New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2014‒03‒30
thirty-two papers chosen by

  1. Assisting female farmers in exploiting the alternate gainful areas By Dwivedy, Nidhi
  2. Implementation of REDD+ mechanisms in Tanzania By Salas, Paula Cordero
  3. Farmland Investments in Africa: What’s the Deal? By Luca Di Corato; Sebastian Hess
  4. Externalities of Education on Efficiency and Production Uncertainty of Maize in Rural Malawi By Mussa, Richard
  5. River salinity and climate change : evidence from coastal Bangladesh By Dasgupta, Susmita; Kamal, Farhana Akhter; Khan, Zahirul Huque; Choudhury, Sharifuzzaman; Nishat, Ainun
  6. L’agro-écologie peut-elle se passer des normes ? Commentaire à partir du rapport INRA/CGSP By Philippe Le Goffe
  7. Does Land Titling Matter ?The Role of Land Property Rights in the War on Illicit Crops in Colombia By Juan Carlos Munoz Mora; Santiago Tobon-Zapata; Jesse Willem D'Anjou
  8. World Tariff Liberalization in Agriculture: An Assessment Following a Global CGE Trade Model for EU15 Regions By Gabriele Standardi; Federico Perali; Luca Pieroni
  9. Dynamic spillovers among major energy and cereal commodity prices By Walid Mensi; Shawkat Hammoudeh; Duc Khuong Nguyen; Seong-Min Yoon
  10. Wildfires in Poland: the impact of risk preferences and loss aversion on environmental choices By Anna Bartczak; Susan Chilton; Jürgen Meyerhoff
  11. Wine and Climate Change By Ashenfelter, Orley; Storchmann, Karl
  12. On the Use of Palynological Data in Economic History: New Methods and an Application to Agricultural Output in Central Europe, 0–2000 AD By Izdebski, Adam; Koloch, Grzegorz; Słoczyński, Tymon; Tycner-Wolicka, Marta
  13. The influence of biofuels, economic and financial factors on daily returns of commodity futures prices By Algieri, Bernardina
  14. What are Households Willing to Pay for Better Tap Water Quality? A Cross-Country Valuation Study By Olivier Beaumais; Anne Briand; Katrin Millock; Céline Nauges
  15. Climate Amenities and Adaptation to Climate Change: A Hedonic-Travel Cost Approach for Europe By Salvador Barrios; J. Nicolás Ibañez Rivas
  16. Explaining gender differentials in agricultural production in Nigeria By Oseni, Gbemisola; Corral, Paul; Goldstein, Markus; Winters, Paul
  17. Measuring consumer preferences using hybrid discrete choice models By Palma, David; Dios Ortuzar, Juan de; Casaubon, Gerard; Rizzi, Luis I.; Agosin, Eduardo
  18. Poverty and natural disasters: A meta-analysis By Karim, Azreen; Noy, Ilan
  19. Time is of the Essence: Adaptation of Tourism Demand to Climate Change in Europe By Salvador Barrios; J. Nicolás Ibañez
  20. Production and consumption-based approaches for the Environmental Kuznets Curve in Latin America using Ecological Footprint By Marie-Sophie Hervieux; Olivier Darné
  21. Threshold Effects in Self-Enforcing International Environmental Agreements By Renaud Foucart; Grégoire Garsous
  22. Exports and Firm Profitability: Quality matters! By Wagner, Joachim
  23. Governance Matters: Universal Access to Water By Anillo, Andrea; Boehm, Frédéric; Polo-Otero, José
  24. Rural Electrification in Rwanda : A Measure of Willingness to Contribute Time and Money By Thierry Kalisa
  25. Do land use policies follow road construction? By Miquel-Àngel Garcia-López; Albert Solé-Ollé; Elisabet Viladecans-Marsal
  26. Estimating the economic benefits of a Wetland restoration program in New Zealand: A contingent valuation approach By Ndebele, Tom; Forgie, Vicky; Vu, Huong
  27. Do the Poor Pay More for Maize in Malawi? By Mussa, Richard
  28. Private environmental governance through cross-sector partnerships: Tensions between competition and effectiveness By Tobias Hahn; Jonatan Pinkse
  29. Does Distance Matter for Institutional Delivery in Rural India? By Santosh Kumar; Emily Dansereau; Chris Murray
  30. A spatial econometric approach to spillover effects between protected areas and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon By Ariane Manuela AMIN; Johanna Choumert; Pascale Combes Motel; Jean-Louis Combes; Eric Nazindigouba KERE; Jean Galbert ONGONO OLINGA; Sonia Schwartz
  31. Accounting in Agriculture: Disclosure practices of listed firms By Rute Gonçalves; Patrícia Lopes
  32. Towards a sustainable capacity expansion of the Danish biogas sector By Mikkel Bojesen; Luc Boerboom; Hans Skov-Petersen

  1. By: Dwivedy, Nidhi
    Abstract: The researcher has studied the “Role of female labour in farming sector: a study of state of Sikkim”. Various parameters have been studied under this heading of which farming female’s view to opt for any other activity to augment their income along with farming is one of them. In the region despite majority of the population is dependent on agriculture sector, still it is in the evolving shape and poses a variety of challenges. Social science research in the state of Sikkim is inadequate despite several incentives provided by the state government. The contribution of women in this noble sector is although enormous yet invisible and does not get counted for much. Considering that woman make up the majority of the people in the farming sector with low accessibility and also, now-a-days, with voluminous amount of public expenditure on women empowerment schemes, we cannot ignore this issue thus making it unavoidable to empower them also with the intention to fully utilize their calibre in this field. Keeping this in mind, the present study has analysed the female farmer’s views about opting for any entrepreneurial activity except agriculture to increase