nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2014‒05‒04
fifty-nine papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. From subsistence to profit: Transforming smallholder farms By Fan, Shenggen; Brzeska, Joanna; Keyzer, Michiel; Halsema, Alex
  2. Using evidence in unraveling food supply chains in Ethiopia: The supply chain of teff from major production areas to Addis Ababa: By Minten, Bart; Tamru, Seneshaw; Engida, Ermias; Kuma, Tadesse
  3. Interventions for achieving sustainability in tropical forest and agricultural landscapes: By Newton, Peter; Agrawal, Arun; Wollenberg, Lini
  4. Links between tenure security and food security: Evidence from Ethiopia: By Hagos, Hosaena Ghebru; Holden, Stein
  5. Land constraints and agricultural intensification in Ethiopia: A village-level analysis of high-potential areas: By Headey, Derek D.; Dereje, Mekdim; Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob; Josephson, Anna; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum
  6. Allocative inefficiency and farm-level constraints in irrigated agriculture in Pakistan: By Nasim, Sanval; Dinar, Ariel; Helfand, Steven
  7. Political economy of agricultural producer support in Malawi: An econometric test of determinants of producer protection in the maize sector: By Phiri, Horace; Edriss, Abdi Khalil
  8. Ethiopia’s value chains on the move: The case of teff: By Minten, Bart; Tamru, Seneshaw; Engida, Ermias; Kuma, Tadesse
  9. Women’s participation in agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia: By Woldu, Thomas; Tadesse, Fanaye; Waller, Marie-Katherine
  10. Agricultural mechanization in Ghana: Is specialization in agricultural mechanization a viable business model? By Houssou, Nazaire; Diao, Xinshen; Cossar, Frances; Kolavalli, Shashidhara; Jimah, Kipo; Aboagye, Patrick Ohene
  11. Neopatrimonialism and agricultural protection: The case of maize in Malawi: By Phiri, Horace; Edris, Abdi Khalil
  12. Development of a participatory action research approach for four agricultural carbon projects in east Africa: By Shames, Seth; Bernier, Quinn; Masiga, Moses
  13. The farm-level economics of conservation agriculture for resource-poor farmers By Pannell, David J; Llewellyn, Rick S; Corbeels, Marc
  14. Support to Agriculture in India in 1995-2013 and the Rules of the WTO By Brink, Lars
  15. Food security policy options for China: lessons from other countries By Kym Anderson; Anna Strutt
  16. Understanding return and volatility spillovers among major agricultural commodities By Amine Lahiani; Duc Khuong Nguyen; Thierry Vo
  17. Cows, missing milk markets and nutrition in rural Ethiopia: By Hoddinott, John F.; Headey, Derek D.; Dereje, Mekdim
  18. Small Farmers in High Value Chains: Binding or Relaxing Constraints to Inclusive Growth? By Briones, Roehlano M.
  19. Directional Volatility Spillovers between Agricultural, Crude Oil, Real Estate and other Financial Markets By Grosche, Stephanie; Heckelei, Thomas
  20. Patterns of adoption of improved rice technologies in Ghana: By Ragasa, Catherine; Dankyi, Awere; Acheampong, Patricia; Wiredu, Alexander Nimo; Chapoto, Antony; Asamoah, Marian; Tripp, Robert
  21. Urban food retail in Africa: The case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia By Woldu, Thomas; Abebe, Girum; Lamoot, Indra; Minten, Bart
  22. Efficiency and productivity differential effects of land certification program in Ethiopia: Quasi-experimental evidence from Tigray: By Hagos, Hosaena Ghebru; Holden, Stein
  23. Patterns of adoption of improved maize technologies in Ghana: By Ragasa, Catherine; Dankyi, Awere; Acheampong, Patricia; Wiredu, Alexander Nimo; Chapoto, Antony; Asamoah, Marian; Tripp, Robert
  24. Determinants and impact of sustainable land and watershed management investments: A systems evaluation in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia: By Schmidt, Emily; Chinowsky, Paul; Robinson, Sherman; Strzepek, Kenneth M.
  25. Hydrological modeling of sustainable land management interventions in the Mizewa watershed of the Blue Nile Basin: By Schmidt, Emily; Zemadim, Birhanu
  26. Economic evaluation of the Diamer-Basha dam: Analysis with an integrated economic/water simulation model of Pakistan: By Robinson, Sherman; Gueneau, Arthur
  27. From Saddles to Harrows: Agricultural Technology Adoption during the Russian Colonization in Kazakhstan By Elena Shubina; Sabine Henry
  28. The Importance of Taste for Food Demand and the Experienced Taste Effect of Healthy Labels – An Experiment on Potato Chips and Bread By Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Jonas
  29. Aflatoxin control strategies in the groundnut value chain in Ghana: By Florkowski, Wojciech J.; Kolavalli, Shashidhara
  30. The six "ins" of climate-smart agriculture: Inclusive institutions for information, innovation, investment, and insurance: By Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Bernier, Quinn; Haglund, Eric
  31. Special agricultural lending Institutions - the Case of Macedonia By Kovachev, Goran
  32. Evaluation of grassroots community–based legal aid activities in Uganda and Tanzania: Strengthening women’s legal knowledge and land rights: By Peterman, Amber; Billings, Lucy; Behrman, Julia A.
  33. Analyses of selected heavy metals and Aflatoxin M1 in milk for human consumption in Jhang City, Pakistan: By Younus, Muhammad; Abbas, Tariq; Rafique, M. Kamran; Sajid, Muhammad; Aslam, Muhammad; Zafar, Mujahid.
  34. Decentralizing agricultural public expenditures: Findings from a scoping study at the onset of a new stage in Ghana’s decentralization reform: By Mogues, Tewodaj; Omusu-Baah, Kwaku
  35. Collection and marketing of high value medicinal and aromatic plants from district Swat, Pakistan: By Sher, Hassan
  36. Options for Developing Countries to Deal with Global Food Commodity Market Volatility By Alexander SARRIS
  37. Spatial integration of cereal markets in Ethiopia: By Tamru, Seneshaw
  38. Agricultural Subsidy Policies Fail to Deal with Child Labour under Agricultural Dualism: What could be the Alternative Policies? By Dwibedi, Jayanta; Chaudhuri, Sarbajit
  39. Scaling-up adoption of improved technologies: The impact of the promotion of row planting on farmers’ teff yields in Ethiopia: By Vandercasteelen, Joachim; Dereje, Mekdim; Minten, Bart; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum
  40. The last mile(s) in modern input distribution: Evidence from Northwestern Ethiopia By Minten, Bart; Koro, Bethlehem; Stifel, David
  41. Ghana's commercial seed sector: New incentives or continued complacency?: By Tripp, Robert; Mensah-Bonsu, Akwesi
  42. Role of Agriculture in Economic Growth & Development: Nigeria Perspective By Yusuf, Sulaimon Aremu
  43. The cost of adapting to climate change in Ethiopia: Sector-wise and macro-economic estimates: By Robinson, Sherman; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Cervigni, Raffaello
  44. Fast Food As An Actual Form Of Modern Gastronomic Culture By Irina V. Sokhan
  45. The gendered impacts of agricultural asset transfer projects: Lessons from the Manica Smallholder Dairy Development Program: By Johnson, Nancy; Njuki, Jemimah; Waithanji, Elizabeth; Nhambeto, Marinho; Rogers, Martha; Kruger, Elizabeth Hutchinson
  46. Optimal Sequential Plantings of Corn and Soybeans Under Price Uncertainty By Michael Livingston; Michael J. Roberts; Yue Zhang
  47. Decentralized Regulation, Environmental Efficiency and Productivity By Ghosal, Vivek; Stephan, Andreas; Weiss, Jan
  48. Maize Price Differences and Evidence of Spatial Integration in Malawi: The case of selected markets: By Nyongo, Lovemore
  49. Structural change in the economy of Nigeria: By Adeyinka, Adedeji; Salau, Sheu; Vollrath, Dietrich
  50. Welfare Effects of Vegetable Commercialization: Evidence from Smallholder Producers in Kenya By Muriithi, Beatrice; Matz, Julia
  51. La agricultura colombiana de cara a los pactos bilaterales de comercio By Carlos Gustavo Cano
  52. Horizontal and Vertical Linkages between Formal and Informal Credit Markets in Backward Agriculture: A Theoretical Analysis By Chaudhuri, Sarbajit; Dwibedi, Jayanta
