New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2014‒02‒15
28 papers chosen by

  1. Food Loses in the Selected Food Supply Chains By Ratinger, Tomas
  3. The Economic Potential for Forest-Based Carbon Sequestration under Different Emissions Targets and Accounting Schemes* By David Walker
  4. The Value of Powdery Mildew Resistance in Grapes: Evidence from California By Fuller, Kate B.; Alston, Julian M.; Sambucci, Olena
  5. 2013 Michigan Land Values and Leasing Rates By Wittenberg, Eric; Wolf, Christopher A.
  6. The Missing Food Problem By Trevor Tombe
  7. Agri-investments and public spending in selected vulnerable countries – will they contribute to reduce food insecurity? By Wieck, Christine; Rudloff, Bettina; Heucher, Angela
  8. Productivity gaps along the milk chain in Romania – comparisons with the EU-27 member states By Grodea, Mariana
  9. Climate change effects and agriculture in Italy: a stochastic frontier analysis at regional level By Auci, Sabrina; Vignani, Donatella
  10. Spatial targeting of agri-environmental policy and urban development By Thomas Coisnon; Walid Oueslati; Julien Salanié
  11. Agriculture in Portugal: linkages with industry and services By João Gaspar; Gilson Pina; Marta C. N. Simões
  12. Structure, Innovations and Performance of the Czech Dairy Value Chain By Bošková, Iveta; Ratinger, Tomáš
  13. The Effect of Drought on Health Outcomes and Health Expenditures in Rural Vietnam By Tobias Lechtenfeld; Steffen Lohmann
  14. Economic situation of agricultural holdings supported within the Rural Development Programme (RDP) for 2007–2013 By Adamski, Marcin; Sobierajewska, Jolanta; Zieliński, Marek
  15. Pyramidal Management of Risk Control- Case Study in Agro-food Enterprises in Iasi County, Romania By Iatco, Constantin; Ignat, Gabriela
  17. Modelling Investment Optimization on Smallholder Farms through Multi-criteria Decision Approaches: An Example from Ethiopia By William Seitz; D La Torre
  18. Distribution of Burdens for Providing Agri-environmental Public Goods and Application of Reference Level Framework By Uetake, Tetsuya
  19. From rise in B to fall in C? Environmental impact of biofuels By Giuseppe Piroli; Miroslava Rajcaniova; Pavel Ciaian; d'Artis Kancs
  20. Is Agricultural Productivity Growth Good for Industrialization? Infrastructures and the Welfare Maximizing Tax Rate By Kamei, Keita; Sasaki, Hiroaki
  21. Measuring performance of small and medium scale agrifood firms in developing countries: Gap between Theory and Practice By Mutonyi, Sarah; Gyau, Amos
  22. The Effect of Prices on Nutrition: Comparing the Impact of Product- and Nutrient-Specific Taxes By Matthew Harding; Michael Lovenheim
  23. Accounting policies VS. Financial performance applicable to agro food companies By Ignat, Gabriela
  24. Foreign direct investment in retail market in India: some issues and challenges By Santra, Swarup; Bagaria, Nidhi
  25. Are Chinese Growth and Inflation Too Smooth? Evidence from Engel Curves By Emi Nakamura; Jón Steinsson; Miao Liu
  26. Green innovations and organizational change: Making better use of environmental technology By Hottenrott, Hanna; Rexhäuser, Sascha; Veugelers, Reinhilde
  27. The Stability and Effectiveness of Climate Coalitions: A Comparative Analysis of Multiple Integrated Assessment Models By Kai Lessmann; Ulrike Kornek; Valentina Bosetti; Rob Dellink; Johannes Emmerling; Johan Eyckmans; Miyuki Nagashima; Hans-Peter Weikard; Zili Yang
  28. Italian market of organic wine: a survey on production system characteristics and marketing strategies By Castellini, Alessandra; Mauracher, Christine; Procidano, Isabella; Sacchi, Giovanna

  1. By: Ratinger, Tomas
    Abstract: This research belongs to the category of technology assessment which examines socio-economic context of technological progress. In this case, it concerns food security which might be strengthened by reducing food losses at lover stages of the food supply chain (FSC) due to technological improvements. Technologies reducing harvest and postharvest losses exist, however, they are not sufficiently adopted by farmers in developing countries. The paper examines these technologies and discusses factors which stimulate and prevent farmers to innovate their harvest and postharvest practices. These factors include human and financial capital, farm size, risk attitudes, labour availability, credit constraints, land and other property ownership access to commodity markets, social interaction, social capital and institutions. Using literature review it is showed that food supply systems tend to separate to urbanisation or export driven FSC and marginalised rural one. The urban&export FSC tend to adopt modern technologies and often also due to government support providing infrastructure, price guarantee and credit support. In contrast, the poverty and lack of attention of the government prevent small semi-subsistence farmers to improve their performance. But reducing harvest and postharvest losses is critically essential for improving food security of small (semi)subsistence farmers and poor rural households for which cereals and tubers/roots are staple food. Cooperation is needed for both sharing costs of investment in the new technology as well for learning each from the other. In general, farmers need to know, and experience, that a new technology is significantly superior to the existing system, and can provide a secure income. Thus the introduction of a new postharvest technology should use a participatory approach allowing negotiation, conflict mitigation and the creation of consensus among the relevant parties. Technologies for poor farmers should build on the traditional approaches and utilise as much as possible locally available materials.
