nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2013‒07‒15
67 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. Philippine Agriculture to 2020: Threats and Opportunities from Global Trade By Briones, Roehlano M.
  2. Coping with Climate Change: A Food Policy Approach By Timmer, C. Peter
  3. Pattern of investment allocation to chemical inputs and technical efficiency: A stochastic frontier analysis of farm households in Laguna, Philippines By Velarde, Orlee; Pede, Valerien
  4. Testing for bubbles in agriculture commodity markets By Areal, Francisco J; Balcombe, Kelvin; Rapsomanikis, George
  5. Constraints to Agricultural Technology Adoption in Uganda: Evidence from the 2005/06-2009/10 Uganda National Panel Survey By Ibrahim, Kasirye
  6. Impact Assessment of the Agricultural Production Support Services of the Department of Agriculture on the Income of Poor Farmers/Fisherfolk: Review of the Evidence By Briones, Roehlano M.
  7. How Export Restrictive Measures Affect Trade of Agricultural Commodities By Peter Liapis
  8. Tradeoff between Non-farm Income and on-farm conservation investments in the Semi-Arid Tropics of India By Nedumaran, S.
  9. Effects of U.S. Public Agricultural R&D on U.S. Obesity and its Social Costs By Alston, Julian M.; Okrent, Abigail M.; Parks, Joanna
  10. How has the high Australian dollar impacted agrifood exports?: “A qualitative perspective” By Kearns, B.; Baud, S.; Fraval, S.; Marks, N.
  11. Impact of Agricultural Market Information Systems Activities on Market Performance in Mozambique By Kizito, Andrew M.; Donovan, Cynthia; Staatz, John M.
  12. The impacts of the global food and financial crises on household food security and economic well-being: evidence from Bangladesh By Sonia, Akter; Syed Abul, Basher
  13. Canadian Food Dollar: Breakdown between Farm and Marketing Costs By Kelly, Jessica; Weersink, Alfons; Cranfield, John
  14. Trade and agricultural employment linkages in general equilibrium modelling By Vanzetti, David; Peters, Ralf
  15. A Thirst for Efficiency: Finding the Relationship between Water Trading and Agricultural Water Use Efficiency in the Murray-Darling Basin By Hassan, Roger
  16. Community values for the benefits of carbon farming: a choice experiment study By Massam, G.; Kragt, M.E.; Burton, M.
  17. Abandoning Coffee under the Threat of Violence and the Presence of Illicit Crops. Evidence from Colombia By Ana María Ibañez Londoño; Juan Carlos Muñoz Mora; Philip Verwimp
  18. Climate change and adaptation in Australian wheat dominant agriculture: a real options analysis By Hertzler, Greg; Sanderson, Todd; Capon, Tim; Hayman, Peter; Kingwell, Ross
  19. Output supply and yield response of rice in Nigeria: implications for future rice policy By Boansi, David
  20. Food Prices and Body Fatness among Youths By Grossman, Michael; Tekin, Erdal; Wada, Roy
  21. Deforestation, forest fallowing, and soil conservation in shifting cultivation By Yoshito Takasaki
  22. Are short rotation coppices an alternative to traditional agricultural land use in Germany? A real options approach By Haverkamp, Matthias Wolbert; Musshoff, Oliver
  23. Intensification of lowland rice-based farming systems in Laos in the context of diversified rural livelihoods By Newby, J.C.; Manivong, V.; Cramb, R.A.
  24. Rural Infrastructure and Agricultural Market Integration in the United States: A long run perspective By Sharp, Paul; Uebele, Martin
  25. Optimal R&D Investments in Plant Breeding with IPRs and Flexibility between Hybrid and Herbicide Tolerance Trait Development By Brewin, Derek G.; Arzandeh, Mehdi