their income in the region by collecting data from 230 female farmers through interviews using a pre-designed schedule from 24 circles from all the four districts of Sikkim State. Based on their subjective judgments, female farmer’s views have been measured and analysed using the Statistical Package for the Social Science. Some descriptive statistics, such as percentage as well as one sample t-test of inferential statistics is used to interpret the data. The findings of the study revealed that more number of sample female farmers on an average are interested in and hold the view of doing anything except agriculture and want to opt for any entrepreneurial activity. Results pertaining to these findings have been discussed in this book. Poor socio-economic condition of the female farmers has also been observed. Therefore, in this book some areas of gainful employment to improve the socio-economic condition of the stakeholders have also been discussed. Also the state has a target of converting it into a fully organic state by 2015. Therefore an attempt has also been made in this book to overcome female farmer’s problems to improve their socio-economic condition & to increase food security by presenting a flow diagram of Integrated Dry land Commercial Farming by Rainwater Harvesting, which can be proved beneficial to the farmers.
    Keywords: Farming Females, Allied Agriculture Sector, Sericulture, Sikkim
    JEL: Q12
    Date: 2014–01–25
  2. By: Salas, Paula Cordero
    Abstract: This paper explains the major issues and lessons derived from the national forest management program and REDD+ initiatives in Tanzania. It finds that addressing the most important drivers of forest degradation and deforestation, in particular the country energy needs and landownership, is essential for success in reducing emissions regardless of the type of program implemented. It also finds that, through the national program, forest users have learned to maximize profit from the sustainable use of the forest; however, the program reports great variability in the success of forest conservation. REDD+ may complement the national program by adding funding and other resources to start projects at the local level while giving additional payments for the permanence of carbon stocks may help to improve the social outcomes of those villages practicing sustainable forest management. However, a careful characterization of the national projects is necessary to generalize how REDD+ can be effectively implemented so that additional economic and environmental benefits are generated over what the national program is already achieving. Addressing this issue is key for identifying the conditions under which REDD+ achieves environmental additionality in Tanzania.
    Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Wildlife Resources,Forestry,Climate Change and Environment,Environmental Economics&Policies
    Date: 2014–03–01
  3. By: Luca Di Corato (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden); Sebastian Hess (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden)
    Abstract: Large-scale foreign investments in African farmland are rising and may contribute to agricultural productivity growth and economic development. However, host countries sometimes have to wait longer for the economic benefits to arrive than initially expected. In this respect, the timing of project development is crucial and depends on the economic incentives provided to the investors. We therefore present a dynamic stochastic programming model that reflects the typical bargaining situation concerning large land deals in Africa and allows the effect of market- and country-specific risks and taxation to be assessed. The model shows that commodity price volatility increases the value of the land development option, but slows down the land development process. Furthermore, it shows that host country attempts to negotiate fixed commitments to the speed of project development may run counter to the structure of economic incentives at the project site. The applicability of the model is demonstrated for a recent 10,000-hectare cotton project in Ethiopia. Response surface estimations suggest that Ethiopia has negotiated a contract under which it will receive about half the expected total project value, as long as it levies the regular corporate tax rate.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Land Leasing, Real Options, Nash Bargaining
    JEL: C61 D81 F23 Q24
    Date: 2014–03
  4. By: Mussa, Richard
    Abstract: The paper looks at the existence, nature and form of intrahousehold and interhousehold externalities of education on efficiency and production uncertainty of maize in rural Malawi. Data from the Third Integrated Household Survey are used. I find statistically and economically significant positive intrahousehold and interhousehold externalities of education on both efficiency and production uncertainty, and that the intrahousehold externality effects are larger than interhousehold externality effects. Community level schooling is found to substitute for household level schooling in the sense that farmers who reside in households where members are not educated have relatively higher efficiency and lower production uncertainty on account of living in communities where some inhabitants are educated. The paper also finds that the intrahousehold and interhousehold externality effects are more pronounced for the least efficient farmers, and that they are monotonic, and largest when schooling is relatively low.
