New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2014‒02‒08
29 papers chosen by

  1. The impact of improved access to market information through mobile phones usage on selling prices: Evidence from rural areas in Cambodia By Daichi Shimamoto; Hiroyuki Yamada; Martin Gummert
  2. Climatic Variability and Food Security in Developing Countries By Félix Badolo; Somlanare Romuald KINDA
  3. The different effects of risk preferences on the adoption of agricultural technology: evidence from a rural area in Cambodia By Daichi Shimamoto; Hiroyuki Yamada; Ayako Wakano
  4. Food security: status and concerns of India By Kumar, Rajesh; Bagaria, Nidhi; Santra, Swarup
  5. Is Women's Ownership of Land a Panacea in Developing Countries? Evidence from Land-Owning Farm Households in Malawi By Bhaumik, Sumon K.; Dimova, Ralitza; Gang, Ira N.
  6. Investment behavior of Canadian Egg Producers: Analyzing the Impacts of Risk Aversion and Variability of Prices and Costs of Production By L.D. Tamini; M. Doyon; M.M. Zan
  7. Present Bias in Payments for Ecosystem Services: Insights from a Behavioural Experiment in Uganda By Sophie Clot; Charlotte Stanton
  8. Analysing social attributes of loan default among small Indian Dairy farms: A discriminating approach By Sinha, Mukesh Kumar; Dhaka, J. P.; Mondal, B.
  9. Evolution of Land Distribution in West Bengal 1967-2004: Role of Land Reform and Demographic Changes By Pranab Bardhan; Michael Luca; Dilip Mookherjee; Francisco Pino
  10. How much rural is the CAP? By Beatrice Camaioni; Roberto Esposti; Francesco Pagliacci; Franco Sotte
  11. A Note on Maintenance of Ethnic Origin Diet and Healthy Eating in Understanding Society By Platt, Lucinda; Ayse, K. Uskul
  12. Defining Groundwater Remediation Objectives with Cost-benefit Analysis: Does It Work? By Jean-Daniel Rinaudo; Stéphanie Aulong
  13. Economic Status, Air Quality, and Child Health: Evidence from Inversion Episodes By Jans, Jenny; Johansson, Per; Nilsson, Peter
  14. Partnerships, value chain upgrading and performance in the forestry sectors of Tanzania and Uganda By Joseph Walusimbi; Robert Goedegebuure, PhD; André de Waal, PhD
  15. Do Environmental Policies Hurt Trade Performance? By Jean-Louis Combes; Pascale Combes Motel; Somlanare Romuald KINDA
  16. The impact of water and sanitation access on housing values: The case of Dapaong, Togo By Johanna Choumert; Eric Nazindigouba KERE; Amandine Loyale LARé
  17. Does Female Empowerment Promote Economic Development? By Matthias Doepke; Michele Tertilt
  18. What time to adapt? The role of discretionary time in sustaining the climate change value-action gap By Chai, Andreas; Bradley, Graham; Lo, Alex Y.; Reser, Joseph
  19. Gender Discrimination in Property Rights By Casari, Marco; Lisciandra, Maurizio
  20. Citizens’ perceptions of justice in international climate policy – An empirical analysis By Joachim Schleich; Elisabeth Dütschke; Claudia Schwirplies; Andreas Ziegler
  21. Payments for Ecosystem Services: Can we kill two birds with one stone? Insights from a Natural Field Experiment in Madagascar By Sophie Clot; Fano Andriamahefazafy; Gilles Grolleau; Lisette Ibanez; Philippe Méral
  22. A study on variation in comparative advantage in trade between China and India By Bagaria, Nidhi; Santra, Swarup; Kumar, Rajesh
  23. The advantages of demographic change after the wave: fewer and older, but healthier, greener, and more productive? By Fanny A. Kluge; Emilio Zagheni; Elke Loichinger; Tobias Vogt
  24. Access to water as a determinant of rental values: A hedonic analysis in Rwanda By Johanna Choumert; Jesper STAGE; Claudine UWERA
  25. Extortion with Protection: Understanding the effect of rebel taxation on civilian welfare in Burundi By Rachel Sabates-Wheeler; Philip Verwimp
  26. Spatial environmental efficiency indicators in regional waste generation: A nonparametric approach By Halkos, George; Papageorgiou, George
  27. Proximity and scientific collaboration: Evidence from the global wine industry By Lorenzo Cassi; Andrea Morrison; Roberta Rabellotti
  28. Connecting strategy, environmental and social indicators: a study of oil and gas producers By Evgeny Varfolomeev; Oleg Marin; Dmitry Bykov; Oleg Karasev; Natalia Velikanova; Elena Vetchinkina; Anastasia Edelkina; Thomas Thurner
  29. Deforestation and Seigniorage in Developing Countries: A Tradeoff? By Jean-Louis Combes; Pascale Combes Motel; Alexandru Minea; Patrick Villieu

  1. By: Daichi Shimamoto (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University, Japan. Research Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan); Hiroyuki Yamada (Osaka School of International Public Policy, Osaka University, Japan); Martin Gummert (International Rice Research Institution, Philippines)