  26. The Structure of Agricultural Trade Industry in Developing Countries By Briones, Roehlano M.
  27. Broadacre farm productivity trajectories and farm characteristics By Islam, Nazrul; Kingwell, Ross; Xayavong, Vilaphonh; Anderton, Lucy; Feldman, David; Speijers, Jane
  28. Food Standards, Heterogeneous Firms and Developing Countries’ Export Performance By Schuster, Monica; Maertens, Miet
  29. Bayesian network as a modelling tool for risk management in agriculture By Svend Rasmussen; Anders L. Madsen; Mogens Lund
  30. Economic assessment of technologies aimed at reducing air pollution in rice-wheat farming system in north-west India By Crean, Jason; Milham, Nick; Singh, Rajinder
  31. Estimating the supply of on-farm biodiversity conservation services by north Australian pastoralists: design of a choice experiment By Greiner, Romy; Ballweg, Julie
  32. How Responsive to Prices is the Supply of Milk in Malawi? By Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Arakelyan, Irina; Chalmers, Neil; Chitika, Rollins
  33. What Makes a Farmer? The Limited Expansion of Commercial Farming Among Bulgarian Smallholders By Mieke Meurs
  34. Corporate Concentration Limits Growth in Sustainable Agriculture By Levins, Richard A.
  35. The Impact of Price Reductions on Individuals' Choice of Healthy Meals Away from Home By Nordström, Jonas; Thunström, Linda
  36. The potential of food waste reduction through the green purchasing By Iwamoto, Hiroyuki
  37. Inter-household variations in environmental impact of food consumption in Finland By Irz, Xavier; Kurppa, Sirpa
  38. Upstream-downstream benefit analysis of policy on water use by upstream tree plantations By Nordblom, T.L.; Hume, I.H.; Finlayson, J.D.; Pannell, D.J.; Holland, J.
  39. An Analysis of the Demand for Fresh Fruit in Scotland By Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Florkowski, Wojciech J
  40. Farmer Preferences for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Hybrid versus Inbred Rice: Evidence from Bihar, India By Ward, Patrick S.; Ortega, David L.; Spielman, David J.; Singh, Vartika; Magnan, Nicholas
  41. Strategic positioning of international agricultural research centres: Comparative advantage and trade-offs from a transaction cost economics perspective By Kamanda, Josey; Birner, Regina; Bantilan, Cynthia
  42. Strategic Breeding Investments for Legume Expansion: Lessons Learned from the Comparison of Groundnut and Pigeonpea By Mausch, K.; Chiwaula, L.; Irshad, A.; Bantilan, C.; Silim, S.; Siambi, M.
  43. Production Standards, Competition and Vertical Relationship By Bouamra-Mechemache, Zohra; Jianye, Yu
  44. Production Efficiency and Technology Gap in Irrigated and Rain-fed Rice Farming Systems in Sri Lanka: Non Parametric Approach By Thibbotuwawa, Manoj; Mugera, Amin; White, Ben
  45. The Caloric Costs of Culture: Evidence from Indian Migrants By David Atkin
  46. The Freer the Fatter? A Panel Study of the Relationship between Body-Mass Index and Economic Freedom By Ljungvall, Åsa
  47. Supply of Insurance for Specialty Crops and its Effect on Yield and Acreage By Olen, Beau; Wu, Junjie
  48. Land governance of suburban areas of Vietnam: Dynamics and contestations of planning, housing and the environment By Wit, J.W. de
  49. King's law and food storage in Saxony, c. 1790-1830 By Martin Uebele; Tim Grünebaum; Michael Kopsidis
  50. Feeding Southeast Minnesota: A Model to Estimate Food Expenditures and Quantities By Dietrich, Sadie M.
  51. Development and Diffusion of Sorghum Improved Cultivars in India: Impact on Growth and Variability in Yield By Charyulu, D.Kumara; Bantilan, MCS; Rajalaxmi, A
  52. Premium Estimation Inaccuracy and the Distribution of Crop Insurance Subsidies By Ramirez, Octavio; Colson, Greg
  53. The Future Productivity and Competitiveness Challenge for Australian Agriculture By Mullen, John; Keogh, Mick
  54. Costs and benefits of crop residue retention in a Chinese subsistence farming system By Komarek, Adam
  55. Informing policy design for water quality improvements in the sugarcane industries adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef: a case study approach By Edwards, Brooke; Sluggett, Robert; East, Miriam
  56. Measuring Groundwater Irrigation Efficiency in Pakistan: A DEA Approach Using the Sub-vector and Slack-based Models By Watto, Muhammad
  57. Framing and managing the adoption of practice change for NRM by farmers. By Wright, Vic; Keeble, Brigette; Kaine, Geoff
  58. Assessment of the Efficiency and Effectiveness of the Reforestation Program of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources By Israel, Danilo C.; Lintag, Jeffrey H.