    Keywords: intrahousehold; interhousehold;externality; Malawi
    JEL: D1
    Date: 2014–02–04
  5. By: Dasgupta, Susmita; Kamal, Farhana Akhter; Khan, Zahirul Huque; Choudhury, Sharifuzzaman; Nishat, Ainun
    Keywords: Wetlands,Water Conservation,Water Supply and Systems,Common Property Resource Development,Water Supply and Sanitation Governance and Institutions
    Date: 2014–03–01
  6. By: Philippe Le Goffe
    Abstract: [paper in French] Based on the INRA/CGSP report, we question the ecological and economic performance of conventional agriculture. “Double performance” is rejected for some agricultural practices or not proved for others. Economic literature shows that innovation is triggered by environmental regulation. We conclude that agroecology cannot develop itself on a voluntary basis.
    Keywords: Agroecology, agriculture, environment, economics, environmental policy, innovation, voluntary approaches
    JEL: Q18 Q28 Q58
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Juan Carlos Munoz Mora; Santiago Tobon-Zapata; Jesse Willem D'Anjou
    Keywords: land property rights; coca crops; war on drugs
    Date: 2014–02
  8. By: Gabriele Standardi (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Federico Perali (University of Verona, Department of Economic Sciences); Luca Pieroni (University of Perugia, Department of Economics, Finance and Statistics)
    Abstract: This paper aims at modeling a global CGE trade model for the EU15 subnational regions. This model is used to assess production reallocation across sectors in each EU15 region, assuming a scenario in which world tariff liberalization is implemented in the agricultural sector. The model is parsimonious in terms of data, focusing on unskilled and skilled labor as the source of heterogeneity across regions. A stylized model is built to interpret trade policy effects. Results show decreases in agricultural production in the EU15 of about 0.93%. All regions reduce agriculture but show different magnitudes in the relative changes of production. Large reallocation effects are observed between manufactures and services, some regions specializing in the former and others in the latter. In addition, the introduction of labor mobility within the EU15 and the EU27 causes strong amplification effects in manufactures and services.
    Keywords: CGE modeling; International trade; Agriculture
    JEL: F13 D58 Q17
    Date: 2014–03
  9. By: Walid Mensi; Shawkat Hammoudeh; Duc Khuong Nguyen; Seong-Min Yoon
    Abstract: Over the past decade, the sharp increases in the prices of oil and agricultural commodities have raised serious concerns about the heightened volatility of these markets and the possible negative interactions between them. This article deals with the dynamic return and volatility spillovers across internationally traded energy and cereal commodity markets. It also examines the impacts of three types of OPEC news announcements on the volatility spillovers and persistence in these markets. For this purpose, we make use of the VAR-BEKK-GARCH and VAR-DCC-GARCH models for the daily prices of eight major commodities including WTI oil, Europe Brent oil, gasoline, heating oil #2, barley, corn, sorghum, and wheat. Our results provide evidence of significant linkages between the energy and cereal markets. Moreover, the OPEC news announcements are found to exert influence on the oil markets as well as on the oil-cereal relationships. Finally, we show that the persistence of volatility decreases (increases) for the crude oil and heating (gasoline) returns after accounting for the OPEC announcements in these multivariate GARCH models. However, the results are more mixed for the cereal markets. Overall, our results can be used to improve the risk-adjusted performance by having more diversified portfolios and also serve to hedge the oil risk more effectively.
    Keywords: Cereal, Energy, OPEC meetings, Volatility spillovers, Multivariate GARCH
    JEL: G14 G15
    Date: 2014–02–25
  10. By: Anna Bartczak (Faculty of Economic Sciences, Warsaw Ecological Economics Center , University of Warsaw); Susan Chilton (Newcastle University Business School); Jürgen Meyerhoff (Technische Universität Berlin, Institute for Landscape and Environmental Planning)
    Abstract: This paper examines how risk preferences and loss aversion affect choices over a risky environmental good, wildfire prevention in Poland. We collect data in a stated preference survey that allows us to calculate both risk aversion and loss aversion parameters from individual respondents in both the financial and environmental domains. In doing so, we are able to confirm that this behaviour is consistent with prospect theory and holds for the majority of respondents. Additionally, we find little evidence of domain specificity of risk: responses to the financial risk questions were good predictors of responses to the environmental risk questions.