    Abstract: Monopsony is often observed in local agricultural markets in developing countries because of the high entry cost to buyers; farmers in such markets therefore sell their agricultural products at a lower price. However, this situation seems to be changing with the diffusion of mobile phones. This paper investigates how access to market information through mobile phone usage impacts the selling price of rice in rural areas in Cambodia. We conducted a survey of farmersf households concerning agricultural production processes and rice sales in 20 villages in four provinces (Battambang, Prey Veng, Pursat, and Takeo). We find that farmers who have access to market information through the use of mobile phones are more likely to sell their rice at a higher price. In addition, we observe that the offers received by farmers with better access to market information through mobile phone usage tend to affect selling prices. The results imply that improved access to market information through the use of mobile phones improves farmersf bargaining power against traders, enabling them to sell their rice at a higher price.
    Keywords: Agricultural Prices, Mobile phone, Cambodia
    JEL: O12 D82 D83
    Date: 2014–02
  2. By: Félix Badolo (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Somlanare Romuald KINDA (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the existing literature on climatic variability and food security. It analyses the impact of climatic variability on food security for 71 developing countries, from 1960 to 2008. Using two complementary indicators of food security (food supply and proportion of undernourished people), we find that climatic variability reduces the food supply and the proportion of undernourished people in developing countries. The adverse effect is higher for African Sub-Saharan countries than for other developing countries. We also find that the negative effects of climatic variability are exacerbated in the presence of civil conflicts and are high for the countries that are vulnerable to food price shocks.
    Keywords: Food Prices Vulnerability; Food security; Climatic variability; Civil conflicts
    Date: 2014–01–30
  3. By: Daichi Shimamoto (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University, Japan. Research Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan); Hiroyuki Yamada (Osaka School of International Public Policy, Osaka University, Japan); Ayako Wakano (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University, Japan)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how farmersf risk attitudes affected the adoption of agricultural technology in a rural area in Cambodia. We incorporated prospect theory to farmersf utility function and examined the effect of the risk attitude of farmers to the adoption of two technologies: adoption of a moisture meter for measuring the moisture content of seeds, a recently introduced post-harvest technology, and a modern rice variety that was introduced in the 1990s. The results indicated that farmers overweighted a small probability and risk averse farmers adopted a moisture meter to measure the moisture contents of seeds significantly. With respect to the modern rice variety, farmersf risk attitude did not affect the adoption. Our results and the results of a previous study imply that the type of risk and uncertainty faced by farmers at the time of decision-making of its adoption partly determine the effect of risk attitude on agricultural adoption.
    Keywords: technology adoption, risk preferences, prospect theory
    JEL: O14 O33
    Date: 2014–02
  4. By: Kumar, Rajesh; Bagaria, Nidhi; Santra, Swarup
    Abstract: At one hand, various factors like food production, rising food prices, poverty, unemployment, climate changes, efficient public distribution of food, affecting the food security are the major concerns at domestic front, passing of ambitious Food Security Bill in Sep, 2013 by UPA government in India to provide the basic food staples at highly subsidized prices aimed at ensuring the economic access to food for around two-third of its population coupled with India’s obligations of agriculture trade liberalization as a WTO member, exposes how liberalization of agriculture trade can affect India’s food security on the other. Out of 842 million, 214 million people are suffered from chronic hunger in India which is around 17percent of its total population and one fourth of total chronically hunger in the world (FAO, 2013). Almost half of children under age five years (48 percent) are chronically malnourished and one out of every five children in India under age five years is acutely malnourished i.e. wasted (NFHS-3, 2005-06). Among all this, income growth, poverty reduction from 45.3% in 1993-94 to 21.9% in 2011-12, food self-sufficiency and various government schemes to augment employment, health and nutritional status of the population over the years are the noticeable steps taken by GOI in the food security domain. Present paper focuses on status of food security based on its various dimensions such as food availability, access, utilization and stability and associated concerns that India has especially in the post reform period. It is found that though India has been among the fastest developing economy, the pace of reduction of hunger and undernourishment has remained sluggish and well below the developed countries (2 percent hunger and undernourished population). There are challenges at domestic and international level which require more effort on development of agriculture infrastructure, fiscal consolidation, efficient public distribution of food and effective bargaining at international trade forums to secure long term benefits for food security.