  59. Market Structure and Distribution of Benefits from Agricultural Exports: the Case of the Philippine Mango Industry By Briones, Roehlano M.
  60. El Niño Southern Oscillation and Primary Agricultural Commodity Prices: Causal Inferences from Smooth Transition Models By Ubilava, David
  61. Effects of Supplemental Revenue Programs on Crop Insurance Coverage Levels By Bulut, Harun; Collins, Keith J.
  62. Willingness to Pay for Private Labels, National Brands, and Local Designations at the Retail Level By Bosworth, Ryan C.; Bailey, DeeVon; Curtis, Kynda R.
  63. The anatomy of prices on the French fish market By Laurent Gobillon; François-Charles Wolff; Patrice Guillotreau
  64. TRANSACTION COSTS, COLLECTIVE ACTION AND ADAPTATION IN MANAGING SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL SYSTEMS By Marshall, Graham R.
  65. ALLOCATIVE EFFICIENCY, SUPPLY MANAGEMENT AND CANADIAN AGRICULTURE By Oyewumi, Olubukola
  66. Heterogeneity and risk sharking in village economies By Pierre-Andre Chiappori; Krislert Samphantharak; Sam Schulhofer-Wohl; Robert Townsend
  67. Water Financing Programs in the Philippines: Are We Making Progress? By Llanto, Gilberto M.

  1. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: Agriculture confronts several challenges over the decade, i.e., meeting burgeoning food requirements with limited farm land, and balancing the need to import with the provision of livelihoods. The current policy regime leans heavily toward import substitution, with supply side interventions to boost production, combined with protectionism toward sensitive products (particularly rice). The study conducts a scenario analysis to examine the likely evolution of Philippine agriculture to 2020, as well as the implications of pursuing alternative policies. It finds that, under a business-as-usual scenario: Agricultural growth continues with dramatic increases for rice production in the offing. Likewise per capita consumption of most food items would continue increasing. Import growth is curtailed, with substantial price increases for meat products and rice. The alternative scenario involves liberalization and re-allocation of expenditure support toward export-oriented agricultural subsectors. Under this scenario, imports of rice, yellow maize, and poultry increase, with faster increases in per capita consumption than under business-as-usual, and lower retail prices. While consumers gain, producers of import-competing products face harsher competition and cut back on their production. Deepest cuts are expected for rice. Export-oriented commodities experience a production and export boost, with brightest prospects for other crops, banana, aquaculture products, and even coconut. This study recommends the outward-oriented policy, with concomitant measures to compensate losers, ease the burden of adjustment, and facilitate the transition toward a more diversified and dynamic agricultural sector.
    Keywords: Philippines, agricultural development, scenario analysis, trade policy, expenditure support
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:phd:dpaper:dp_2013-14&r=agr
  2. By: Timmer, C. Peter
    Abstract: The early drafts of Food Policy Analysis were stimulated by the attention to high food prices following the world food crisis in 1973-74, and the fears of a repeat in 1979-80. But by the fourth full draft, in 1982, it became apparent that surpluses were returning to world food markets. A volume predicated on a world running out of food would have been out of date before the ink was dry, and a full-scale revamping of the analytical messages was needed. After a nearly complete re-write, the new theme, which has stood the test of thirty years of market fluctuations, was the need for flexibility to cope with market instability. That message is even more relevant now, as we learn to cope with a new source of instability—climate change. Such flexibility is not a natural feature of domestic policy making, in the food sector or elsewhere, and providing the analytical tools for understanding how to create flexible responses turned out to be a real challenge. The task in this paper is to ask specifically how climate change would alter the basic message of Food Policy Analysis. Virtually all of the analysis was focused on national policies and domestic markets, an approach that seems problematical for preventing or mitigating climate change, but entirely appropriate for designing adaptation strategies. Climate change is imposing itself as a reality via the increased probability of extreme weather