    Keywords: risk preferences over financial and environmental domains, forest fires, loss aversion, probability weighting, prospect theory
    JEL: Q51 D03 D81
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Ashenfelter, Orley; Storchmann, Karl
    Abstract: In this article we provide an overview of the extensive literature on the impact of weather and climate on grapes and wine with the goal of describing how climate change is likely to affect their production. We start by discussing the physical impact of weather on vine phenology, berry composition and yields, and then survey the economic literature measuring the effects of temperature on wine quality, prices, costs and profits and how climate change will affect these. We also describe what has been learned so far about possible adaptation strategies for grape growers that would allow them to mitigate the economic effects of climate change. We conclude that climate change is likely to produce winners and losers, with the winners being those closer to the North and South Poles. There are also likely to be some substantial short run costs as growers adapt to climate change. Nevertheless, wine making has survived through thousands of years of recorded history, a history that includes large climate changes.
    Keywords: wine, climate change, Demand and Price Analysis, Environmental Economics and Policy, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2014–03
  12. By: Izdebski, Adam; Koloch, Grzegorz; Słoczyński, Tymon; Tycner-Wolicka, Marta
    Abstract: In this paper we introduce a new source of data to economic history: palynological data, i.e. information about pollen grains which are preserved in bottom sediments of various water basins. We discuss how this data is collected and how it should be interpreted; develop new methods for aggregating this information into regional trends in agricultural output; construct an extensive data set with a large number of pollen sites from Central Europe; and use our methods to study the economic history of Greater Poland, Lesser Poland, Bohemia, Brandenburg, and Lower Saxony since the first century AD.
    Keywords: agricultural output, biological measures of economic history, Central Europe, palynology
    JEL: C65 N01 N50 N53 N93 O13 Q19
    Date: 2014–03
  13. By: Algieri, Bernardina
    Abstract: Biofuels production has experienced rapid growth worldwide as one of several strategies to promote green energy economies. Indeed, climate change mitigation and energy security have been frequent rationales behind biofuel policies, but biofuels production could generate negative impacts, such as additional demand for feedstocks, and therefore for land on which to grow them, with a consequent increase in food commodity price. In this context, this paper examines the effect of biofuels and other economic and financial factors on daily returns of a group of commodity futures prices using Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) family models in univariate and multivariate settings. The results show that a complex of drivers are relevant in explaining commodity futures returns; more precisely, the Standard and Poor’s (S&P) 500 positively affects commodity markets, while the US/Euro exchange rate brings about a decline in commodity returns. It turns out, in addition, that energy market returns are significant in explaining commodity returns on a daily basis, while monetary liquidity does not. Finally, the GARCH model has shown that current variance is influenced more by its past values than by the previous day’s shocks, and there is high persistence, meaning that variance slowly decays and prompts a sluggish “revert to the mean.” The multivariate BEKK framework confirms the results of the univariate setting.
    Keywords: futures returns, biofuels, univariate and multivariate GARCH, Environmental Economics and Policy, Financial Economics, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, C58, G15, Q14, Q43,
    Date: 2014–02
  14. By: Olivier Beaumais (EconomiX, CNRS – France and LISA, CNRS, France); Anne Briand (CREAM, University of Rouen, France); Katrin Millock (Paris School of Economics, CNRS, Centre d’Economie de la Sorbonne, France); Céline Nauges (The University of Queensland, Australia)
    Abstract: We estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for better quality of tap water on a unique cross-section sample from 10 OECD countries. On the pooled sample, households are willing to pay 7.5% of the median annual water bill to improve the tap water quality. The highest relative WTP for better tap water quality was found in the countries with the highest percentage of respondents being unsatisfied with tap water quality because of health concerns. The expected WTP increased with income, education, environmental concern, and health and taste concerns with the tap water.