  53. Natural resource conflicts and community organizations in Bangladesh: By Sultana, Parvin; Thompson, Paul M.
  54. Viticulture and Adaptation to Climate Change By Vincent Viguié; Franck Lecocq; Jean-Marc Touzard
  55. Why did Mozambique’s public extension halt the implementation of the National Agrarian Extension Program (PRONEA)?: By Gêmo, Hélder; Chilonda, Pius
  56. Implications for Indonesia of Asia's Rise in the Global Economy By Kym Anderson; Anna Strutt
  57. Do Chinese individuals believe in global climate change and why? An econometric analysis By Jing Dai; Andreas Ziegler; Martin Kesternich; Andreas Löschel
  58. Climate Impacts in Europe. The JRC PESETA II Project By CISCAR MARTINEZ Juan Carlos; FEYEN Luc; SORIA RAMIREZ Antonio; LAVALLE Carlo; PERRY Miles; RAES Frank; NEMRY Francoise; DEMIREL Hande; RÓZSAI Máté; DOSIO Alessandro; DONATELLI Marcello; SRIVASTAVA Amit Kumar; FUMAGALLI Davide; NIEMEYER Stefan; SHRESTHA Shailesh; CIAIAN Pavel; HIMICS Mihaly; VAN DOORSLAER Benjamin; BARRIOS Salvador; IBANEZ RIVAS Juan Nicolás; FORZIERI Giovanni; ROJAS MUJICA Rodrigo Felipe; BIANCHI Alessandra; DOWLING Paul; CAMIA Andrea; LIBERTA Giorgio; SAN-MIGUEL-AYANZ Jesus; DE RIGO Daniele; CAUDULLO Giovanni; BARREDO CANO Jose Ignacio; PACI Daniele; PYCROFT Jonathan; SAVEYN Bert; REVESZ Tamas; BARANZELLI Claudia; VANDECASTEELE Ine; BATISTA E SILVA Filipe; IBARRETA RUIZ Dolores
  59. Attitude towards Risk and Production Decision: An Empirical analysis on French private forest owners By Marielle Brunette; Jérôme Foncel; Nazindigouba Eric Kéré

  1. By: Fan, Shenggen; Brzeska, Joanna; Keyzer, Michiel; Halsema, Alex
    Abstract: This food policy report presents a typology of the diverse livelihood strategies and development pathways for smallholder farmers in developing countries, and offers policy recommendations to help potentially profitable smallholders meet emerging risks and challenges.
    Keywords: Smallholders, Farmers, Subsistence agriculture, Agricultural development, agricultural transformation, Commercial farming, Land, Land use, land access
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Minten, Bart; Tamru, Seneshaw; Engida, Ermias; Kuma, Tadesse
    Keywords: agricultural transformation, value chain, Teff, Agricultural prices,
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Newton, Peter; Agrawal, Arun; Wollenberg, Lini
    Abstract: The rapid expansion of commodity agriculture in tropical forest landscapes is a key driver of deforestation. To meet the growing demand from a more prosperous and expanding global population, it is imperative to develop sustainable commodity supply chains that support higher agricultural productivity, and that enable improved environmental, economic, and social outcomes. Interventions by community, market, and state actors can enhance the sustainability of supply chains by affecting where and how agricultural production occurs. Global datasets were used to document the trends in deforestation and commodity agriculture production and a framework was developed to facilitate analyses of commodity supply chains across multiple interventions, commodities, and countries.
    Keywords: Climate change, Deforestation, Greenhouse gas, Livelihoods, supply chain, Sustainability, Commodities, Tropical climate,
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Hagos, Hosaena Ghebru; Holden, Stein
    Abstract: This study uses five rounds of household panel data from Tigray, Ethiopia, collected in the period 1998–2010 to assess the impacts of a land registration and certification program that aimed to strengthen tenure security and how it has contributed to increased food availability and, thus, food security in this food-deficit region. Results show that land certification appears to have contributed to enhanced calorie availability (calorie intake), and more so for female-headed households, either through enhanced land rental market participation or increased investment and productivity on owner-operated land. Results also show that members of households that accessed additional land through the land rental market had a significantly higher body mass index.
    Keywords: food security, Land tenure, Gender, Women, land registration, Nutritional status, households, land tenure reform, household data, tenure security, land certification, Land rental markets,
    Date: 2013
  5. By: Headey, Derek D.; Dereje, Mekdim; Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob; Josephson, Anna; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum
    Abstract: This paper explores the race between these two countervailing forces, with the goal of informing two important policy questions. First, how do rural Ethiopians adapt to land constraints? And second, do land constraints significantly influence welfare outcomes in rural Ethiopia? To answer these questions we use a recent household survey of high-potential areas. We first show that farm sizes are generally very small in the Ethiopian highlands and declining over time, with young rural households facing particularly severe land constraints. We then ask whether smaller and declining farm sizes are inducing agricultural intensification, and if so, how. We find strong evidence in favor of the Boserupian hypothesis that land-constrained villages typically use significantly more purchased input costs per hectare and more family labor, and achieve higher maize and teff yields and high gross income per hectare.
    Keywords: Land, Population density, Intensification, Farm size, Agricultural intensification, Land pressures,
    Date: 2013
  6. By: Nasim, Sanval; Dinar, Ariel; Helfand, Steven
    Abstract: In this paper, we estimate the allocative inefficiency of groundwater in Pakistani agriculture and compare it across a set of farm-level constraints, using a panel dataset of rural households. The farm-level constraints include tenure, farm size, access to surface water and location on a watercourse. We use a stochastic approach, based on a system of equations to estimate both the technical efficiency of farms and the allocative efficiency of groundwater use. The allocation of surface irrigation water in Pakistan is fixed per unit of land, so its allocative inefficiency cannot be estimate. Therefore, we will treat surface water as a fixed factor and focus mainly on groundwater. The analysis sheds light on the utilization of irrigation water across a set of farm-specific characteristics. It also provides a basis for a psssible redesign of water policy. The results in this paper constitute the empirical basis for policy work that we will focus on in our future work.
    Keywords: Irrigation, Water management, farm level constraints,
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Phiri, Horace; Edriss, Abdi Khalil
    Abstract: Malawi has struggled to achieve sustained agricultural growth over the last four decades. As such there is need for in-creased investment and supportive policies if greater success is to be realized. As a prerequisite to identifying the role that improved policies and investment can play, a better understanding is needed of the incentives that producers in the agricultural sector obtain currently. However, research on the subject has been scanty. For this study, annual Producer Subsidy Equivalent (PSE) for the staple food crop, maize, were calculated for the period 1970 to 2010.