events in general, but also on both global and localized food security outcomes in particular. The ecosystem services provided by the climate are essential for all agricultural production. The most important effects of climate change on agriculture are likely to include a net global loss of agricultural land, changing crop suitability, an increase in the frequency of natural disasters, and greater temporal and geographic variance in production. It will also have negative effects on other areas of agriculture broadly interpreted--reducing the carrying capacity of many rangelands and posing threats to fisheries and aquaculture production systems. Climate change is expected to have highly variable effects on different regions; tropical and equatorial regions will bear the heaviest burdens, with some gains in yields and land availability in temperate regions. Since rural poverty is concentrated in tropical and, in South Asia, coastal areas, climate change is expected to have a disproportionate effect on the already vulnerable. The challenge is to design, analyze and implement in-country “climate-smart agriculture” adaptation projects and programs, which are now part of the food policy agenda, as well as improve the openness to trade in agricultural commodities to even out geographical instability. Designing appropriate policies for bio-fuels also needs to be on the analytical agenda.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152188&r=agr
  3. By: Velarde, Orlee; Pede, Valerien
    Abstract: This study focuses on the pattern between investment in chemical inputs such as fertilizer, pesticides and herbicides and technical efficiency of farm households in Laguna, Philippines. Using a one‐stage maximum likelihood estimation procedure, the stochastic production frontier model was estimated simultaneously with the determinants of efficiency. Results show that farmers with a low technical efficiency score have a high investment share in chemical inputs. Farmers who invested more in chemical inputs relative to other variable inputs attained the same or even lower output and were less efficient than those farmers who invested less. The result shows that farmers who invested wisely in chemical inputs can encourage farmers to apply chemical inputs more optimally.
    Keywords: Agricultural Management, Agricultural Productivity, Farm Household, Fertilizer Use, Rice, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q12,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152203&r=agr
  4. By: Areal, Francisco J; Balcombe, Kelvin; Rapsomanikis, George
    Abstract: A number of tests and dating algorithms have been developed and used to identify rapid increases in prices followed by a collapse, also known as explosive bubbles (Phillips, Wu and Yu, 2011; Phillips, Shi and Yu, 2012; Gilbert, 2009; Gutierrez, forthcoming). Previous analysis on agriculture commodities by Gilbert (2009) and Gutierrez (forthcoming) applied the tests developed by Phillips, Wu and Yu (2011) and focused on four agricultural commodities. In contrast, we apply the more recent generalized sup augmented Dickey-Fuller (GSADF) test for explosive bubbles (Phillips, Shi and Yu, 2012) to monthly time-series for food, beverages, agricultural raw material, cereals, dairy, meat, oils and sugar indices and a total of 28 agricultural commodities between 1980-2012. We found price bubbles occurred for some commodities within food markets.
    Keywords: price bubbles,generalized sup augmented Dickey-Fuller test, agricultural commodities
    JEL: C13 Q11 Q13
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:48015&r=agr
  5. By: Ibrahim, Kasirye
    Abstract: The study examines the determinants of improved agricultural technologies adoption in Uganda, using a nationally representative panel data set of 1,600 farming households, collected by the Ugandan Bureau of Statistics in 2005/6 and 2009/10. Two agricultural technologies—improved seeds and fertilizer—out of the seven types identified by the study were further considered and analyzed. Estimates from the probit regression model show that farmers with low education and land holdings are less likely to adopt improved seeds and fertilizer, while peer effects play a big role in influencing farmers to either use improved seeds or fertilizer. Furthermore, cattle keeping farmers in Western Uganda are more likely to abandon fertilizers and possibly resort to organic manure from livestock excreta. Policy, therefore, should be directed at addressing the supply side constraints of agricultural technologies.