    Keywords: Contingent Valuation, Household Data, Interval Model, Water Quality, Willingness to Pay
    JEL: C24 D12 Q25 Q51
    Date: 2014–03
  15. By: Salvador Barrios (Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Joint Research Centre, European Commission); J. Nicolás Ibañez Rivas (Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Joint Research Centre, European Commission)
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of climatic change on welfare in European regions using a hedonic travel-cost framework and focusing on tourism demand. Our hedonic price estimations combine detailed hotel price information with tourism-specific travel cost estimations for each pair of EU region. This approach allows us to estimate different valuations of climate amenities depending on time duration of holidays. In our analysis of adaptation to climate change we therefore consider holiday duration as variable of adaptation. Our findings suggest that the rise in temperature in preferred destination choices during the summer season (i.e. southern EU) is likely to yield significant welfare losses. As a result European tourists are more likely to spend shorter (and more frequent) holidays and to diversify their destination choices in order to mitigate these losses.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Hedonic Prices, Travel Cost, Tourism, Europe
    JEL: L8 Q5
    Date: 2014–02
  16. By: Oseni, Gbemisola; Corral, Paul; Goldstein, Markus; Winters, Paul
    Abstract: This paper uses data from the General Household Survey Panel 2010/11 to analyze differences in agricultural productivity across male and female plot managers in Nigeria. The analysis utilizes the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method, which allows for decomposing the unconditional gender gap into (i) the portion caused by observable differences in the factors of production (endowment effect) and (ii) the unexplained portion caused by differences in returns to the same observed factors of production (structural effect). The analysis is conducted separately for the North and South regions, excluding the west of the country. The findings show that in the North, women produce 28 percent less than men after controlling for observed factors of production, while there are no significant gender differences in the South. In the decomposition results, the structural effect in the North is larger than the endowment at the mean. Although women in the North have access to less productive resources than men, the results indicate that even if given the same level of inputs, significant differences still emerge. However for the South, the decomposition results show that the endowment effect is more important than the structural effect. Access to resources explains most of the gender gap in the South and if women are given the same level of inputs as men, the gap will be minimal. The difference in the results for the North and South suggests that policy should vary by region.
    Keywords: Gender and Health,Gender and Development,Gender and Law,Rural Development Knowledge&Information Systems,Labor Policies
    Date: 2014–03–01
  17. By: Palma, David; Dios Ortuzar, Juan de; Casaubon, Gerard; Rizzi, Luis I.; Agosin, Eduardo
    Abstract: Wine is a complex product. Preferences for it are not only highly heterogeneous throughout the population, but also amply susceptible to context. The objective of this study is to discover and measure these preferences, focusing on a set of non-sensory attributes of wine. To identify the most relevant non-sensory attributes of wine, from the consumers’ standpoint we considered four sources: existing literature, a Delphi survey (applied to wine marketing experts), in- depth interviews and a web-page survey answered by fairly large sample of wine consumers. Not all sources were consistent on which attributes were the most important. Notably, consumers did not select price as a relevant attribute on the web survey, even though it had been considered relevant in the in-depth interviews. Finally, six wine attributes were selected for inclusion in a stated choice (SC) experiment: grape variety, alcohol level, label design, product recommendations, price and discounts. An efficient experimental design was then developed and a web based SC survey was applied to 274 regular wine consumers (who had already answered the previous web survey). These consumers have high income (among the richest 20% of the Chilean population), only 28% of them are female and 33% are 35 years old or younger. The SC experiment simulated a purchase, at a retail store, for a casual meal with friends. A fixed fictional brand was used for all the wines presented on the experiment. With this data we estimated various discrete choice models, including mixed logit and hybrid choice models. Grape variety was found to be the main driver of preferences. Evidence of preference for higher alcohol levels was also discovered. Price proved to be highly endogenous, as it is strongly related to wine’s expected quality. Recommendation by a friend and critics were equally valued, except in the case of (self-declared) expert consumers. Preferences over label designs showed high variability. The results also suggest that price is a key attribute in the construction of expected quality by the consumer before tasting the product.
    Keywords: Hybrid Discrete Choice Models, Consumer choice, wine, Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis,
    Date: 2013–07
  18. By: Karim, Azreen; Noy, Ilan
    Abstract: We conduct a meta-regression analysis of the existing literature on the impacts of disasters on households, focusing on the poor and on poverty measures. We find much heterogeneity in these impacts, but several general patterns, often observed in individual case-studies, emerge. Incomes are clearly impacted adversely, with the impact observed specifically in per-capita measures (so it is not due to the mortality caused by the observed disaster). Consumption is also reduced, but to a lesser extent than incomes. Importantly, poor households appear to smooth their food consumption by reducing the consumption of non-food items; the most significant items in this category are spending on housing, health, and education. This suggests potentially long-term adverse consequences as consumption of these services is often better viewed as long-term investment. We do not find consistent patterns in long-term impacts; it appears the limits of the meta-regression methodology prevent us from observing patterns in the relatively few heterogeneous research projects that examine these long-term effects. The importance of addressing risk within the context of sustainable development and poverty alleviation is clear. The impact of disasters on the poor may be increasingly worrying considering the climate variations we anticipate.