    Keywords: RDA(Recommended Dietery Allowance), PFA(Primary Food Articles), TPDS(Targetted Public Distribution System), GFD(Gross Fiscal Deficit), NFHS(National Family Health Survey), FRBM(Fiscal Responsibilities and Budget Management), MGNREGA(Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Gaurantee Act), CPI-AL (Consumer Price Index for Agriculture Labour), CPI-UNME(Conumer Price Index for Urban Non-Manual Employees)
    JEL: Q10 Q18
    Date: 2014–01–19
  5. By: Bhaumik, Sumon K. (University of Sheffield); Dimova, Ralitza (University of Manchester); Gang, Ira N. (Rutgers University)
    Abstract: Our analysis of a rich representative household survey for Malawi, where patrilineal and matrilineal institutions coexist, suggests that (a) in matrilineal societies the likelihood of cash crop cultivation by a household increases with the extent of land owned (or de facto controlled) by males, and (b) and cultivation of cash crops increases household welfare. The policy implication is that facilitating female ownership of assets through informal and formal institutions does not, on its own, increase welfare, if women do not have access to complementary resources that are needed to generate income from those assets.
    Keywords: female ownership of assets, informal institutions, cash crops, household welfare
    JEL: Q12 O2 O13 J16
    Date: 2014–01
  6. By: L.D. Tamini; M. Doyon; M.M. Zan
    Abstract: Animal welfare is a major concern for consumers. This concern has not gone unnoticed by sector stakeholders, especially egg producers. One of the fundamental changes likely to affect egg producers regards modes of production, specifically changes in housing systems, ranging from conventional cages to free range. From farmers’ perspective, changing their mode of production generates a technological and economic/marketing risk. This study documents the level of risk in the Canadian egg sector (conventional and specialty eggs) using data from 2009 to 2011. Our results indicate multiple uncertainty sources (technological, cost of production, price of eggs) that vary according to the types of eggs. We use a quadratic programming approach applied to expected mean-variance models to analyze the impact of risk on decision to invest when the resources must be allocated to different types of production that have different risk levels. Overall our results show how, given risk aversion parameters, producers minimize their risk levels by devoting their resources to the least risky type of eggs. An important result of our study is that supply management, by reducing the perceived risk level, has favored the development of specialty eggs, for the benefit of consumers.
    Keywords: Eggs production, Risk aversion, Uncertainty, Expected mean-variance model, Prices and cost volatility
    JEL: Q12 C61
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Sophie Clot; Charlotte Stanton
    Abstract: Farmers are necessary agents in global efforts to conserve the environment now that croplands and pastures together constitute the largest terrestrial system on Earth – covering some 48% of (ice-free) land surface. Whereas standard economic models predict that farmers will participate in conservation programs so long as they are profitable, empirical findings from behavioral economics point to a number of normally unobservable preferences that may influence the decision-making process. This study tests whether heterogeneity in behavioral preferences correlates with decisions to participate in Payments for Environmental Services (PES) programs. We elicit individual trust and time preferences using incentivized choice experiments and link resulting measures to PES enrollment and household survey data in Uganda. We find that farmers who exhibit present-biased preferences – those who show a particular desire for proximate gains – are 44.1% more likely to self-select into PES than those who show time-consistent or future-biased preferences.