    Keywords: maize, Agricultural growth, Agricultural policies, Taxes, producer subsidy equivalent (PSE),
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Minten, Bart; Tamru, Seneshaw; Engida, Ermias; Kuma, Tadesse
    Abstract: We study the value chain of teff, Ethiopia’s most important staple food crop by area and value. Based on large-scale primary surveys, we find significant changes in the last decade. First, there is increasing adoption of modern inputs (chemical fertilizer, improved varieties, and herbicides) by farmers, especially by those living close to urban centers. Second, quality demands are rising and there are important shifts from the cheap red varieties to the more expensive white ones. Third, we see an increasing willingness-to-pay for convenience in urban areas, as illustrated by the emergence of one-stop retail shops as well as by a sizable food service industry. Fourth, the share of rural–urban marketing, urban distribution, and milling margins in final retail prices is declining, indicating improved marketing efficiency over time.
    Keywords: value chain, staple crops, Food crops, Grain, Cereal crops, Teff, Agricultural inputs,
    Date: 2013
  9. By: Woldu, Thomas; Tadesse, Fanaye; Waller, Marie-Katherine
    Abstract: This paper uses a rich dataset from a survey undertaken by the Ethiopian Economic Association (EEA) and the Interna-tional Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in 2009 in eight woredas in seven regions of Ethiopia with a sample of 1,117 households and 73 agricultural cooperatives. Using descriptive statistics and econometric analysis under a critical gender lens, the paper identifies which cooperative, household, and individual level characteristics influence women’s participation in agricultural cooperatives. The findings suggest that a major barrier to women’s access are gender biases within households, communities, and cooperatives themselves that favor educated male household heads and land owners over resource-poor women.
    Keywords: Cooperatives, agricultural cooperatives, Women, Gender, women empowerment, Women in agriculture., Participation, Gender equality, Household behavior,
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Houssou, Nazaire; Diao, Xinshen; Cossar, Frances; Kolavalli, Shashidhara; Jimah, Kipo; Aboagye, Patrick Ohene
    Abstract: The Government of Ghana (GoG) since 2007 has been providing subsidized agricultural machines to individual farmers and private enterprises established as specialized Agricultural Mechanization Services Enterprise Centers (AMSECs) to offer tractor-hire services to small-scale farmers across the country. Current demand in the country is primarily focused on land preparation services, especially plowing. This paper assesses whether AMSEC enterprises are a viable business model attractive to private investors. Using firm investment theory and field-based data on costs, revenues, and tractor efficiency, this research examines the profitability of specialized agricultural mechanization service provision with a focus on land preparation. Findings suggest that the AMSEC model is not a viable business model, even with the current level of subsidy. Low operational scale is the most important constraint to the profitability of investment in specialized agricultural mechanization service provision. With such a low operational scale, it is essential to consider various options for introducing low-cost, small tractors suited to the current farming scale in the country. Also, a used tractor model is one of the options available for policymakers in the country. Tractor-hire services can play an important role in transforming smallholder agriculture, but with heavy subsidies on big and costly tractors, the subsidy policy can distort supply chain development. As a result, many better-suited and lower-cost machines are unlikely to be introduced into local markets.
    Keywords: Agricultural machinery, Land preparation, mechanization, Private investment, Small farmers,
    Date: 2013
  11. By: Phiri, Horace; Edris, Abdi Khalil
    Abstract: This empirical study uses data from 1970 to 2010 to estimate levels of neopatrimonialism in Malawi. We then test how neopatrimonialism has affected policy-induced agriculture producer incentives. Three dimensions are used to measure neopatrimonialism – systematic clientelism, a power concentration index, and control of corruption. All were negatively related to the level of producer support provided farmers by government. This suggests that the manifestation of a patronage system creates policy-induced disincentives to agricultural production due to worsening corruption, concentration of political power, and a crowding out of development expenditure by the costs of maintaining a bloated civil service. This result reaffirms the belief that neopatrimonialism results in poor performance of the agricultural sector of countries in sub-Saharan Africa
    Keywords: productivity, Agricultural policies, Incentives, maize, neopatrimonialism, clientilism, corruption, producer support,
    Date: 2013
  12. By: Shames, Seth; Bernier, Quinn; Masiga, Moses
    Keywords: Climate change, Agricultural development, agricultural carbon projects, action research, capacity building,
    Date: 2013
  13. By: Pannell, David J; Llewellyn, Rick S; Corbeels, Marc
    Abstract: The farm-level economics of conservation agriculture (zero tillage, mulching and crop rotation)are described, reviewed and modelled. The economics are defined broadly to include not just shortterm financial benefits and costs, but also the whole-farm management context, constraints on key resources such as labour and capital, risk and uncertainty, interactions between enterprises, and time-related factors, such as interest rates and the urgency of providing for the farm family. A wealth of evidence shows that these economic factors and variables related to them have significant influences on farmers’ decisions about adoption of conservation agriculture. Literature on the farmlevel economics of conservation agriculture for resource-poor farmers is reviewed. There is not a large body of high-quality relevant studies. Those that have been published highlight that the economics are highly heterogeneous and need to be considered on a case-by-case basis. Their results tend to indicate that it would be profitable to adopt conservation agriculture or components of it (although not in all cases). This contrasts with disappointing adoption in many of the regions of interest. Potential reasons for this disparity are discussed. A general model of the farm-level economics of conservation agriculture and its components is presented, and used to illustrate influences on the overall economic attractiveness of conservation agriculture. Key factors that would tend to discourage adoption in situations that otherwise look favourable include: the opportunity cost of crop residues for feed rather than mulch, the short-term reduction in yields under zero tillage plus mulching in some cases, combined with short planning horizons and/or high discount rates of farmers, farmer aversion to uncertainty, and constraints on the availability of land, labour and capital at key times of year. Good quality economic analysis should be used more extensively to guide research and extension in this area, particularly in relation to the targeting of effort, and adaptation of the system to suit local conditions.
    Keywords: zero tillage, legume rotation, mulching, crop residue retention, risk, uncertainty, adoption of innovations, cropping system, Zimbabwe, maize, groundnuts, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management,
    Date: 2013–08–01
  14. By: Brink, Lars
    Abstract: India has submitted notifications to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on domestic support to agricultural producers in 1995-2003. This paper reviews India’s notifications and summarizes the related discussion in the WTO Committee on Agriculture of some key issues relating to the rules of the Agreement on Agriculture on domestic support. It calculates price gaps for rice, wheat, cotton and sugarcane in 1995 to 2013 under four scenarios regarding the external reference price and calculates the resulting market price support using total production and procurement quantities. It compares the associated Aggregate Measurements of Support (AMSs) to their limits based on value of production. The AMSs show large excesses above their limits over many years until 2013 for several crops under some readings of the Agreement but much less so if certain adjustments are made. This highlights the differences among alternative interpretations of the Agreement in determining compliance with a country’s obligations, in particular the understanding of the fixed external reference price and the production eligible to receive the applied administered price. The paper puts India’s administered pricing in the context of the 2013 decision of WTO ministers regarding protection under some conditions against challenge under the WTO dispute settlement mechanism.
    Keywords: India, WTO, agriculture, domestic support, Aggregate Measurement of Support, market price support, fixed external reference price, eligible production, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade, F13, Q17, Q18,
    Date: 2014–04–13
  15. By: Kym Anderson; Anna Strutt
    Abstract: As China becomes more industrial and urbanized, it is likely to become more dependent over time on imports of (especially land-intensive) farm products, most notably livestock feedstuffs. If farmers are slow to adjust to their declining competitiveness, for example by obtaining off-farm employment, the farm-nonfarm household income gap may increase. A decline in food self-sufficiency may be perceived as undermining national food security, and a persistent farm-nonfarm income gap as contributing to social unrest. In these circumstances, what offsetting or compensating policy options should the government consider for ensuring adequate long-term food security and less income inequality? This paper evaluates China's historical record since 1980 and then projects China's economy to 2030, using the GTAP global economy-wide model. It draws on past policy experiences of both China and more-advanced economies to evaluate prospective interventions by government to address food security and income inequality concerns. The potential effects of some of those are estimated for 2030, again using the GTAP model. The paper concludes by suggesting alternative ways to achieve the fundamental objectives of national food security and less rural-urban income inequality, namely via generic social safety nets and improved rural infrastructure.