    Keywords: Disaster, Natural, Poverty, Natural disasters,
    Date: 2014
  19. By: Salvador Barrios (Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Joint Research Centre, European Commission); J. Nicolás Ibañez (Institute for Prospective Technological Studies, Joint Research Centre, European Commission)
    Abstract: This study analyses the potential impact of climate change on EU tourism demand and provides long-term (2100) scenarios accounting for adaptation in terms of holiday duration. Our long-term projections for tourism demand are based on hedonic valuation of climatic conditions combining hotel price information and travel cost estimations. This approach allows us to analyse together the climatic aspect of recreational demand and its travel cost dimension and thus to draw alternative hypotheses regarding the time dimension of tourism demand. We derive alternative scenarios for adaptation of holiday in terms of holiday frequency and duration. We find that the climate dimension plays a significant (economically and statistically) role in explaining hedonic valuations of tourism services and, as a consequence, its variation in the long-term are likely to affect the relative attractiveness of EU regions for recreational demand. In certain cases, most notably the Southern EU Mediterranean countries climate condition in 2100 could under current economic conditions, lower tourism revenues for up to -0.45% of GDP per year. On the contrary, other areas of the EU, most notably Northern European countries would gain from altered climate conditions, although these gains would be relatively more modest, reaching up to 0.32% of GDP on an annual basis. Overall our results suggest that the change in holiday duration appears to be more beneficial than the change in the frequency of holidays in view of mitigating the cost of climate change for the tourism sector. These two time dimensions of adaptation are likely to be conditioned by broader societal and institutional factors, however.
    Keywords: Tourism demand, Climate change
    JEL: L8 Q5
    Date: 2014–02
  20. By: Marie-Sophie Hervieux (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - Université de Nantes : EA4272); Olivier Darné (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - Université de Nantes : EA4272)
    Abstract: In this paper we examine the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis using the Ecological Footprint (EF), a more comprehensive indicator of environmental degradation, for ve Latin American countries covering the 1971-2007 period. We test the EKC hypothesis using a traditional quadratic function from both the supply and consumption-side, adding several explicative variables: urbanization, petrol price and industrialization for supply-side; biocapacity, life expectancy and energy use for consumption-side. We perform an ARDL modeling in order to study both short and long-run periods. We nd that there is no stable relationship between environment and economic development in the long-run. For the short-run analysis, the EKC hypothesis is supported for no one, we rather nd an increasing relationship between growth and environment. Results for explicative variables are mixed: For production-side approach, industrialization appears to have a positive impact on EF for Chile. For consumption-side approach, we nd that energy use seems to have a positive impact on EF for Argentina and Colombia whereas biocapacity and life expectancy have a positive and negative impact, respectively, on EF for Paraguay.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve; Ecological Footprint; ARDL model.
    Date: 2014–03–13
  21. By: Renaud Foucart; Grégoire Garsous
    Keywords: climate change; self-enforcing international agreements; threshold effects
    JEL: Q54 C72
    Date: 2013–10
  22. By: Wagner, Joachim (Leuphana University Lueneburg and CESIS, Stockholm)
    Abstract: This paper uses a tailor-made newly available data set to investigate for the first time the links between profitability and the quality of exports in enterprises from manufacturing industries in Germany, one of the leading actors on the world market for goods. The paper demonstrates that exporters of high-quality goods tend to be more profitable.
    Keywords: Exports; export quality; profitability; Germany
    JEL: F14
    Date: 2014–03–19
  23. By: Anillo, Andrea; Boehm, Frédéric; Polo-Otero, José
    Abstract: Universal access to water is acknowledged as a fundamental human right which governments have to secure. To improve access to water, it has been argued that an important factor, if not the most important, is to strengthen water sector governance and reduce corruption. Looking at the relationship between governance indicators and access to water sources and controlling for various factors, our contribution fills a gap in proving empirically, for a cross-country analysis including 147 countries, that governance indeed matters. In particular, we add a nuance to the debate, showing that rural population is more vulnerable to weak governance.
    Keywords: Universal Service, Water, Governance
    JEL: L95 O10
    Date: 2014–01
  24. By: Thierry Kalisa (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS : UMR5824 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - École Normale Supérieure (ENS) - Lyon - PRES Université de Lyon - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - Université Claude Bernard - Lyon I)
    Abstract: This paper's motivation is to contribute to the growing literature on contingent valuation in developing countries. In a new survey in Rwanda valuing people's contribution for electrification, an innovative design is proposed, giving the choice to respondents between two scenarios : one in which they would contribute their time and another in which they would contribute their money. Results show that people prefer to contribute in time rather than in money. A great majority of people who have electricity would accept to contribute for the electrification of others. The potential contributors are willing to contribute 37,250 Frw ($ 55) and 66 days on average per year for five years.