    Date: 2014–01
  8. By: Sinha, Mukesh Kumar; Dhaka, J. P.; Mondal, B.
    Abstract: The study examines the socio-economic factors discriminating defaulters and non-defaulters of credit repayment. Multi-stage sampling design was adopted for selection of farm respondents. The data were collected through structured questionnaire by personal interview method. A linear discriminant function considered to examine the relative importance of different factors in discriminating between non-defaulters and defaulters. The result revealed that per capita income from crop and milk production, expenditure to total income, earning adults and off-farm income explained major share in discriminating the non-defaulters from defaulters. The mean discriminant score for the non-defaulters (Z1) and defaulter (Z2) were found to be 0.316 and -1.322, respectively. The critical mean discriminant score (Z) for the two groups was found to be –0.503. The high value of Z corresponds to non-defaulter and low value to defaulter. Later the derived classification analysis was observed that 50 out of 83 defaulters and 32 out of 37 non-defaulters were rightly classified in Z function. Thus, grouped cases classified correctly as 68.33% as factors of default. Hence, the model is found to be valid to predict whether an unknown borrower is likely to be defaulter or non-defaulter more precisely.
    Keywords: Discriminant function, credit, defaulter and dairy farmers
    JEL: G17 G23 Q12
    Date: 2013–12–04
  9. By: Pranab Bardhan (University of California, Berkeley); Michael Luca (Harvard Business School, Negotiation, Organizations & Markets Unit); Dilip Mookherjee (Department of Economics, Boston University); Francisco Pino (Université Libre de Bruxelles)
    Abstract: This paper studies how land reform and population growth affect land inequality and landlessness, focusing particularly on indirect effects owing to their influence on household divisions and land market transactions. Theoretical predictions of a model of household division and land transactions are successfully tested using household panel data from West Bengal spanning 1967-2004. The tenancy reform lowered inequality through its effects on household divisions and land market transactions, but its effect was quantitatively dominated by inequality-raising effects of population growth. The land distribution program lowered landlessness but this was partly offset by targeting failures and induced increases in immigration.
    Keywords: inequality, land reform, household division, land markets
    JEL: J12 O13 O13
    Date: 2014–01
  10. By: Beatrice Camaioni; Roberto Esposti; Francesco Pagliacci; Franco Sotte
    Abstract: In this task, research is mostly finalised to analyse how EU policies have been distributed across space. Here, the main focus is on Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) expenditure. The same territorial detail adopted in previous tasks is used (i.e., NUTS 3 level). By analysing CAP expenditure at such a territorial disaggregation level, this work has specifically concentrated on rural, agricultural and environmental policies. Actually, specific CAP measures are directly aimed at tackling those issues. CAP also accounts for a large share of overall EU funds, and it represents one of major drivers of EU spatial development. The methodology of analysis is based on the reconstruction of allocation of EU funds across EU-27 NUTS 3 regions. First, an exploratory analysis of the spatial allocation of CAP expenditure across Europe is assessed. Spatial allocation of CAP expenditure is considered by disentangling specific measures as well (e.g., Pillar One and Pillar Two expenditure, Direct Payment and Market Intervention Measures, Pillar Two’s Axes…). Both absolute expenditure levels and expenditure intensity are computed here. Then, through a simple statistical analysis, the correlation between CAP expenditure at NUTS 3 level and regional features, in terms of both rurality and agricultural activity, is assessed.
    Keywords: Economic growth path, European economic policy
    JEL: O18 Q01 R12 R58
    Date: 2014–01
  11. By: Platt, Lucinda; Ayse, K. Uskul
    Abstract: In this note we take a first look at the extent to which ethnic minorities in the UK maintain or diverge from the diet associated with their country of origin; and whether those who maintain their ethnic origin diet eat more or less healthily. We find that immigrants are more likely to eat food of ethnic origins than minority group members born in the UK. Those of Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi ethnicity are more likely than other minority groups to eat food of ethnic origin whether immigrant or UK-born. UK born minorities who eat ethnic origin food less often also eat fruits and vegetables less often. Thus maintenance of an ethnic origin diet appears to be associated with healthier eating patterns.