    Keywords: postharvest crop losses, technologies, food supply chain, institutions, Agribusiness, Q13, Q16,
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Franscarelli, Angelo; Ciliberti, Stefano
    Abstract: In the last years European farmers have been facing two new phenomena: the asymmetric price transmission in agro-food sector and the decrease of agricultural value added. The European Commission denounced low transparency in trade relationships and frequent unfair commercial practices between firms and recognized the imperfect functioning of the agro-food supply chain. Economic theories consider contracts as means coordinating entrepreneurs’ decisions (e.g. times, quantity and quality of products, prices). Nevertheless, in some cases buyers may use them to improve and exercise their market power, for instance imposing vertical restraints. That is a typical situation in the European food supply chain, where highly concentrated sectors use their bargaining power against farmers. During that time antitrust authorities and EU Member States have sought to solve the situation by appropriate competition policy measures. The law No. 27/2012 of 24 March 2012 introduced in Italy new mandatory rules regarding contracts of sale of agriculture and food products, aimed at increasing transparency in trade and shortening terms of payment. Thanks to an holistic multiple-case study accomplished by interviews and direct observations, the article analyzes the effects that new rules caused in the Italian agrofood system.
    Keywords: contracts, antitrust, agro-food chain, vertical restraints., Agribusiness, Q13, Q18, L14,
    Date: 2014
  3. By: David Walker (School Economics, La Trobe University)
    Abstract: Concern for the Earth’s changing climate, as a consequence of rising greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in the atmosphere, has led to policies aimed at reducing GHG emissions and increasing carbon sequestration. In Australia this has been acknowledged in the New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme and the Carbon Farming Initiative, which provide price incentives for forest-based sequestration. However, the issue of the most appropriate accounting scheme to account for the impermanence of forest based sequestration has been debated and remains unresolved in policy documents. The objective of the paper is to investigate the economic potential for forest-based sequestration to reduce carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere for three different accounting schemes. To this end, a model of the New South Wales forest sector is developed to simulate changes in land use from agriculture to forestry; and in forest management, for a range of carbon prices and accounting regimes. The model builds on previous modelling of forestry in Australia and that of forest-based sequestration by incorporating: endogenous timber prices; the probability of fire destroying a portion of the forest; and an increasing opportunity cost of agricultural land. Importantly, the paper improves our understanding of the sector wide potential for carbon sequestration for the different accounting rules.
    Keywords: Carbon sequestration, carbon accounting, forestry, forest-sector model
    JEL: C61 L52 Q15 Q23 Q54
  4. By: Fuller, Kate B.; Alston, Julian M.; Sambucci, Olena
    Abstract: Powdery mildew (PM) is a fungal disease that damages many crops, including grapes. In California, wine, raisin, and table grapes contributed over $3.8 billion to the value of California’s farm production in 2011 (California Department of Food and Agriculture, 2012). Grape varieties with resistance to powdery mildew are currently being developed, using either conventional or transgenic approaches, each of which has associated advantages and disadvantages. PM-resistant varieties of grapes could yield large economic benefits to California grape growers—potentially allowing cost savings as high as $70 million per year, but benefits range widely across the different grape production systems. The benefits might be even larger if environmental regulations over the use of pesticides were changed to limit some currently effective PM management protocols. On the other hand, grapes produced using non-vinifera or transgenic vines might suffer a price discount compared with conventional alternatives.