    Keywords: Agricultural technologies adoption, Improved seeds and fertilizer, Farming households, Uganda, EPRC, Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Consumer/Household Economics, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2013–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eprcrs:151979&r=agr
  6. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: Expenditures on agriculture have been rising over time, as expression of the state`s commitment to reduce poverty, raise rural incomes and household welfare, and promote food security. However, agriculture continues to exhibit disappointing performance, namely, laggard growth, lack of diversification and competitiveness, tepid productivity growth, and persistent poverty among farmers. There is basis for attributing this performance at least in part to faulty design and execution of agricultural programs. Private goods provided as production support, most notably input subsidies, are contra-indicated based on case studies of past failures. Moreover, a series of audit reports document leakages and anomalies in these types of programs. This is consistent with international evidence that favors a shift in public expenditure from provision of private goods to provision of public goods. Extension is flagged owing to problems in quality of services provided. Production support should be limited in duration and scope to goods characterized by market failure, most notably those embodying new technologies. Support for postharvest and processing facilities should be limited to strategic investments toward addressing coordination problems and facilitating market development. Among public goods (or goods with public good features), irrigation has not been found to be effective based on econometric evidence. This places in question the current plan to ramp up investment in irrigation, making it by far the largest single item for public spending on agriculture. Such investment plans should be reviewed given studies point to design flaws and other implementation problems in past irrigation projects. The public goods that do show evidence of impact on agricultural incomes and productivity are infrastructure such as roads, ports, electrification (under other infrastructure), regulatory services, and R&D for technological change and agricultural modernization.
    Keywords: Philippines, public goods, farm subsidies, agricultural production support, impact assessment
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:phd:dpaper:dp_2013-23&r=agr
  7. By: Peter Liapis
    Abstract: Information on export restrictive measures was collected from 16 countries for the period 2007 to 2011 or 2012 depending on the country. The data indicate that export measures were applied across the whole spectrum of agricultural and food products, but grains, oilseeds and vegetable oils were particularly targeted. A variety of measures were employed at least one time on at least on product. Export bans were used by most (13) of the countries in the inventory while nine countries used export duties and export quotas were used by eight. The various measures were often used sequentially or concurrently. The data indicate that in most years, world trade of the commodities of interest rose suggesting that when restrictive measures lowered exports from intervening countries, competitors were able to compensate. For the world rice market, however, export restrictions significantly lowered exports of interfering countries, but other rice suppliers filled the gap as total imports were not affected.
    Keywords: agricultural trade, agricultural policy, export restrictions, grains (wheat, rice, maize), food trade, vegetable oils
    JEL: Q02 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2013–07–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oec:agraaa:63-en&r=agr
  8. By: Nedumaran, S.
    Abstract: This paper assesses the tradeoff between non-farm income and on-farm soil and water conservation investment by smallholder farmers in the semi-arid tropics of India using a dynamic bioeconomic model. This modeling approach allows understanding the complex interaction and feedback between household economic decision making and sustainability of natural resource base. A dynamic crop-livestock integrated bio-economic has been developed and calibrated for a Semi-Arid Tropics (SAT) watershed village in India where integrated watershed development program was implemented. The village level model is used to assess the impact of improved access to off-farm employment created by watershed development program on household welfare, land degradation and Soil and Water Conservation (SWC) labour used on-farm to reduce run-off and soil erosion. The simulation results revealed that improved non-farm employment opportunities in the village increases household welfare but reduces the households’ incentive to use labour for conservation leading to higher levels of soil erosion and rapid land degradation in the watershed. This indicates that returns to labour are higher in non-farm than on-farm employment opportunities in the village. This appears to be no win-win benefits from improving the access to non-farm income in SAT rainfed farming villages. Complementary policies are required to protect the natural resource base.
    Keywords: Land degradation, Soil and Water conservation, non-farm income, Bioeconomic Model, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, International Development, International Relations/Trade, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152171&r=agr
  9. By: Alston, Julian M.; Okrent, Abigail M.; Parks, Joanna
    Abstract: How much has food abundance, attributable to U.S. public agricultural R&D, contributed to the high and rising U.S. obesity rates? In this paper we investigate the effects of public investment in agricultural R&D on food prices, per capita calorie consumption, adult body weight, obesity, public health-care expenditures related to obesity, and social welfare. First we use an econometric model to estimate the average effect of an incremental investment in agricultural R&D on the farm prices of ten categories of farm commodities. Next, we use the econometric results in a simulation model to estimate the implied changes in prices and quantities consumed of nine categories of food for given changes in research expenditures. Finally, we estimate the corresponding changes in social welfare, including both the traditional measures of changes in economic surplus in markets for food and farm commodities, and changes in public health-care expenditures associated with the predicted changes in food consumption and hence obesity. We find that a 10 percent increase in the stream of annual U.S. public investment in agricultural R&D in the latter half of the 20th century would have caused a modest increase in average daily calorie consumption of American adults, resulting in small increases in social costs of obesity. On the other hand, such an increase in spending would have generated very substantial net national benefits given the very large benefit-cost ratios for agricultural R&D.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Health Economics and Policy, Public Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152174&r=agr