    Date: 2014–01–24
  12. By: Jean-Daniel Rinaudo (BRGM - Bureau de recherches géologiques et minières - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM)); Stéphanie Aulong (BRGM - Bureau de recherches géologiques et minières - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM))
    Abstract: The use of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is increasingly advocated as a tool for supporting water planning decisions, in particular at the local (site) level. This paper questions whether CBA is relevant for evaluating groundwater management options at the scale of large regional aquifers. It highlights the difficulties related to estimating the cost of groundwater protection and remediation measures at the regional (water body) level. It also identifies methodological challenges in estimating the economic value of the benefits of groundwater protection. The paper is based on an original case study carried out on the upper Rhine valley aquifer in eastern France. The methodology deployed combines engineering approaches to assess the cost of remediation and economic methods (contingent valuation) to estimate the benefits associated with groundwater improvement.
    Keywords: Cost-benefit analysis; Groundwater remediation; Contingent valuation survey; Volatile organic compounds (VOC); Willingness to pay
    Date: 2013–12–08
  13. By: Jans, Jenny (Uppsala University); Johansson, Per (IFAU); Nilsson, Peter (IIES, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: On normal days, the temperature decreases with altitude, allowing air pollutants to rise and disperse. During inversion episodes, a warmer air layer at higher altitude traps pollutants close to the ground. We show how readily available NASA satellite data on vertical temperature profiles can be used to measure inversion episodes on a global scale with high spatial and temporal resolution. Then, we link inversion episode data to ground level pollution monitors and to daily in- and outpatient records for the universe of children in Sweden during a six-year period to provide instrumental variable estimates of the effects of air quality on children's health. The IV estimates show that the respiratory illness health care visit rate increases by 8 percent for each 10 μm/m³ increase in PM10; an estimate four times higher than conventional estimates. Importantly, by linking the health care data to detailed records of parental background characteristics, we show that children from low-income households suffer significantly more from air pollution than children from high income households. Finally, we provide evidence on the importance of several mechanisms that could contribute to the difference in the impact of air pollution across children in rich and poor households.
    Keywords: instrumental variable, environmental policy, inversions, health, air pollution, nonparametric regression, socio-economic gradient in health
    JEL: Q53 I1 I3 J24
    Date: 2014–01
  14. By: Joseph Walusimbi (DBA candidate at the Maastricht School of Management (MSM)); Robert Goedegebuure, PhD (Associate Professor at the Maastricht School of Management (MSM)); André de Waal, PhD (Associate Professor at the Maastricht School of Management (MSM))
    Abstract: Uganda faces several constraints in its forestry sector. Fragmentation of the sector and a lack of collective strength result in lost opportunities in policy advocacy; product development; sharing of market information; expanding to new markets; developing market standards; and taking advantage of training and support offered by government or non-government organizations funded initiatives. Specifically in the forestry sector the Uganda Government has asserted that “the key to poverty alleviation and sustainable forest management lies with those stakeholder groups that are involved in production, utilization and processing of forest produce” (Uganda Forest Sector Coordination Secretariat, 2001). As highlighted by Auren & Krassowska (2004), a broad spectrum of forestry-based associations exist in Uganda in terms of their geographical scope, their level of formalization and their objectives – from those focusing primarily on social welfare of members to those entrepreneurs who collaborate to achieve some commercial advantage in a competitive market. To empower tree growers associations in Tanzania, the Forestry and Beekeeping Department (FBD) in conjunction with service providers like Green Resources Limited provide a number of development support activities to them ranging from technical forestry, associations’ management guidelines and establishment of alternative income generating activities to marketing techniques. For more detailed information on the forestry sectors in the two countries, see Walusimbi (2014, forthcoming). This paper thesis explores the quality of partnerships between small to medium sized commercial forestry producers in Tanzania and Uganda, and their associations, and the impact these partnerships have on upgrading of activities and ultimately business performance.
    Date: 2014–01
  15. By: Jean-Louis Combes (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Pascale Combes Motel (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Somlanare Romuald KINDA (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the controversial literature on the relationship between environmental policies and international trade. It provides new evidence about the effect of a gap in environmental policies between trading partners on trade flow on a sample of developed and developing countries over the 1980-2010 period. The paper innovates on two aspects. First, while previous studies have used partial measures of environmental regulations (input-oriented or output-oriented indicators), an index of a country's environmental policy is computed. This index is calculated as the difference between observed pollution levels and "structural" pollution i.e. pollution predicted by determinants of environmental degradation as identified and modelled in the literature. This index is therefore a measure of "revealed" efforts made by countries aiming at downsizing environmental degradation. Second, the effect of these revealed environmental policies is assessed on bilateral trade flows in a gravity model. A particular attention is paid to similarities in environmental policies. Our results show that a gap in domestic efforts towards environmental protection between trading partners has no effect on exports. Moreover, the results do not appear to be conditional on the level of development of the countries trading nor on the characteristics of exported goods (manufactured goods and primary commodities).