    Keywords: Powdery mildew, resistant varieties, California grapes, research benefits, Crop Production/Industries, Risk and Uncertainty, Q12, Q16, Q18,
    Date: 2014–01–03
  5. By: Wittenberg, Eric; Wolf, Christopher A.
    Abstract: Land is a natural resource that is valued for many reasons. Farmers utilize land to earn their livelihood and as a store of wealth for future retirement. Rural residents have increasingly sought open space for home sites and pursuit of a lifestyle. Developers seek financial opportunities to invest in and develop land for non-farm uses. For some, land is viewed as an investment and a hedge against inflation. This myriad of demands for land combined with its fixed supply continually alters its market price.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Farm Management, Financial Economics, Land Economics/Use, Production Economics, Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Farm Management, Financial Economics, Land Economics/Use, Production Economics,
    Date: 2013–11
  6. By: Trevor Tombe (University of Calgary)
    Abstract: Poor countries have low agricultural productivity relative to other sectors, yet predominantly consume domestically produced food. The literature on agriculture's low productivity typically abstracts from trade to focus on domestic distortions. This leaves open important questions: Why do poor countries import so little food? Does trade contribute to cross-country aggregate and agricultural productivity differences? I answer these questions with a rich, quantitative model applied to many countries. I show trade amplifies the costs of domestic distortions. I also measure trade costs; they are large in poor countries and help account for productivity differences across countries.
    Keywords: Food Problem; Productivity; Dual Economy Models; Trade; Agriculture
    JEL: F1 F41 O11
    Date: 2014–02–05
  7. By: Wieck, Christine; Rudloff, Bettina; Heucher, Angela
    Abstract: Using a panel data set for about 70 countries, this paper jointly analyzes agri-investment trends and food security developments in vulnerable countries. This work empirically connects two mainly independent debates about impacts of agri-investments on food security and on the proposed responsible investment policy frameworks and its contribution to achieve food security. The results indicate the special relevance of private investments, domestic or foreign. The domestic situation in target countries in terms of governance is relevant: Good governance supports food security. The findings underline the importance of the recently developed responsible investments guidelines as they shall contribute that investments maintain their potential positive influence on economic development and food security.
    Keywords: Agri-investments, food security, determinants, responsible investment, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, F53, F21, 013, 016,
    Date: 2014–01–30
  8. By: Grodea, Mariana
    Abstract: Taking into consideration the new Common Agricultural Policy (2014 -2020, for the milk sector, which will have as main component the milk quota removal after 2014, the present paper makes a comparative analysis of the indicators from the milk chain links (agriculture, processing, trade, consumption) from Romania and the EU-27 member states in the period 2009-2012, in order to reveal the performance level and Romania’s position among these European countries, as well as the modalities to narrow the productivity gaps along the Romanian milk chain compared to the European Union, having in view the domestic supply improvement and meeting the consumers’ needs. In this context, an investigation was made by each link in the chain, at the level of milk production, raw milk collection for processing, milk processing, distribution and consumption, in close connection with milk quality and price evolution; certain variants and measures were designed to narrow the gaps of productivity and institutional organization of the milk chain in Romania.
    Keywords: cow herds, milk production, dairy cow farm size, prices, quality
    JEL: Q1
    Date: 2013–11–21
  9. By: Auci, Sabrina; Vignani, Donatella
    Abstract: Climate changes, associated to atmospheric accumulation of greenhouse gases, could alter level of temperature at the surface, rainfalls and regional water supplies. There are many areas of the Earth that will cope with a rapid increasing of warming at the surface and with an extremization of weather conditions. Although many economic sectors are influenced, agriculture is the most susceptible as weather heavily affects crop production trends, yield variability and reduction of areas suitable to be cultivated. Climate change effects represent a “challenge” that European agriculture has to face in the immediate future. The aim of our work is to analyze the economic impacts of climate change on agricultural sector in Italy at regional scale (NUTS2) in the light of mitigation policies undertaken by Italy in accordance with the commitments made by the EU Policy in the struggle against climate change. Using the stochastic frontier approach, we investigate on the Italian Regions efficiency in the period 2000-2010. Considering that inefficiency could be influenced by two main meteorological factors – rainfall and minimum temperature– we find that rainfall variable has a positive impact on efficiency while minimum temperature variable reduces the efficiency of harvested production.