    Keywords: China's economic growth; Food security; Farm productivity growth; Global economy-wide model projections
    JEL: D58 F13 F15 F17 Q17
    Date: 2014
  16. By: Amine Lahiani; Duc Khuong Nguyen; Thierry Vo
    Abstract: We provide comprehensive evidence of return and volatility spillovers for the four major agricultural commodi- ties including sugar, wheat, corn and cotton over the recent period 2003-2010. Our results from the recent VAR- GARCH model of Ling and McAleer (2003) that allows for simultaneous shock transmissions of conditional volatilities of returns across commodities show the existence of substantial volatility spillover linkages between agricultural commodity returns and volatilities. Our findings are also particularly insightful for optimal portfolio designs and risk management through the computation of optimal weights and hedge ratios.
    Keywords: agricultural commodities, volatility spillovers, optimal hedging, VAR-GARCH.
    JEL: C32 Q14
    Date: 2014–04–28
  17. By: Hoddinott, John F.; Headey, Derek D.; Dereje, Mekdim
    Abstract: In rural economies encumbered by significant market imperfections, farming decisions may partly be motivated by nutritional considerations, in addition to income and risk factors. These imperfections create the potential for farm assets to have direct dietary impacts on nutrition in addition to any indirect effects via income. We test this hypothesis for the dairy sector in rural Ethiopia, a context in which markets are very thin, own-consumption shares are very high, and milk is an important source of animal-based proteins and micronutrients for young children
    Keywords: Dairy, Nutrition, Children, Milk production, malnutrition, child nutrition, stunting,
    Date: 2014
  18. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: Linking small farmers to modern markets, whether domestically or for export, increasingly entails participation in modern supply chains coordinated by contract farming. Concerns have been raised regarding the possible disadvantages from contract farming facing small farmers. Most empirical work points to a positive correlation between participation in contract farming and net farm income. Such a correlation fails to correct for endogeneity of participation; few studies have performed multivariate analysis with such a correction. This case study, based on a survey of smallholders in the tobacco industry, seems to be the first such application for the Philippines. The study finds that, correcting for endogeneity, participation in contract farming causes a sizable increase in farm profitability; moreover, participation appears to be biased toward smaller farm sizes. The findings are robust to the econometric method used and even definition of participation. This is further evidence to confirm that supply chains linking agribusiness with small farmers via contract schemes are a viable model of value addition and inclusive growth in rural areas. Policies should be implemented to support an enabling environment for expansion of supply chains.
    Keywords: Philippines, supply chain, contract farming, smallholders, treatment effect, instrumental variable
    Date: 2014
  19. By: Grosche, Stephanie; Heckelei, Thomas
    Abstract: The addition of commodities to financial portfolios and resulting weight adjustments may create volatility linkages between commodity and financial markets, especially during financial crises. Also, biofuel mandates are suspected to integrate agricultural and energy markets. We calculate directional pairwise range-based volatility spillover indices (Diebold and Yilmaz, 2012) for corn, wheat, soybeans, crude oil, equity, real estate, treasury notes and U.S. dollar exchange rates between 06/1998 and 12/2013. During the recent financial crisis, volatility spillovers from equity and real estate to commodities rise to unprecedented levels. Yet, we find no indication of a parallel increase of volatility linkages between agricultural and crude oil markets.
    Keywords: Volatility spillovers, financialization, generalized forecast error variance decomposition, VAR, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Financial Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Q13, C32, G11, G01,
    Date: 2014–04–17
  20. By: Ragasa, Catherine; Dankyi, Awere; Acheampong, Patricia; Wiredu, Alexander Nimo; Chapoto, Antony; Asamoah, Marian; Tripp, Robert
    Abstract: This study aims to provide up-to-date analysis using rarely collected nationwide data on the patterns of adoption of improved technologies for rice in Ghana.
    Keywords: rice, Agricultural productivity, crop yield, improved technology, improved seed, fertilizer use, Herbicides,
    Date: 2013
  21. By: Woldu, Thomas; Abebe, Girum; Lamoot, Indra; Minten, Bart
    Abstract: We study food retail in Addis Ababa, one of the biggest cities in Africa. Based on a primary survey of food retail outlets selling cereals, fruits and vegetables, and processed foods, we note high variation in quality and prices in the city and an increasing differentiation in food retail markets in recent years. On the high-end, we see the emergence of domestic (as foreign direct investment in retail is not allowed) private modern retail outlets that deliver high quality products at high prices and that focus mostly on wealthier areas and consumers. At the other side, we see cooperative retail that delivers food at controlled and subsidized prices. The latter shops are characterized by typical price control policy problems, reflected in regular lack of supplies and queuing. It seems that food retail markets would be improved by stimulating the emergence of a competitive private retail sector, the abolishment of price controls, and targeted subsidies or safety nets for the poor.
    Keywords: cooperative retail, Food retail, modern private retail, urban markets,
    Date: 2013
  22. By: Hagos, Hosaena Ghebru; Holden, Stein
    Abstract: Taking advantage of a unique quasi-experi-mental survey design, this study analyzes the productivity impacts of the Ethiopian land certification program by identify-ing how the investment effects (technological gains) would measure up against the benefits from any improvements in input use intensity (technical efficiency). For this purpose, we adopted a data envelopment analysis-based Malmquist-type productivity index to decompose productivity differences into (1) within-group farm efficiency differences, reflecting the technical efficiency effect, and (2) differences in the group production frontier, reflecting the long-term investment (technological) effects. The results show that farms without a land use certificate are, on aggregate, less productive than those with formalized use rights.
    Keywords: Land rights, Land ownership, productivity, land certification, data envelopment analysis, Malmquist index, quasi experimental design,
    Date: 2014
  23. By: Ragasa, Catherine; Dankyi, Awere; Acheampong, Patricia; Wiredu, Alexander Nimo; Chapoto, Antony; Asamoah, Marian; Tripp, Robert
    Abstract: The study aims to provide up-to-date and rarely collected nationwide data and analysis on the patterns of adoption of improved technologies for maize in Ghana.
    Keywords: maize, Agricultural productivity, crop yield, improved technology, improved seed, fertilizer use, Herbicides,
    Date: 2013
  24. By: Schmidt, Emily; Chinowsky, Paul; Robinson, Sherman; Strzepek, Kenneth M.
    Keywords: Water management, Sustainability, Land management, River basins,
    Date: 2014
  25. By: Schmidt, Emily; Zemadim, Birhanu
    Abstract: This analysis utilizes recent hydrological and meteorological data collected from the Mizewa watershed in order to better understand the physical impact of SLWM investments. The effectiveness of the simulated conservation practices (terraces, bunds, and residue management) are evaluated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model taking into account investment decisions on different terrain types.