    Keywords: Trade;Environmental policies;Gravity Model
    Date: 2014–01–30
  16. By: Johanna Choumert (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Eric Nazindigouba KERE (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Amandine Loyale LARé (CREAM - CREAM - Université de Rouen)
    Abstract: The international community has made a commitment that aims to halve, by 2015, the number of people without access to safe drinking water and hygienic sanitation systems. In Togo, the government struggles to provide the population with access to water and sanitation, despite a proactive policy. We argue that a connection to safe water and sanitation increases housing values. Using collected data from the city of Dapaong, we develop a hedonic price model to capture the relationship between housing values and their characteristics. Our results support the need to accompany any investment in access to water and sanitation with real estate policies, so that the poorest households remain beneficiaries of the pro-poor policies.
    Keywords: Africa;latrines;Millennium Development Goals;hedonic price;multi-level model;variance components model
    Date: 2014–01–30
  17. By: Matthias Doepke (Northwestern University); Michele Tertilt
    Abstract: Empirical evidence suggests that money in the hands of mothers (as opposed to fathers) increases expenditures on children. From this, should we infer that targeting transfers to women is good economic policy? In this paper, we develop a non-cooperative model of household decision making to answer this question. We show that when women have lower wages than men, they may spend more on children, even when they have exactly the same preferences as their husbands. However, this does not necessarily mean that giving money to women is a good development policy. We show that depending on the nature of the production function, targeting transfers to women may be beneficial or harmful to growth. In particular, such transfers are more likely to be beneficial when human capital, rather than physical capital or land, is the most important factor of production.
    Keywords: Female Empowerment, Gender Equality, Economic Development, Theory of the Household, Marital Bargaining
    JEL: D13 J16 O10
    Date: 2014–01
  18. By: Chai, Andreas; Bradley, Graham; Lo, Alex Y.; Reser, Joseph
    Abstract: We investigate the role discretionary (non-working) time plays in sustaining the gap between individuals’ concern about climate change and their propensity to act on this concern by adopting sustainable consumption practices. Using recent Australian survey data on climate change adaptation, we find that while discretionary time is unrelated to concern about climate change, it is positively correlated with the propensity to adopt mitigating behavior. Moreover, we find that increasing discretionary time is associated with significant reductions in the gap between the concern that individuals express about climate change and their reporting of engagement in sustainable consumption practices.
    Keywords: discretionary time; environmental concern; sustainable consumption ; climate change ; Australia
    JEL: D12 D83 Q50
    Date: 2014–02–06
  19. By: Casari, Marco (University of Bologna); Lisciandra, Maurizio (University of Messina)
    Abstract: Starting from the medieval period, women in the Italian Alps experienced a progressive erosion in property rights over the commons. We collected documents about the evolution of inheritance regulations on collective land issued by hundreds of peasant communities over a period of six centuries (13th-19th). Based on this original dataset, we provide a long-term perspective of decentralized institutional change in which gender-biased inheritance systems emerged as a defensive measure to preserve the wealth of community insiders. This institutional change had implications also for the protection from economic shocks, for population growth, and for marriage strategies.
    Keywords: land rights, endogamy, migrations, common property
    JEL: J16 N53 Q20
    Date: 2014–01
  20. By: Joachim Schleich (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research); Elisabeth Dütschke (Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research); Claudia Schwirplies (University of Kassel); Andreas Ziegler (University of Kassel)
    Abstract: Relying on a recent survey of more than 3300 participants from China, Germany and the US, this paper empirically analyzes citizens’ perceptions of climate change and climate policy, focusing on key guiding principles for sharing mitigation costs across countries. The ranking of the main principles for burden-sharing is identical in China, Germany and the US: accountability followed by capability, egalitarianism, and sover-eignty. Thus, on a general level, citizens across these countries seem to have a com-mon understanding of fairness. We therefore find no evidence that citizens’ (stated) fairness preferences are detrimental to future burden-sharing agreements. While there is heterogeneity in citizens’ perceptions of climate change and climate policy within and across countries, a substantial portion of citizens in all countries perceive a lack of transparency, fairness, and trust in international climate agreements.