    Keywords: Contingent valuation; electrification; contribution; time
    Date: 2013
  25. By: Miquel-Àngel Garcia-López (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona & IEB); Albert Solé-Ollé (Universitat de Barcelona & IEB); Elisabet Viladecans-Marsal (Universitat de Barcelona & IEB)
    Abstract: We study whether local land use policies are modified in response to enhanced demand for building generated by a new highway. We also examine the extent to which this effect affects building activity. We focus on the case of Spain during the last housing boom (1995-2007). We assembled a new database with information about new highway segments and the modification of the land zoning status in nearby municipalities. The empirical strategy compares the variation in the amount of developable land before-after the construction of the highway in treated municipalities and in control municipalities with similar pre-treatment traits. Our results show that, following the construction of a highway, municipalities converted a huge amount of land from rural to urban uses. We also show that new highways have an impact on building activity.
    Keywords: Land use regulation, Highways
    JEL: R4 R52 O2
    Date: 2014
  26. By: Ndebele, Tom; Forgie, Vicky; Vu, Huong
    Abstract: Decades of failure to evaluate the ecosystem services provided by Pekapeka Swamp in New Zealand led to decisions that allowed prolonged degradation of the swamp, resulting in the loss of potential economic value. In 1998 a long term management plan was adopted to restore and preserve the swamp without evaluating the potential welfare benefits of the plan. This study contributes to literature by providing the first estimation of total economic value (TEV) of the restoration and preservation of Pekapeka Swamp. Using the contingent valuation method, this study shows that estimated TEV ranges from NZ$1.64 million to NZ$ 3.78 million per year and the net present value ranges between NZ$5.05 million and NZ$16.39 million. These results imply that the restoration and preservation of Pekapeka Swamp is an important investment.
    Keywords: Contingent valuation method; wetland; dichotomous choice; willingness to pay; New Zealand
    JEL: Q5 Q57
    Date: 2014–03–24
  27. By: Mussa, Richard
    Abstract: The paper uses data from the Third Integrated Household Survey to examine whether or not the poor pay more for maize in Malawi. Two approaches are adopted; an indirect approach which is based on quantity discounting, and a direct approach which is based the relationship between an expensiveness variable and household consumption expenditure. The paper finds that the poor in rural and urban areas pay more for maize. This evidence of a poverty penalty in the maize market is not sensitive to method used. It is found that the poor pay more for maize irrespective of when the maize is purchased. Thus, seasonality does not seem to be behind the observed poverty penalty. The paper also finds that the poverty penalty varies with seasonality.The poverty penalty is significantly more pronounced in the postharvest period when maize is in abundance; it is however reduced in the lean season.
    Keywords: Poverty penalty; quantity discounting; Malawi
    JEL: D1
    Date: 2014–02–13
  28. By: Tobias Hahn (Kedge Business School - Kedge Business School, France); Jonatan Pinkse (MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM))
    Abstract: We analyze the suitability of cross-sector partnerships as an effective mechanism for private environmental governance. By focusing on the interaction between firms within cross-sector partnerships, we analyze how competition between firms affects partnership effectiveness. Marrying insights from the private governance literature with institutional theory and the resource-based view, we identify under which conditions firm-level competition for legitimacy and capabilities, respectively, undermines or enhances effectiveness of cross-sector partnerships to address environmental issues. In doing so, our argument develops the various factors that moderate the relationship between competition and effectiveness for different types of partnerships. We contend that the effectiveness of cross-sector partnerships for governing global environmental issues depends considerably on whether competitive forces at the firm level are aligned with the collective benefits of partnerships. We discuss the consequences for designing effective cross-sector partnerships as well as the implications of a firm perspective on private governance.
    Date: 2014
  29. By: Santosh Kumar (Department of Economics and International Business, Sam Houston State University); Emily Dansereau (University of Washington); Chris Murray (University of Washington)
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine if access to health facilities improves institutional birth delivery in a resource-constrained country like India. Using a household- and village-level health survey, we find that women living closer to health facilities have a higher probability of in-facility births. A one kilometer increase in the distance to the nearest health facility decreases the probability of institutional delivery by 0.8%. This result does not change significantly even after we account for endogenous placement of health facilities. The results of Two-Stage Residual Inclusion (2SRI) and IV-Probit models suggest that an additional travel of one kilometer decreases probability of in-facility delivery (IFD) by 4.4%. The policy simulation result suggest that, the mean probability of in-facility delivery increases when the density of health facility is increased. Overall, results suggest that geographic distance is an important barrier to service utilization and improving access to health facilities may be an important policy instrument to improve utilization of health services in resource-poor countries.