    Keywords: Water management, Sustainability, Land management, River basins,
    Date: 2014
  26. By: Robinson, Sherman; Gueneau, Arthur
    Abstract: This paper describes the potential impact on the economy of Pakistan of building the Diamer-Basha dam. An integrated system of economic and water simulation models is applied to Pakistan to analyze the economywide impacts of changes in water resources in the Indus river basin, focusing on agricultural and hydropower benefits provided by the Diamer-Basha dam under different climate scenarios. The model framework links separate economic and water models, drawing on the strengths of both approaches without having to compromise by specifying either a simplified treatment of water in an economic model or simplified economics in a water model. The model system is used to simulate the impact of economic growth and changes in water resources over the long run, focusing on agriculture and hydropower. The results of scenario analysis indicate that the Diamer-Basha dam would improve the resilience of Pakistan to adapt to climate shocks, providing increased hydropower capacity and enhanced ability to manage the water system to offset climate-induced variation in river flows.
    Keywords: Rivers, Watersheds, Irrigation, Climate change, Dams, Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model, Computable General Equilibrium water model,
    Date: 2014
  27. By: Elena Shubina (Department of Geography, University of NamurAuthor-Name: Gani Aldashev; Department of Economics and CRED, University of Namur); Sabine Henry (Department of Geography, University of Namur)
    Abstract: Technology adoption in agriculture is one of the key factors of change in rural areas of developing countries. Large-scale in-migration by groups using a more advanced production technology often triggers such change in autochthone populations. We analyse the determinants of adoption of new agricultural technology by nomadic pastoralists using unique micro-level data from a historical episode of massive Russian peasant in-migration into Kazakhstan at the turn of the 20th century. We find that distance to Russian settlers is a key determinant of technology adoption, even after controlling for socio-economic and environmental characteristics. This effect is stronger for wealthier and less mobile Kazakh families with pasture land more suitable for agriculture. The adoption of new technology follows a heterogeneous pattern within the autochthone population, with important implications for the evolution of inequality.
    Keywords: technology adoption, nomadic pastoralism, migration, Kazakhstan
    JEL: N5 O33 O13 Q15
    Date: 2014–03
  28. By: Thunström, Linda (Department of Economics and Finance, University of Wyoming); Nordström, Jonas (Department of Economics, Lund University)
    Abstract: This paper quantitatively analyzes the importance of taste versus health in food demand, as well as the effect on consumers’ experienced taste of the non-intrinsic value of healthy labels. Our analysis is based on taste experiments and Vickrey second price auctions on potato chips and bread. Our findings imply a large positive effect on demand for potato chips from higher taste scores: when consumers’ experienced taste from potato chips improves by one unit, the average willingness-to-pay (WTP) for a 150 gram bag of chips increases by 25 euro cents. The estimated effect from taste on bread demand is smaller, but may be sizeable for subgroups of consumers. Our evidence suggests that demand for chips and bread is unaffected by nutrition – the effect of the healthy label on WTP is not statistically significant. Finally, we find that consumers’ experienced taste of a food is unaffected by the food carrying a healthy label.
    Keywords: willingness-to-pay for food; revealed preferences; taste; non-intrinsic value; healthy label
    JEL: D12 D83 Q18
    Date: 2014–04–23
  29. By: Florkowski, Wojciech J.; Kolavalli, Shashidhara
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to identify strategies to reduce aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts in Ghana in order to enable the development of competitive and safe groundnut-based value-adding enterprises. We examine the quality assur-ance institutions with oversight on the groundnut value chain and the perceptions and practices of farmers and other agents along that value chain. We also test for aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts and groundnut products that have received varying degrees of processing.
    Keywords: Groundnuts, Cash crops, Food processing, aflatoxins, value chain,
    Date: 2013
  30. By: Meinzen-Dick, Ruth Suseela; Bernier, Quinn; Haglund, Eric
    Abstract: This paper reviews the central role of institutions for climate-smart agriculture (CSA), focusing on the role of institutions in promoting inclusivity, providing information, enabling local level innovation, encouraging investment, and offering insurance to enable smallholders, women, and poor resource-dependent communities to adopt and benefit from CSA. We discuss the role of state, collective action, and market institutions at multiple levels, with particular attention to the importance of local-level institutions and institutional linkages across levels.
    Keywords: Climate change, Property rights, Institutions, Smallholders, Climate-smart agriculture, collective action,
    Date: 2013
  31. By: Kovachev, Goran
    Abstract: Accounting over 10% of country’s GDP, agriculture has substantial role in Macedonian economy. As a viable, yet risky economic sector, it is of great significance for this paper to show to the policymakers that creating special financial (sometimes state owned) institutions for lending in agriculture is a key element in helping farmers to enhance agricultural activities, thus to obtain self-sustainability. One such institution already operating in Macedonia is Agricultural Credit Discount Fund (ACDF). The main purpose of this study is to emphasize the importance of ACDF’s operations in expanding the outreach and accelerating economic welfare of farmers and rural poor. Brief analysis of ACDF’s performances in the last 10 years shows that the Fund operating in close collaboration with the participating financial institutions and the Government has significantly succeeded in increasing banks’ agriculture credit portfolio by 204%, decreasing interest rates by 8.5 percentage points and supporting over 15,000 jobs or about 1.6% of nation’s work force. The general conclusion of the study suggests that ACDF’s ‘modus operandi’ could be a guideline for similar institutions in developing and transition countries, as it creates prerequisites for easier access to finance, stronger competition among banks and increased income to its beneficiaries.
    Keywords: agriculture; Macedonia; agro-finance; Agricultural Credit Discount Fund; Macedonian Bank for Development Promotion
    JEL: E5 G2 H8 Q1
    Date: 2014–03–31
  32. By: Peterman, Amber; Billings, Lucy; Behrman, Julia A.
    Abstract: Progressive legislative actions in Uganda and Tanzania have improved women’s legal rights to land, however significant gender disparities persist in access, control, inheritance, and ownership of land at the grassroots level. One promising mechanism to improve the implementation of laws is through Community–based Legal Aid (CBLA) programs, which are typically designed as pro–poor to enhance legal empowerment of marginalized groups...A qualitative study of CBLA programs in Uganda and Tanzania was conducted by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) to assess the efficacy of CBLA activities, understand challenges faced by CBLA implementing organizations, and document opportunities and potential for scaling–up.
    Keywords: Gender, Women, land governance, Land rights, assets, Land ownership, Empowerment, Land inheritance, legal rights,
    Date: 2013
  33. By: Younus, Muhammad; Abbas, Tariq; Rafique, M. Kamran; Sajid, Muhammad; Aslam, Muhammad; Zafar, Mujahid.
    Abstract: Chemical contaminants in milk affect public health and levels above permissible limits can constrain exports under sanitary and phyto-sanitary agreements. A screening survey was conducted during 2012-2013 to determine concentrations of Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), and Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in unprocessed, non-branded liquid milk available at conventional milk shops in Jhang city of Punjab. For the heavy metals men-tioned above, samples were also collected directly from dairy herds near a wastewater drain in suburbs of the city. Concentrations of the studied contaminants were compared between winter and summer samples.
    Keywords: Dairy, Cow milk, Food contamination, Food safety, Heavy metals,
    Date: 2013
  34. By: Mogues, Tewodaj; Omusu-Baah, Kwaku
    Abstract: This paper offers insights into the current status of agricultural expenditure decentralization and draws out the likely implications of this stage in the decentralization process for agricultural service delivery and national strategies.