    Keywords: Climate change policies; climate change; burden sharing; equity; justice; distributive justice
    Date: 2014
  21. By: Sophie Clot; Fano Andriamahefazafy; Gilles Grolleau; Lisette Ibanez; Philippe Méral
    Abstract: The explicit assumption underlying Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) is that offering payments that are at least equal to individual’s opportunity cost will establish individuals’ participation. At the same time, that payment should act as a substitution within landowners’ global income, making environmental conservation compatible with economic development goals, and suitable for win-win policy. This partially acts under the more general hypothesis of money fungibility built-in neoclassical economic premise. Meanwhile, behavioural economics demonstrate that individuals track their financial activities using a set of cognitive labels depending to the context in which it was obtained, each of which being associated with a different marginal propensity to consume. Based on a ‘Humans’ vs. ‘Econs’ approach, we test the effect of income’s origin (‘Low effort’ based money vs. ‘High effort’ based money) on spending decisions (Necessity vs. Superior goods) and pro social preferences (Contribution to a public good) within Madagascar rural areas that are potential beneficiaries of PES programs, using a natural field experiment. Our findings support that human’s behavioural responses matter and could, under some circumstances, alter environmental conservation policies.
    Date: 2014–01
  22. By: Bagaria, Nidhi; Santra, Swarup; Kumar, Rajesh
    Abstract: This Paper investigates the comparative advantage of India & China and how this has changed over the period of 2002-2012. Comparative advantage has been tested using Revealed comparative Advantage (RCA). Export Products are analyzed based on Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) revision 1, which divide total export into ten groups. It has been found that in some commodities RCA remained stable throughout the study period whereas in some commodities there has been large variation. In some commodity groups India and China complement each other whereas in some commodities they are competing they are competing with each other in the World market. The analysis can be applied to guide policy makers in their evaluation of trade and industrial policies.
    Keywords: Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), International Trade, China and India
    JEL: F14
    Date: 2014–01–19
  23. By: Fanny A. Kluge (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Emilio Zagheni (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Elke Loichinger (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany); Tobias Vogt (Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany)
    Abstract: Population aging is an inevitable global demographic process. Most of the literature on the consequences of demographic change focuses on the economic and societal challenges that we will face as people live longer and have fewer children. In this paper, we (a) describe key trends and projections of the magnitude and speed of population aging; (b) discuss the economic, social, and environmental consequences of population aging; and (c) investigate some of the opportunities that aging societies create. We use Germany as a case study. However, the general insights that we obtain can be generalized to other developed countries. We argue that there may be positive unintended side effects of population aging that can be leveraged to address pressing environmental problems and issues of gender inequality and intergenerational ties.
    Keywords: Germany, ageing
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2014–01
  24. By: Johanna Choumert (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Jesper STAGE (Mid Sweden University - Mid Sweden University - Mid Sweden University); Claudine UWERA (University of Gothenburg - University of Gothenburg - University of Gothenburg)
    Abstract: In this paper, we study the determinants of rental values in urban housing markets in Kigali, Rwanda. In particular, we study the value of access to piped water; due to the high costs associated with installing new piped connections, renting a property with an existing connection is often the only way for low income households to access piped water. Our results indicate that extending the piped network to a new house will in many cases raise the rental value of the house enough to pay for the cost of installing the new connection in less than two years.
    Keywords: Africa;rwanda;water access;hedonic price;real estate;non-market valuation
    Date: 2014–01–30
  25. By: Rachel Sabates-Wheeler (Institute of Development Studies); Philip Verwimp (Université Libre de Bruxelles)
    Abstract: Using a panel dataset from Burundi where information on protection payments during the 10 year civil war were collected, we test the relationship between payments, the nature of extraction by the rebels, and welfare outcomes. We ask, does payment to rebels insure against future welfare loss and does the nature of payment matter? Specifically, does the level of institutionalisation of extraction within the rebel governance structure provide a form of insurance for future welfare? No less than 30% of the interviewees made at least one payment. Rebels extract these taxes through one of two routes: an ‘institutionalised’ and regular cash-with-receipt method or an ad hoc and unpredictable labour extraction. Using matching methods we find that payment through the institutionalised route increases household welfare between 16 and 25%. Ad hoc extraction has no effect. We situate our findings in the empirical literatures on contributions to mafia-type organisations and rebel governance.