    Keywords: Climate change effects, agricultural sector, mitigation and adaptation, Italian Regions efficiency, stochastic frontier approach
    JEL: Q10 Q54
    Date: 2014–01–30
  10. By: Thomas Coisnon (GRANEM, Agrocampus Ouest, Université d’Angers, 2 rue André Le Nôtre 49000 Angers, France); Walid Oueslati (Centre for Rural Economy, University of Newcastle, Newcastle NE1 7RU, UK); Julien Salanié (Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69007, France ; CNRS, GATE Lyon St Etienne,F-69130 Ecully, France, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Etienne, F-42000, France)
    Abstract: Widespread public support exists for the provision of natural amenities, such as lakes, rivers or wetlands, and for efforts to preserve these from agricultural pollution. Agri-environmental policies contribute to these efforts by encouraging farmers to adopt environmentally friendly practices within the vicinity of these ecosystems. A spatially targeted agri-environmental policy promotes natural amenities and may thereby affect household location decisions. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent of these impacts on the spatial urban structure. We extend a monocentric city model to include farmers’ responses to an agri-environmental policy. Our main findings are that the implementation of a spatially targeted agrienvironmental policy may lead to some additional urban development, which could conflict with the aim of the policy.
    Keywords: Land development, Urban sprawl, Leapfrog, Land rent, Monocentric model, Farming, Agri-environmental policy, Spatial targeting, Agricultural pollution
    JEL: R14 R21 Q18 Q24 Q25
    Date: 2014
  11. By: João Gaspar (Faculty of Economics, University of Coimbra, Portugal); Gilson Pina (Faculty opf Economics, University of Coimbra, Portugal); Marta C. N. Simões (GEMF / Faculty opf Economics, University of Coimbra, Portugal)
    Abstract: We investigate the links between agriculture and non-agricultural sectors in Portugal by assessing the existence of long-run relationships and causality among the three main sectors of activity in terms of value added and labour productivity using a VAR model for the period 1970-2006. Agricultural value added is found to be both weakly and strongly exogenous so it exerted no influence in the other sectors expansion nor was it influenced by their growth. The results with labour productivity show that productivity gains in services and industry feedback into productivity growth in agriculture, although the link is weaker in the industry case. Portuguese decision makers believe that restoring agricultural production plays an important role in overcoming the country’s current difficulties. However, they need to pay more attention to the potential synergies between agricultural and non-agricultural sectors, and provide agriculture with the necessary technological and organizational capabilities to benefit from industry and services expansion. Our results indicate that this does not seem to have happened in the past, a situation that should be improved in order to restore agricultural production and promote overall growth.
    Keywords: agriculture, industry, services, sectoral linkages, Portugal, VAR.
    JEL: Q19 O13 O14 O40
    Date: 2014–01
  12. By: Bošková, Iveta; Ratinger, Tomáš
    Abstract: The effective knowledge transfer and innovation activities in the agri-food supply chain may push all producers in the vertical to improve their competitiveness while saving resources. In the paper the innovation activities and knowledge transfer in the dairy value chain in the Czech Republic are examined in order to assess the potential for enhancing sustainable dairy production. A particular attention is given to the collaboration with R&D organisations and other important agents. Concurrently the role of the structural changes is considered. The methodological approach builds on the concept of the sectoral system of innovation. Based on statistical figures and face to face interviews the increasing dynamics in the innovation process is observed, however, farmers and processors are in their innovation activities disconnected and their collaboration with research institutions and other companies is rather low. The main innovation objectives as well as drivers and barriers of the collaboration are specified.
    Keywords: innovation system, dairy farms, dairy processing, Agribusiness, O31, Q13, Q16,
    Date: 2014
  13. By: Tobias Lechtenfeld (The World Bank Group); Steffen Lohmann (Georg-August-University Göttingen)
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of droughts on health outcomes and health expenditures in rural Vietnam. Given the increasing frequency of extreme weather events in Vietnam and many developing countries, it is crucial for policy makers to be aware of the economic impact of such shocks at the micro level. Using local rainfall data, the analysis directly links the incidence of drought to health shocks and health-related expenditures from a multiple-wave panel of rural Vietnamese households. Overall, the results suggest that individuals affected by drought display a deterioration of health conditions and have significantly higher health expenditures. The effect is found to prevail among households with a high degree of agricultural dependency and limited access to coping mechanisms such as selling assets or tapping off-farm income sources. The preferred estimates using an IV strategy reveal that drought-related health shocks can cause non-negligible additional financial burden for many households vulnerable to poverty in rural Vietnam. This paper quantifies the immediate impact of drought on health conditions and contributes to the existing literature which has mostly focused on the long-term consequences.