    Keywords: Agricultural policies, decentralisation,
    Date: 2014
  35. By: Sher, Hassan
    Abstract: The focus of the study was on the collection pattern of medicinal plants as an economic activity within District Swat and the likely destinations of these products in national or international markets. Local collectors/farmers and dealers were surveyed about their collection efforts, quantities collected, prices received, and resulting incomes. Herbal markets in major cities of Pakistan were surveyed for current market trends, domestic sources of supply, imports and exports of herbal material, price patterns, and market product-quality requirements
    Keywords: Drug plants, medicinal herbs, Medicinal plants, Markets, trade, Culinary herbs, high value minor crops,
    Date: 2013
  36. By: Alexander SARRIS (University of Athens)
    Abstract: The paper first reviews several issues relevant to global food commodity market volatility as it pertains to food security, and food importing developing countries, and then discusses international and national policies and measures to prevent or manage this volatility and related risks. It is shown that market volatility relates to unpredictability of market fundamentals, and price spikes occur when unpredictability increases excessively. The behavior of commodity prices and market volatility is reviewed and it is concluded that the exact modeling of these is difficult, making predictions of market volatility uncertain.  The risks faced by food import developing countries are discussed and it is highlighted that the major risks involve not only large and unpredictable price variations but also trade finance as well as import contract enforcement. The problem of identifying a price spike is analyzed and it is seen that, despite difficulties in commodity modeling, there are empirical techniques that allow the assessment of the probabilities of price spikes, and could facilitate the triggering of responses. There appear to be few cost effective ways to prevent market upheavals, but there seem to be some ways, reviewed in the paper, to instill more confidence in markets and hence reduce the chances of such abnormal events. Most effective appear to be ways to actively manage food market volatility and risks of excessive price spikes. A range of appropriate market and non-market based measures are reviewed and some new ideas are offered in this context.
    Date: 2014–04
  37. By: Tamru, Seneshaw
    Abstract: This study looks at the extent of and changes in spatial integration of cereal markets in Ethiopia over the last ten years. Based on weekly wholesale prices of the Ethiopian Grain Trade Enterprise (EGTE) and covering all major cereals in the country (three major types of teff [i.e., white, mixed, and red], white wheat, maize, and white sorghum), spatial integration of Addis Ababa with the most important regional wholesale markets in the country is analyzed. The estimation results indicate market integration has considerably improved over the last ten years for teff, wheat, and maize with faster price adjustments and lower estimated transaction costs. On the other hand, for white sorghum integration of regional markets with Addis Ababa did not improve over the last decade.
    Keywords: Market integration, cereal markets, Commodity markets, Cereal crops,
    Date: 2013
  38. By: Dwibedi, Jayanta; Chaudhuri, Sarbajit
    Abstract: We provide a theoretical explanation why agricultural subsidy policies are likely to fail to ensure simultaneous eradication of the incidence of child labour and improvement in the well-being of the poor working families in terms of a three-sector general equilibrium model with child labour and agricultural dualism. We identify both demand and supply side effects of any policy intervention on child labour. We also suggest two alternative policies, a scheme of direct cash transfer to poor people and economic growth through foreign direct investment (FDI), both of which would be effective in achieving these twin objectives of a welfare government.
    Keywords: Child labour, general equilibrium, agricultural dualism, agricultural subsidy policy, direct cash transfer, FDI-led growth
    JEL: D1 J1 J10 J13 O12 O17 O23
    Date: 2014–04–18
  39. By: Vandercasteelen, Joachim; Dereje, Mekdim; Minten, Bart; Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum
    Keywords: technology, yield, Teff, Cereal crops, Productivity, Improvement,
    Date: 2013
  40. By: Minten, Bart; Koro, Bethlehem; Stifel, David
    Abstract: Based on unique data from a quasi-experimental setting in northwestern Ethiopia, this study examines the “last mile(s)â€â€”from the input distribution center to the farmer—in the chemical fertilizer and improved seed distribution system. We find that increasing transaction and transportation costs over a 35 kilometer distance, along a route mainly accessible to foot traffic only, lead to a 50 percent increase of the prices of chemical fertilizer and to a 75 percent reduction in its use.
    Keywords: Agricultural inputs, modern inputs, fertilizer, improved seed, remoteness,
    Date: 2013
  41. By: Tripp, Robert; Mensah-Bonsu, Akwesi
    Abstract: This paper examines the current status and recent changes in Ghana’s commercial seed system for field crops. It includes a review of present performance and an examination of the factors that might influence the course of seed system develop-ment in the near future. The paper is timely because a number of changes in policies, regulations, responsibilities, and commercial interests mean that this could be a period of significant transition for Ghana’s seed sector, perhaps marking an end to the stagnation and complacency that have characterized the sector for the past several decades.
    Keywords: Seed markets, seed system, commercial sector, Private sector, Agricultural policy, Research and development, Agricultural research, Agricultural inputs,
    Date: 2013
  42. By: Yusuf, Sulaimon Aremu
    Abstract: The study explored empirically the role of agriculture in development of Nigeria between 1981 and 2012. The study is borne out of the curiosity to examine the role agriculture plays in the development of a nation having being neglected in this part of the world over a considerable period of time by the government and policy makers while the whole attention is paid on the crude oil. The term-paper takes analytical and quantitative dimension. The quantitative technique is employed in a multivariate study with the adaptation of the Solow Growth model that include Capital proxy by Gross Capital Formation (GCF), labour proxy by post secondary school enrolment, Agricultural Output and Economic Growth and Development proxy by RGDP. Restricted Error Correction Model is used with the aid of Econometrics View Package (e-view). The study reveals that the Agriculture plays a significant role in economic development of the nation. In addition, the sector has been neglected to the extent that its contribution to the GDP has been dwindling since 90’s. Consequently, the barriers to the agricultural sector performances were identified and the necessary policy recommendations were proffered.
    Keywords: Agriculture productivity, Growth and Development
    JEL: Q1
    Date: 2014–02
  43. By: Robinson, Sherman; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Cervigni, Raffaello
    Keywords: Climate change, Climate adaptation,
    Date: 2013
  44. By: Irina V. Sokhan (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This article analyzes the actual gastronomic practice of fast food. Traditional gastronomic culture is undergoing transformations in the modern world. New gastronomic scares are developing that are related to an inability to predict ingredients in consumed foods. Fast food is neutral on the basis of ethnic gastronomic cultures and is becoming a prevailing eating style. As opposed to fast food, alternative gastronomic practices are becoming more essential. They bear a relation to the establishment of individual patterns, the search for and selection of new diets, care for the information aspect of food, and a need to know its cultural and historical connotations. Those gastronomic practices that appear to reflect the primitive nature of human existence are registering present and future changes in people’s ways of life in a most adequate manner.
    Keywords: gastronomic culture, gastronomic practices, fast food, food technologies, culinary and gastronomic order, corporeality; power; identity.
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2014
  45. By: Johnson, Nancy; Njuki, Jemimah; Waithanji, Elizabeth; Nhambeto, Marinho; Rogers, Martha; Kruger, Elizabeth Hutchinson
    Abstract: This paper looks at the gendered impacts of a development project that provided improved dairy cattle and training as part of a broader effort to develop a smallholder-friendly, market-oriented dairy value chain in Manica province, Mozambique. The project targeted households, registered cows in the name of the household head, and, initially, trained registered cow owners in various aspects of dairy production and marketing. Subsequently training was expanded to two members per household to increase the capacity within households to care for cows, a change which resulted in a significant number of women being trained.
    Keywords: Gender, Women, assets, Dairy, Property rights, Livestock, Smallholders, mixed methods,
    Date: 2013
  46. By: Michael Livingston (US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service); Michael J. Roberts (Department of Economics, University of Hawaii at Manoa); Yue Zhang (Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics)
    Abstract: Optimal crop choice and fertilizer applications depend on the stochastic dynamics of commodity prices, fertilizer prices, and the agronomic effects of rotation versus monoculture. The efficient decision rule accounts for real option values associated with maintaining land disposition in an environment with highly uncertain future prices and irreversible past planting decisions. We parameterize a baseline model for a representative acre in Iowa and compare the model's predictions and profits to relatively naive, shorter-horizon decision rules, and a field managed with optimal fertilizer applications conditional on corn and soybeans always being rotated. We also examine the effects of a permanently larger premium on corn prices relative to soybean prices, which has been observed in locations near recently established ethanol plants. We then compare the various decision rules to actual crop choices in a panel of over 6500 Iowa plots during 1979-2007. As compared to less forward-looking objectives, we find the agronomic benefits of rotations coupled with real option values can lead to a more inelastic response of planting decisions to both transitory and permanent price changes. Always rotating, regardless of prices, is close to optimal, but so are shorter-horizon objectives. One implication is that reduced corn monoculture and fertilizer application rates might be implemented with modest incentive payments of $4 per acre or less.