  10. By: Kearns, B.; Baud, S.; Fraval, S.; Marks, N.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152192&r=agr
  11. By: Kizito, Andrew M.; Donovan, Cynthia; Staatz, John M.
    Abstract: The objective of this research is to analyze the impact of agricultural market information systems (MIS) activities on market performance in Mozambique. This report analyzes factors that are associated with reception of improved agricultural market information from the MIS and other sources among farmers in Mozambique; and how the reception of improved agricultural market information affects prices obtained by sellers of maize in Mozambique. From the econometric analysis of a two-year panel household data set for four provinces in Mozambique, the study finds that the generic factors that are associated with the reception of improved agricultural market information include: (a) growing maize and large and small groundnuts; (b) owning a radio; (c) presence of a cell phone network in the village; (d) membership in a farmer association; (e) access to extension services; (f) proximity to a road with public transport; (g) being nearer to a village administrative post; (h) level of education; and (i) the agro-ecological zone in which the household is located. The analysis indicates that, holding other factors constant, reception of market information by staple crops farmers in Mozambique is associated with a higher probability of market participation of up to 34%.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2012–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:mididp:152396&r=agr
  12. By: Sonia, Akter; Syed Abul, Basher
    Abstract: This paper presents the first household-level study to examine the combined impacts of the global food and financial crises on household food security and economic well-being in a developing country. Using longitudinal survey data of 1,800 rural households from 12 districts of Bangladesh over the period 2007–2010, we estimated a three-stage hierarchical logit model to identify the key sources of household food insecurity. A difference-in-difference estimator was then employed to compare pre- and post-crises expenditure for those households who experienced acute food shortages and those who managed to avoid the worst impacts of the crises. On the basis of our results we conclude that: (1) the soaring food prices of 2007–2008 unequivocally aggravated food insecurity in the rural areas of Bangladesh in 2008; (2) there was some weak evidence to suggest that the global economic downturn, which followed the global food crisis, contributed towards worsening food insecurity in 2009; (3) the adverse impacts of these crises appeared to have faded over time due to labor and commodity market adjustments, regional economic growth, and domestic policy responses, leaving no profound, long-lasting impacts on households’ economic well-being; and (4) although the immediate adverse consequences of rising food prices were borne disproportionately by the poor and farming communities, the longer term consequences were distributed more evenly across the rich and poor and, in general, were favorable for the farming community.
    Keywords: Food security; Food price shocks; financial crises; Discrete choice modeling; Household survey data; Economic welfare; Bangladesh
    JEL: C25 I31 Q18
    Date: 2013–06–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:47859&r=agr
  13. By: Kelly, Jessica; Weersink, Alfons; Cranfield, John
    Abstract: This poster assesses the breakdown of the Canadian food dollar between farm and marketing costs. It uses input-output methods, comparable to those used by the Economic Research Service (ERS), in order to allow for Canadian-American comparison. The farm share and marketing bill provide a valuable snapshot of the dynamics of the agri-food supply chain, changing consumer demands, and the resultant value distribution of the retail food dollar.
    Keywords: Food dollar, farm share, marketing bill, marketing margin, Demand and Price Analysis, Q110,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151978&r=agr
  14. By: Vanzetti, David; Peters, Ralf
    Abstract: Trade negotiators are frequently concerned about the possible negative effects of trade liberalisation on employment in specific sectors. The agricultural sector in developing countries has characteristics that make it different from industrial or service sectors. These characteristics are an informal labour force, low productivity, absence of regulations and a tie to land. These features affect adjustment costs. A global computable general equilibrium model, GTAP, is used to analyse employment and wage effects of trade liberalization in three developing countries — Indonesia, Bangladesh and Guatemala. The ability to fully utilize all resources, including labour, is important. The results highlight the advantage of a functioning and flexible labour market that can readily adjust to trade shocks.