    Keywords: climate shocks; drought; health; Vietnam
    JEL: I15 O15 Q54
    Date: 2014–02–06
  14. By: Adamski, Marcin; Sobierajewska, Jolanta; Zieliński, Marek
    Keywords: Agribusiness,
    Date: 2014
  15. By: Iatco, Constantin; Ignat, Gabriela
    Abstract: In agro-food enterprises from Romania, management of risk control is seen as a dynamic process that, in order to work involves a cycle that incorporates risk identification, assessment, administering and verification. Risk management is closely related to the performance management, so that it has been set establishing key indicators of the performance. The pyramid of risk management provides to the managers a model of effective approach of risk and the ability to manage them, thus increasing consolidation capacity of added value. Risk management is necessary because all agro-food enterprises face uncertainty and the management team must determine the acceptable level of risk The paper presents a case study on the pyramidal management of risk control for two major agro-food enterprises from Iasi County. The authors have established as main goals in this paper identifying the objectives of the audit, assessment and measuring risk according to the probability of impact occurrence and the period of events consequences, prioritizing risks, risks analyzing and reporting. Keywords: risk, management, financial statements.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Q13, Q01, P52,
    Date: 2014
  16. By: Pretolani, Roberto; Cavicchioli, Daniele; Cairo, Valentina
    Keywords: Agribusiness,
    Date: 2014
  17. By: William Seitz; D La Torre
    Abstract: We use data from the Ethiopia Rural Household Survey and the Ethiopian Central Statistics Agency to demonstrate a set of techniques for estimating optimal investment allocation in smallholder farming. The approaches treat farming tasks, constraints, and investments as a portfolio problem, characterized by multiple competing objectives. We formulate several versions of the multi-objective problem and solve them in three alternative ways; 1) using standard Markowitz portfolio optimization, 2) using a weighted goal programming model, and 3) a multi-horizon mean variance goal programming model, estimating all model parameters using real data. The main benefit of the goal programming formulation is the possibility to simplify in a single criterion problem complex situations in which the Decision Maker (DM) faces a trade-off between two or more objectives. We discuss the importance of portfolio allocations for smallholder farmers in minimizing risk and increasing return, and discuss how these approaches provide a framework that can be extended to practical applications in smallholder farming.
    Date: 2014
  18. By: Uetake, Tetsuya
    Abstract: To secure the provision of agri-environmental public goods such as biodiversity, in many cases, government intervention is necessary. Government intervention means taxpayers cover parts of the costs for the provision. Thus, it is necessary to examine the distribution of burdens for the provision among stakeholders. Environmental reference levels are defined as the minimum level of environmental quality that farmers are obliged to provide at their own expense. By applying the reference level framework established by OECD to some cases in some countries (Australia, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom and the United States) this paper examines the distribution of burdens for providing agri-environmental public goods. This paper found several patterns of the reference levels. They should be clearly defined so as to clarify the extent to which farmers and other stakeholders should bear the costs.
    Keywords: Public goods, reference levels, environmental targets, distribution of burdens, agriculture, Agribusiness,
    Date: 2014
  19. By: Giuseppe Piroli; Miroslava Rajcaniova; Pavel Ciaian; d'Artis Kancs
    Abstract: This is the first paper that econometrically estimates the impact of the rising Bioenergy production on the global CO2 emissions. We apply a structural vector autoregression (SVAR) approach to time series with annual observation for the world biofuel production and global CO2 emissions from 1961 to 2009. We find that in the medium- to long-run biofuels significantly reduce global CO2 emissions: the CO2 emission elasticities with respect to biofuels range between -0.57 and -0.80. In the short-run, however, biofuels may increase CO2 emissions temporarily (elasticity 0.57). Our findings complement those of life-cycle assessment and simulation models. However, by employing a more holistic approach and obtaining more robust estimates of environmental impact of biofuels, our results are particularly valuable for policy makers.
    Keywords: Biofuels, C02 emissions, environmental impact, SVAR.