    Keywords: crop rotations, uncertainty, option value, supply response, dynamic programming.
    JEL: Q11 Q12
    Date: 2014–04
  47. By: Ghosal, Vivek (Georgia Institute of Technology (Atlanta), European Business School Wiesbaden, and CESifo, Munich.); Stephan, Andreas (The Ratio Institute); Weiss, Jan (Jönköping International Business School)
    Abstract: Using a unique plant-level dataset we examine green productivity growth in Sweden’s heavily regulated pulp and paper industry, which has historically been a significant contributor to air and water pollution. Our exercise is interesting as Sweden has a unique regulatory structure where plants have to comply with national environmental regulatory standards and enforcement, along with decentralised plant-specific regulations. In our analysis, we use the sequential Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index which accounts for air and water pollutants as undesirable outputs. Some of our key findings are: (1) regulation has stimulated technical change related to pollution control, and has induced plants to catch up with the best-practice technology frontier with regard to effluent abatement; (2) large plants are more heavily regulated than small plants; (3) plants in environmentally less sensitive areas or those with local importance as employer face relatively lenient regulatory constraints; (4) environmental regulations trigger localized knowledge spillovers between nearby plants, boosting their green TFP growth.
    Keywords: TFP; DEA; Sequential Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index; pulp and paper industry; pollution; environmental regulations; enforcement; plant-specific regulation; productivity; Porter hypothesis.
    JEL: D24 L51 L60 Q52 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2014–04–24
  48. By: Nyongo, Lovemore
    Abstract: This study tests the long-run and short-run integration of maize markets in Malawi using the co-integration approach within the Vector Autoregressive modeling framework. The analysis is extended to Wald-F Granger Causality tests to see the direction of causality between maize markets. A total of six maize markets, two from each region, were analyzed. Three are urban markets, while two of the three rural markets are border markets. The study uses monthly maize retail prices for the period January 2000 to May 2008. Study findings show that nine out of the fifteen market pairs are integrated in the long-run, but the degree of short-run market integration is low, implying that the transmission of price information is slow.
    Keywords: maize, Prices, Markets, Market integration, co-integration, transaction costs, price transmission,
    Date: 2014
  49. By: Adeyinka, Adedeji; Salau, Sheu; Vollrath, Dietrich
    Abstract: We document that structural change accounts for approximately one-fifth of the total change in labor productivity in Nigeria between 1996 and 2009. Labor moved out of the agricultural and wholesale and retail trade sectors into manufacturing, transportation and communications, business services, and general services. While structural change did occur in this period, significant gains to aggregate labor productivity are still available from further shifts of labor to higher-productivity sectors. We discuss the factors limiting structural change, which include poor agricultural productivity, insufficient infrastruc-ture to support high productivity sectors, and a lack of appropriate skills in the labor force. We calculate that the gains still available to Nigeria from structural change are equivalent to an increase in value-added of 25 percent, given the existing productivity levels of sectors in 2009.
    Keywords: structural change, Agricultural productivity, Labor productivity, sector composition,
    Date: 2013
  50. By: Muriithi, Beatrice; Matz, Julia
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of smallholder vegetable commercialization through the export and domestic market channels on household income and assets in Kenya. We use a survey panel dataset, which allows us to control for unobserved heterogeneity across households, and show that the commercialization of vegetables through both market channels contributes positively to welfare, even when addressing the issue of selection into commercialization. While the production of vegetables for the export market is consistently associated with income in a positive way, the results for asset holdings as the measure of household welfare are weaker and supportive only for the domestic market channel, which weakens the notion of smallholder commercialization being a “pro-poor” strategy.
    Keywords: horticulture, commercialization, welfare, poverty, smallholders, Kenya, Agribusiness, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, O12, O13, Q13, Q17,
    Date: 2014–04
  51. By: Carlos Gustavo Cano
    Abstract: The primary obstacle to genuine multilateral global trade liberalization has been the extreme protection of agriculture in the wealthiest economies. The route left open after the collapse of the Doha Round is that of bilateral free trade agreements, which are of limited scope. The agreement with US is the result of Colombia's priority interest in making permanent the concessions granted temporarily to a portion of its exports in compensation for the fight against illegal drugs, but at the expense of the Andean Price Band System, which was the only mechanism for border protection against the subsidies to agriculture in the United States. In the agreement with the European Union, the winning sector was fruits and vegetables, and the loser was milk and dairy products. However, both treaties may lose relevance once the US and the European Union sign the treaty known as the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), given the huge trade diversion effect it would have. Depletion of the secular downward cycle in prices for agricultural products, and the onset of a new one characterized by an upward trend in the medium term could overwhelm the narrow spaces of such bilateral pacts with respect to the sector. To respond to these challenges and to seize new opportunities, Colombia should focus on the mass adoption of biotechnology and on resolving the conflict between current use of the land and its true agro-ecological vocation.
    Keywords: Agricultura, mercado, tratados de libre comercio
    JEL: F13 F14
    Date: 2013–08–23
  52. By: Chaudhuri, Sarbajit; Dwibedi, Jayanta
    Abstract: The paper shows that the policy of forging a vertical linkage between the formal and informal credit markets is distinctly superior to the existing credit policy of horizontally substituting the informal sector by the formal one. An inflow of subsidized formal credit to the informal lenders not only ensures better terms of borrowing to the small borrowers but also leads to higher agricultural productivity vis-à-vis the horizontal linkage case. Even if the informal sector lenders are allowed to collude, the informal interest rate is still lower in the vertical linkage case.
    Keywords: Formal credit, informal credit, horizontal linkage, vertical linkage, moneylender, collusion.
    JEL: D89 O1 O17 Q1 Q14
    Date: 2014–05–01
  53. By: Sultana, Parvin; Thompson, Paul M.
    Abstract: This analysis assesses community based organization (CBO) performance including conflict management over three years among about 150 floodplain CBOs and reviews experience in the five forest protected areas with co-management.
    Keywords: Fisheries, Forest, Forest management, Communities,
    Date: 2013
  54. By: Vincent Viguié (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Franck Lecocq (CIRED - Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] : UMR56 - CNRS : UMR8568 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - École des Ponts ParisTech (ENPC) - AgroParisTech); Jean-Marc Touzard (Unité mixte de recherche innovation, changement technique, apprentissage et coordination dans l'agriculture et l'agroalimentaire - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) - Centre international de hautes études agronomiques méditerranéennes [CIHEAM] - Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement [CIRAD] - CNEARC - Ecole Nationale Supérieure Agronomique de Montpellier)
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to lay out a series of issues of current concern to researchers in the social sciences, regarding the impact of climate change on the vine and wine sector. The challenge lies in evaluating the cost of transition from one system to another through an integration of the direct and indirect effects of climate change. This adaptation, whether reactive or anticipatory, combines technical and organisational innovations with localisation strategies and institutional changes. Such actions could either try to maintain the existing situation as much as possible or could try to bifurcate towards deep changes, entailing very different costs. Given the multitude of uncertainties at play, not to mention the necessity for continuous adaptation to an ever-changing climate, these costs are hard to quantify. This article will illustrate two sets of measures for wine cultivation adaptation: 'no regrets' measures, which offer immediate benefits, and 'reversible and flexible' measures, which limit the inertia of wine-cultivating systems. In spite of the challenges, what stands out is the evident re-enforcement resulting from the collaboration between researchers and political and economic actors. In the field of wine cultivation, these collaborations can follow two paths: the study of the diversity of existing wine-growing systems and genetic resources or the possibility of more radical technological and social experimentation.
