreted as a 'climate adaptation signal' in the flood mitigation behaviour. All other factors remaining equal, a strong belief in a climate-change-induced increase of personal flood damage in the next decades induces an increase of the probability of flood mitigation by more than 10 percentage points. Moreover, strong evidence for moral hazard effects in the flood mitigation behaviour cannot be observed. Households expecting insurance coverage do not reduce their mitigation efforts. Likewise, the expectation of government relief payments hinders mitigation only for some groups of households. --
    Keywords: Climate change,Adaptation,Flood mitigation,Moral hazard,Charity hazard,Germany
    JEL: Q54 D81 R22
    Date: 2014

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