    Date: 2014–03
  30. By: Ariane Manuela AMIN (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Johanna Choumert (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Pascale Combes Motel (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Jean-Louis Combes (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Eric Nazindigouba KERE (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Jean Galbert ONGONO OLINGA (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Sonia Schwartz (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I)
    Abstract: Protected areas are increasingly used as a tool to fight against deforestation. This paper presents new evidence on the spillover effects that occur in the decision to deforest and the creation of protected areas in local administrative entities in Brazilian Legal Amazon over the 2001-2011 period. We also highlight the interdependence between these two decisions. We proceed in two steps. First, we assumed that protected areas are created to stop the negative effects of deforestation on biodiversity. In order to control for the non-random location of protected areas, biodiversity indicators are used as excluded instruments. This model is estimated using a spatial model with instrumental variables. Second, a simultaneous system of spatially interrelated cross sectional equations is used to take into account the interdependence between the decision to deforest and the creation of protected areas. Our results show (i) that deforestation activities of neighboring municipalities are complements and that (ii) there is evidence of leakage in the sense that protected areas may shift deforestation to neighboring municipalities. The net effect of protected areas on deforestation remains however negative; it is moreover stable across two sub-periods. Our results confirm the important role of protected areas to curb deforestation and thereby biodiversity erosion. Moreover, they show that strategic interactions deserve attention in the effectiveness of conservation policies.
    Keywords: Protected areas; deforestation; spatial interactions; simultaneous equations; Brazil; Amazon
    Date: 2014–03–18
  31. By: Rute Gonçalves (School of Economics and Management, University of Porto); Patrícia Lopes (School of Economics and Management, University of Porto)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes accounting in agriculture under the International Accounting Standard (IAS) 41 – Agriculture of 270 listed firms worldwide that have adopted International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) until 2010. Previous empirical evidence on the implementation of this standard is still very scarce. In general it shows that the disclosure level is low and that comparability is missing. In order to extend previous research on disclosure practices under the IAS 41, an index of the disclosure of biological assets is constructed and calculated based in the 2011 annual report. This paper tests several hypotheses relating the index and firm-level determinants - biological assets intensity, ownership concentration, firm size, auditor type, internationalization level, listing status, profitability and sector – and country-level determinant - legal status. This variable is measured using two different proxies, following institutional country classification, namely the dichotomy common law versus code law countries and cluster classification (Leuz, 2010). It was found that the mandatory and voluntary disclosure of biological assets is influenced by biological assets intensity, ownership concentration, firm size, sector and legal status. This paper seeks to help standard setters to better understand disclosure practices and their determinants concerning biological assets, and to develop future projects on this issue.
    Keywords: biological assets, disclosure index, financial reporting, regulation
    JEL: M41
    Date: 2014–03
  32. By: Mikkel Bojesen (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen); Luc Boerboom (Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, University of Twente); Hans Skov-Petersen (Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: Promotion of bioenergy production is an important contemporary topic around the world. Vast amounts of research are allocated towards analysing and understanding bioenergy systems, which are by nature multi-faceted. Despite a focus on the deployment of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods for planning of bioenergy systems, only little research has addressed the location component of bioenergy facility planning. In this paper the authors develop a model for sustainable capacity expansion of the Danish biogas sector allowing for an identification and prioritization of suitable locations for biogas production. The model builds on a framework for spatial planning and decision making through the application of spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE). The paper is structured around a case study including four Danish municipalities in order to demonstrate the power of the spatial multi-criteria evaluation model. The model allows a two level comparison of suitability, within municipalities as well as between municipalities. Criteria weights for generation of alternatives are obtained through an analytical hierarchy process (AHP), carried out among a group of Danish central governmental decision makers. We find that resource and production economic criteria are given highest priority followed by environmental and social criteria. In all four case study municipalities, the identified alternatives are compared through incorporating economic, environmental and social criteria. It is found that a sustainable facility location has the potential of reducing overall production costs by 3% as compared with current biogas plants. The results of this paper can provide support to central governmental decision makers, regarding regional allocation of subsidies in the country. Likewise local decision makers can obtain important information for planning and decision support, allowing for a more inclusive and transparent planning procedure.
    Keywords: bioenergy facility location, spatial MADM modelling, biogas, GIS
    JEL: Q15 Q42 R12
    Date: 2014–03

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.