    Date: 2014
  55. By: Gêmo, Hélder; Chilonda, Pius
    Abstract: This paper assesses critical factors that constrained the successful implementation of the National Agrarian Extension Program, (PRONEA, from Programa Nacional de Extensão Agrária), by MINAG’s National Directorate of Agrarian Extension (DNEA, from Direcção Nacional de Extensão Agrária), which resulted in a decision to halt PRONEA in 2010, three years after its launch. A conceptual framework for planning and implementing programs and strengthening pluralistic agricultural extension and advisory systems identified factors that should ideally have been taken into account before launching PRONEA in order to reduce the risk of failure. The analysis was based on a review of the literature about agricultural extension in Mozambique, official documents, interviews with key informants and experts, and field visits to various provinces.
    Keywords: extension activities, extension programs, Extension reform, Agricultural policies, Monitoring and evaluation,
    Date: 2013
  56. By: Kym Anderson; Anna Strutt
    Abstract: This paper projects Indonesia's production and trade patterns to 2020 and 2030 in the course of global economic development under various growth and policy scenarios. We employ the GTAP model and Version 8.1 of the GTAP database, along with supplementary data from a range of sources to support projections of the global economy. The baseline projection assumes trade-related policies do not change in each region but that endowments and real GDP do change, at exogenously selected rates. This enables us to analyse how potential global changes may impact the Indonesian economy over this and the next decade. We then consider the impacts of three potential policy reforms by 2020: an increase in global rice exports, as might be associated with the opening of Myanmar; Indonesia's recently-imposed export taxes on unprocessed primary products; and implementation of Indonesia's new Food Law.
    Keywords: Global economy-wide model projections; Indonesian economic growth and structural change; Food policy; Export taxes
    JEL: D58 F13 F15 F17 Q17
    Date: 2014
  57. By: Jing Dai (University of Kassel); Andreas Ziegler (University of Kassel); Martin Kesternich (ZEW); Andreas Löschel (ZEW)
    Abstract: This paper examines the extent and the determinants of individual global climate change be-liefs. In contrast to former studies, it is focused on China due to its crucial role in global cli-mate policy and its responsibility as the worldwide biggest producer of CO2 emissions. The empirical analysis is based on unique data from a survey among more than 1000 individuals from five cities in China, namely Beijing, Guangzhou, Chengdu, Wuhan, and Shenyang. In line with previous studies in other countries, our results suggest that the vast majority of al-most 90% of the Chinese respondents believe in the existence of global climate change, which seems to be a convenient basis for ambitious climate policy in China. Our econometric analy-sis reveals that the personal experience with extreme weather events (and particularly heat-waves) alone is already sufficient to increase global climate change beliefs, although conse-quential personal physical or financial damages lead to stronger effects. A rising number of extreme weather events and consequential personal damages in the future might thus further decrease climate change skepticism. Our estimation results additionally reveal that females as well as people in medium ages, with higher household incomes, a lower education, and from Chengdu or Shenyang are more skeptical with respect to global climate change.
    Keywords: Global climate change, beliefs and skepticism, extreme weather events, China, micro-econometric analysis
    JEL: Q54 Q58
    Date: 2014
  58. By: CISCAR MARTINEZ Juan Carlos (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); FEYEN Luc (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.7); SORIA RAMIREZ Antonio (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); LAVALLE Carlo (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.8); PERRY Miles (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); RAES Frank (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.7); NEMRY Francoise (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); DEMIREL Hande (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); RÓZSAI Máté (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); DOSIO Alessandro (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.7); DONATELLI Marcello (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.4); SRIVASTAVA Amit Kumar (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.4); FUMAGALLI Davide (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.4); NIEMEYER Stefan (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.4); SHRESTHA Shailesh; CIAIAN Pavel (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); HIMICS Mihaly; VAN DOORSLAER Benjamin (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); BARRIOS Salvador (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); IBANEZ RIVAS Juan Nicolás (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); FORZIERI Giovanni (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.7); ROJAS MUJICA Rodrigo Felipe (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.7); BIANCHI Alessandra (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.7); DOWLING Paul; CAMIA Andrea (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.3); LIBERTA Giorgio (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.3); SAN-MIGUEL-AYANZ Jesus (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.3); DE RIGO Daniele (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.3); CAUDULLO Giovanni (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.3); BARREDO CANO Jose Ignacio (European Commission – JRC - JRC.H.3); PACI Daniele (European Commission – JRC - JRC.F.7); PYCROFT Jonathan (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); SAVEYN Bert (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); REVESZ Tamas; BARANZELLI Claudia (European Commission – JRC - JRC.F.8); VANDECASTEELE Ine (European Commission – JRC - JRC.F.8); BATISTA E SILVA Filipe (European Commission – JRC - JRC.F.8); IBARRETA RUIZ Dolores (European Commission – JRC - IPTS)
    Abstract: The purpose of the JRC PESETA II project is to gain insights on the sectoral and regional pattern of the impacts of climate change in Europe by the end of this century. The assessment concerns both the biophysical and economic impacts of climate change. The study has as new elements a large set of impact categories (a total of ten: agriculture, energy, river floods, droughts, forest fires, transport infrastructure, coasts, tourism, habitat suitability of forest tree species and human health) and climate model simulations (a maximum of fifteen for some impact sectors). Six of those impacts are integrated into an economic setup (agriculture, energy, river floods, forest fires, transport infrastructure and coasts). This report details the main methodological aspects of the integrative project and discusses the main results, both in biophysical impact and economic impact terms.
    Keywords: Environmental economics, greenhouse gas emissions reduction, green tax reform, energy tax, energy-intensive sectors, competitiveness, multi-sectoral, computable general equilibrium model (CGE), scenario-building techniques, climate change impacts and adaptation assessment
    Date: 2014–04
  59. By: Marielle Brunette (LEF - Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA) : UMR0356 - AgroParisTech); Jérôme Foncel (Université Lille 3 Charles-de-Gaulle, UFR de mathématiques, sciences économiques et sociales - Université Lille III - Sciences humaines et sociales); Nazindigouba Eric Kéré (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I)
    Abstract: This paper deals with the forest owner's attitude towards risk and the harvesting decision in several ways. First, we propose to characterize and quantify the forest owner's attitude towards risk. Second, we analyze the determinants of the forest owner's risk attitude. Finally, we determine the impact of the forest owner's risk attitude on the harvesting decision. The French forest owner's risk attitude is tackled by implementing a questionnaire, including a context-free measure borrowed from experimental economics. The determinants of the forest owner's risk attitude and harvesting decision are estimated through a recursive bivariate ordered probit model. We show that French forest owners are characterized by a relative risk aversion coefficient close to 1. In addition, we found that the forest owner's risk aversion is influenced positively and significantly by gender (female), age, and willingness to protect the environment, while the percentage of forest income in the total patrimony of the forest owner has a negative effect. Finally, we obtain that the forest owner's risk aversion positively and significantly impacts the harvesting decision.
    Keywords: Forest owner's risk attitude; Risk aversion; Harvesting decision.
    Date: 2014–04–14

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