    JEL: C14 C22 C51 D58 Q11 Q13 Q42
    Date: 2014–01–01
  20. By: Kamei, Keita; Sasaki, Hiroaki
    Abstract: This paper develops a dynamic Ricardian trade model that incorporates productive infrastructures into the manufacturing sector financed by tax. We investigate the relationship between the timing of opening trade and total welfare. We also compare the two kinds of total welfare: the total welfare that a country obtains by closing international trade until it has a comparative advantage in manufacturing and then engaging in free trade and the total welfare that the country obtains by specializing in agriculture according to the law of comparative advantage from the beginning. The main results are as follows: (1) there is the optimal tax rate maximizing the total welfare; (2) an increase in agricultural productivity can accelerate the timing of opening trade, which, however, does not necessarily improve the total welfare; and (3) the total welfare under specialization in manufacturing can be higher than that under specialization in agriculture depending on conditions.
    Keywords: productive infrastructure; industrialization; timing of opening trade; agricultural productivity
    JEL: F10 F43 O14
    Date: 2014–02–11
  21. By: Mutonyi, Sarah; Gyau, Amos
    Abstract: Globalization and increasing population of middle income classes in developing countries has led to increased market opportunities. These markets are associated with demand for traceability, food safety and quality standards (Webber and Labaste, 2010). This requires the chains to be competitive and ability to manage and evaluate the performance of the supply chain becomes paramount. Performance measurement is defined as the process of quantifying efficiency and effectiveness of an action. In the recent literature, performance measurement has gained attention in the agri-food chains. Different methods have been proposed in marketing and supply chain management literature to measure supply chain performance such as Activity-Based Costing (ABC), Balanced Scorecard, Economic Value Added (EVA), Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA), Life-cycle Analysis (LCA), Data envelopment analysis (DEA) and Supply Chain Council’s (SCOR model). Despite the existence of these measurement metrics, there is lack of consensus on what determines the performance of supply chains which complicates the selection of one measurement system in agrifood chains. The measures may not often be applicable for small and medium size agribusiness firms especially producer organizations in developing countries. Since they are not well structured, do not often collect information which are often needed to feed the complex models. We therefore propose a conceptual model for measuring marketing performance based upon five constructs: effectiveness, efficiency, adaptability, food quality and customer satisfaction.
    Keywords: Agribusiness,
    Date: 2014
  22. By: Matthew Harding (Stanford University); Michael Lovenheim (Cornell University)
    Abstract: This paper provides an analysis of the role of prices in determining food purchases and nutrition using very detailed transaction-level observations for a large, nationally-representative sample of US consumers over the period 2002-2007. Using product-specific nutritional information, we develop a new method of partitioning the product space into relevant nutritional clusters that define a set of nutritionally-bundled goods, which parsimoniously characterize consumer choice sets. We then estimate a large utility-derived demand system over this joint product-nutrient space that allows us to calculate price and expenditure elasticities. Using our structural demand estimates, we simulate the role of product taxes on soda, sugar-sweetened beverages, packaged meals, and snacks, and nutrient taxes on fat, salt, and sugar. We find that a 20% nutrient tax has a significantly larger impact on nutrition than an equivalent product tax, due to the fact that these are broader-based taxes. However, the costs of these taxes in terms of consumer utility are not higher. A sugar tax in particular is a powerful tool to induce healthier nutritive bundles among consumers.