    Keywords: extortion, taxation, forced labour, welfare, rebellion, Africa
    Date: 2014–01
  26. By: Halkos, George; Papageorgiou, George
    Abstract: This paper computes and analyses for the first time environmental efficiencies in waste generation of 160 European regions in NUTS 2 level in seven European countries. For this reason different Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model formulations are used modeling the pollutant in the form of waste generation as a regular output and as a regular input. In the latter case we also use the notion of eco-efficiency. The empirical findings reveal environmental inefficiencies among the regions indicating the lack of a uniform regional environmental policy among the European countries. This finding is observed not only between countries but also between regions in the same country, implying the need for implementation of appropriate municipal environmental policies in waste management.
    Keywords: Environmental efficiency; Waste generation; European regions; Data Envelopment Analysis
    JEL: C6 O13 O52 Q50 Q53 Q56 R11
    Date: 2014–02–03
  27. By: Lorenzo Cassi; Andrea Morrison; Roberta Rabellotti
    Abstract: International collaboration among researchers is a far from linear and straightforward process. Scientometric studies provide a good way of understanding why and how international research collaboration occurs and what are its costs and benefits. Our study investigates patterns of international scientific collaboration in a specific field: wine related research. We test a gravity model that accounts for geographical, cultural, commercial, technological, structural and institutional differences among a group of Old World (OW) and New World (NW) producers and consumers. Our findings confirm the problems imposed by geographical and technological distance on international research collaboration. Furthermore, they show that similarity in trade patterns has a positive impact on international scientific collaboration. We also find that international research collaboration is more likely among peers, in other words, among wine producing countries that belong to the same group, e.g. OW producers or newcomers to the wine industry.
    Keywords: Proximity, International scientific collaboration, Wine industry, Gravity model, Scientometrics, Emerging countries
    Date: 2014–02
  28. By: Evgeny Varfolomeev (Science Research Institute of Economics and Management in Gas Industry); Oleg Marin (Science Research Institute of Economics and Management in Gas Industry); Dmitry Bykov (Science Research Institute of Economics and Management in Gas Industry); Oleg Karasev (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Natalia Velikanova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Elena Vetchinkina (Lomonosov Moscow State University); Anastasia Edelkina (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Thomas Thurner (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper studies the integration of social and environmental objectives into strategy through performance indicators based on a sample of multinational world-leading oil- and gas producers. Also, we inquire if the companies under study, which identify certain areas as strategic objectives, do better than their peers. We show that top management of the companies did indeed identify different areas of interest, had different strategic foci, and used different performance indicators. This is often explicable through a company’s own history and past experiences. When comparing a sample of greenhouse gas emissions, safety measures, and energy efficiency indicators between the different companies, we could not identify a consistent development over time trends. In fact, some did worse over time and collective improvements were largely absent. We suggest further research into the link between strategic objectives and a company’s relative position in industry.
    Keywords: indicator, environmental protection, oil- and gas producers, energy efficiency, resource availability
    JEL: M14 M40 N50
    Date: 2014
  29. By: Jean-Louis Combes (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Pascale Combes Motel (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Alexandru Minea (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Patrick Villieu (Université d'Orléans - Université d'Orléans - Université d'Orléans)
    Abstract: Most of countries covered by natural forests are developing countries, with limited ability to levy taxes and restrained access to international credit markets; consequently, they are amenable to draw heavily on two sources of government financing, namely seigniorage and deforestation revenues. First, we develop a theoretical model emphasizing a substitution effect between seigniorage and deforestation revenues. Second, a panel-data econometric analysis over the 1990-2010 period confirms our findings. Consequently, a tighter monetary policy hastens deforestation. Third, we extend the theoretical model and show that international transfers dedicated to forest protection can upturn the positive link between tighter monetary policies and deforestation, and then discuss the relevance of this finding with respect to recent institutional arrangements.
    Keywords: deforestation;seigniorage;inflation;developing countries;Panel Data Analysis
    Date: 2014–01–30

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.