    Keywords: agriculture, trade, employment, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade, F13, Q17,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152182&r=agr
  15. By: Hassan, Roger
    Abstract: The Australian government has put forward many policies in the past three decades with the aim of increasing water market activity. Water trading is widely thought to transfer water to its highest productive use in order to extract the greatest benefit to society. This paper employs an empirical analysis of the agricultural water market in the Southern Murray-Darling Basin in order to determine whether trading has indeed induced agricultural water use efficiency. This thesis focuses on technical water use efficiency as it searches for evidence that water trade has induced innovation in minimizing water use at the farm level. This research is done on three different scales in order to test the relationship between water trade and the efficiency of its use in several situations. First a cross-sectional analysis of the Goulburn Murray Irrigation District shows an increasing trend in water use efficiency between 1998/99 and 2010/11, although only a weak relationship with trade is found. Second a panel-data regression is performed across the four Murray-Darling Basin states in order to estimate the relationship that both permanent and temporary trade has on water use efficiency. The results of the panel regression conclude that while a 1GL increase in permanent water entitlement trade has led to a 0.00089ML/Ha increase in water use efficiency over the past 15 years, there is no hard evidence that temporary trade has had the same effect. Finally a case study of the dairy industry in the Goulburn region models the incentives faced by farmers who can substitute between feed grain and water for pastured grass as production inputs. Given water and grain prices it is possible to illustrate the optimal decision making of farmers in 2007/08 to see the positive impact of water trading in promoting economic efficiency. This thesis makes an important empirical contribution to the current literature on water markets. The analysis done determines the relative success of permanent water entitlement trade in inducing innovation in water use; this innovation in water use increases technical water use efficiency.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152156&r=agr
  16. By: Massam, G.; Kragt, M.E.; Burton, M.
    Abstract: The Australian Government’s Carbon Farming Initiative provides carbon credit incentives for farmers to encourage climate change mitigation on agricultural land. In addition to carbon sequestration or reduced emissions, carbon farming activities often generate ancillary benefits, such as creation of native habitat or erosion prevention. We conduct a choice experiment study to estimate community values for climate change mitigation, and the ancillary effects of carbon farming. Respondents’ WTP depends on their perceptions of climate change and on age, income and political preferences. Respondents who believe in climate change are willing to pay $7.56 per 1% reduction in Australia’s overall greenhouse gas emissions. Respondents are willing to pay $16.88 per 1% increase in the area of native vegetation on farmland, and $2.89 per 1% reduction in soil erosion. The value estimates will allow for more targeted development of carbon farming policies.
    Keywords: Agriculture, ClimateChange Mitigation, Carbon Farming, Choice Modelling, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, International Relations/Trade, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152167&r=agr
  17. By: Ana María Ibañez Londoño (Universidad de los Andes- Colombia); Juan Carlos Muñoz Mora (ECARES - Université Libre de Bruxelles); Philip Verwimp (ECARES - Université Libre de Bruxelles)
    Abstract: This paper explores the importance of the risk of violence on the decision making of rural households, using a unique panel data set for Colombian coffee-growers. We identify two channels. First, we examine the direct impact of conflict on agricultural production through the change in the percentage of the farm allocated to coffee. Second, we explore how conflict generates incentives to substitute from legal agricultural production to illegal crops. Following Dercon and Christiaensen (2011), we develop a dynamic consumption model where economic risk and the risk of violence are explicitly included. Theoretical results are tested using a parametric and semi-parametric approach. We find a significant negative effect of the risk of violence and the presence of illegal crops on the decision to continue coffee production and on the percentage of the farm allocated to coffee. Results are robust after controlling for endogeneity bias and after relaxing the normality assumption.
    Keywords: selection model, armed conflict, illicit crop, coffee production
    JEL: C21 C34 D13 D74
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hic:wpaper:150&r=agr
  18. By: Hertzler, Greg; Sanderson, Todd; Capon, Tim; Hayman, Peter; Kingwell, Ross
    Abstract: Australian crop and livestock farmers face uncertain climate change and variability and a challenge for adaptation decisions. These decisions can be (1) adjustments to practices and technologies, (2) changes to production systems, or (3) transformation of industries, for example, by relocation to new geographical areas. Adjustments to existing practices are easy to make, relative to changes to production systems or transformations at the industry level. Transformations require new investments and infrastructure and can leave assets stranded. These transformations can be partially or wholly irreversible and hysteresis effects can make switching difficult and mistakes costly to reverse. Real Options offers a framework to structure thinking and analysis of these difficult choices. This paper generalises and extends the principles of real options to capture the expected time until transformative thresholds are crossed. An application to South Australian wheat dominant agriculture is explored.