    Date: 2014–01
  23. By: Ignat, Gabriela
    Abstract: In tough competition of world, which only performance resisting the changes, the vital in taking the best decision is to ensure the balance between thought and action. If the methods used, analyzing and synthesizing information are good especially when financial results are element key for an entrepreneurial to focuses theirs attention and orient their efforts. In Romania, the performance and the success have become the motivation for any agro food companies what trying to enroll in the demands of the market economy. European competition requires primarily financial and economic dimensions of activity and food companies and for that an essential role returns for economic performance. This analysis allows making judgments and assessing the results of their correlation with financial and solvency structure rationalization study based on economic data and company's accounting. Depending on the methods used for obtaining, analyzing and synthesizing information particularly, the manager of agro food companies will know how to start and how to learn from the results. This paper presents the concepts, rules, conventions and practices of the agro food companies Iasi, Romania
    Keywords: performance, accounting policies, agro food companies, financial statements, Agribusiness,
    Date: 2014
  24. By: Santra, Swarup; Bagaria, Nidhi
    Abstract: India being second most-populous country has immense scope for retail expansion as along with time urbanization and consumerism has also been increasing. Further, India‘s GDP has also been growing at fast rate as it continued to be the second fastest growing economy in the world after China and as the income of the country increases, demand for goods also increases because there is positive relation between demand and income. Initially India was conservative regarding FDI; it imposed restriction on foreign companies to limit their share in equity capital of their Indian subsidiaries but over the time Government of India gradually liberalized foreign investment in various sectors. Recently in 2011 India permitted 100% FDI in single brand retail and in 2012, 51% FDI permitted in multi brand. In this paper we are analyzing the impact of such decision on various sectors like food retail sector, farmers, traditional & employment and food inflation.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), Retail Sector, India, Food Sector, Multi-brand Retail
    JEL: F21 F36
    Date: 2014–01–20
  25. By: Emi Nakamura; Jón Steinsson; Miao Liu
    Abstract: China has experienced remarkably stable growth and inflation in recent years according to official statistics. We construct alternative estimates using detailed information on Chinese household purchasing patterns. As households become richer, a smaller fraction of total expenditures are spent on necessities such as grain and a larger fraction on luxuries such as eating out. We use systematic discrepancies between cross-sectional and time-series Engel curves to construct alternative estimates of Chinese growth and inflation. Our estimates suggest that official statistics present a smoothed version of reality. Official inflation rose in the 2000's, but our estimates indicate that true inflation was still higher and consumption growth was overstated over this period. In contrast, inflation was overstated and growth understated during the low-inflation 1990's. Similar patterns emerge from the data whether we base our estimates on major categories such as food or clothing as a fraction of total expenditures or subcategories such as grain as a fraction of food expenditures or garments as a fraction of clothing expenditures.
    JEL: D12 E21 E31 O11
    Date: 2014–02
  26. By: Hottenrott, Hanna; Rexhäuser, Sascha; Veugelers, Reinhilde
    Abstract: This study investigates productivity effects to firms introducing new environmental technologies. The literature on within-firm organisational change and productivity suggests that firms can get higher productivity effects from adopting new technologies if complementary organisational changes are adopted simultaneously. Such complementarity effects may be of critical importance for the case of adoption of greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement technologies. The adoption of these technologies is often induced by public authorities to limit social costs of climate change, whereas the private returns are much less obvious. We find empirical support for complementarity between green technology adoption and organisational change for a sample of firms located in Germany. The adoption of CO2 reducing and sustainable technologies innovations is associated with lower productivity. The simultaneous implementation of organisational innovations, however, increases the returns to the adoption of green technologies. --
    Keywords: technical change,environmental innovation,organisational change,productivity
    Date: 2014
  27. By: Kai Lessmann (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)); Ulrike Kornek (Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK)); Valentina Bosetti (Università Bocconi and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM)); Rob Dellink (Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Department of Economics, Wageningen University); Johannes Emmerling (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM) and Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici (CMCC)); Johan Eyckmans (KU Leuven – Center for Economics and Corporate Sustainability (CEDON)); Miyuki Nagashima (Research Institute of Innovative Technology for the Earth); Hans-Peter Weikard (Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group, Department of Economics, Wageningen University); Zili Yang (Department of Economics, State University of New York at Binghamton)
    Abstract: In this paper we report results from a comparison of numerically calibrated game theoretic integrated assessment models that explore stability and performance of international coalitions for climate change mitigation. Specifically, by means of this ensemble of models we are able to identify robust results concerning incentives of nations to commit themselves to a climate agreement, and to estimate what stable agreements can achieve in terms of greenhouse gas mitigation. We also assess the potential of transfers that redistribute the surplus of cooperation in order to foster stability of climate coalitions. In contrast to much of the existing analytical game theoretical literature, we find substantial scope for self-enforcing climate coalitions in most models that close much of the abatement and welfare gap between complete absence of cooperation and full cooperation. This more positive message follows from the use of transfer schemes that are designed to counteract free riding incentives.
    Keywords: Coalition Stability, International Environmental Agreements, Numerical modeling, Transfers
    JEL: Q5 Q58 C7
  28. By: Castellini, Alessandra; Mauracher, Christine; Procidano, Isabella; Sacchi, Giovanna
    Keywords: Agribusiness,
    Date: 2014

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