    Keywords: Australian agriculture, climate change, real options, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152196&r=agr
  19. By: Boansi, David
    Abstract: With the local rice industry of Nigeria been hindered by inconsistent government policies, improper methods of production, high cost and scarcity of vital inputs of production among other constraints, domestic production of rice has failed to catch up with the increasing pace of consumption. In spite of the strong agricultural and natural resource base it hauls, Nigeria spends a total of about US$11 billion annually on importation of rice, wheat, sugar and fish. Attempts by previous regimes and the current government to reverse the net rice importer status of the country has proven futile regardless of the high tariffs imposed on imports, quantitative restriction through the use of quota and outright ban between the years 1986 and 1995. To inform future rice policy decisions on the way forward, the current study analyzed the output supply and yield response of rice in Nigeria. The results show that output of rice increases with increasing harvested area of rice, increasing farm gate price of rice, increasing nominal rate of assistance and increasing labor availability. It however decreases with increasing price of maize. Yield increases with increasing farm gate price of rice, nominal rate of assistance and labor availability. It however decreases with increasing harvested area of rice and price of maize. To improve on its rice supply, it is advised that policy measures be devised to couple area expansion with intensification to help mitigate the adverse effect of area expansion on yield, reduce labor shortages through appropriate investment in development of the rural communities (to help minimize rural-urban migration), ensure continuous government support to the sector, maintain fair prices for local rice farmers, and ensure appropriate transmission in times of price increment.
    Keywords: Output supply response, yield response, nominal rate of assistance, government policies
    JEL: E61 Q11 Q14 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2013–07–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:48080&r=agr
  20. By: Grossman, Michael (CUNY Graduate Center); Tekin, Erdal (Georgia State University); Wada, Roy (University of Illinois at Chicago)
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine the effect of food prices on clinical measures of obesity, including body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (PBF) measures derived from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), among youths ages 12 through 18. The empirical analyses employ data from various waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) merged with several food prices measured by county and year. This is the first study to consider clinically measured levels of body composition rather than BMI to investigate the effects of food prices on obesity among youths. We also examine whether the effects of food prices on body composition differ by gender and race/ethnicity. Our findings suggest that increases in the real price of one calorie in food for home consumption and the real price of fast-food restaurant food lead to improvements in obesity outcomes among youths. We also find that an increase in the real price of fruits and vegetables has negative consequences for these outcomes. Finally, our results indicate that measures of PBF derived from BIA and DXA are no less sensitive and in some cases more sensitive to the prices just mentioned than BMI.
    Keywords: food price, obesity, body fat, BMI
    JEL: I1 I18
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7465&r=agr
  21. By: Yoshito Takasaki
    Abstract: To design effective policies for rainforest conservation in shifting cultivation systems, it is crucial to have a better understanding of shifting cultivatorsf decision making. This paper develops a unified dynamic farm model of shifting cultivation, addressing two lacunae in extant theoretical works: taking into account differences between primary and secondary forests and potential roles of on-farm soil conservation. The model unifies shifting cultivatorfs decisions about primary-forest clearing, forest fallowing, and onfarm soil conservation by incorporating new soils acquired from cleared primary/secondary forest land into on-farm soil dynamics. I examine how three distinct policies ? forest protection (e.g., protected areas), fallow management (e.g., improved fallow), and on-farm soil management (e.g., biochar in Amazonia) ? alter primary-forest clearing (deforestation) and fallow length. The analysis reveals that although all three policies reduce deforestation, only on-farm soil management leads to longer fallow, i.e., sustainable secondary fallow forest.
    Date: 2013–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tsu:tewpjp:2013-003&r=agr
  22. By: Haverkamp, Matthias Wolbert; Musshoff, Oliver
    Abstract: Short rotation coppice (SRC) is an interesting economic alternative to agricultural land use. Nevertheless, farmers often do not switch to SRC. Thus, it seems like the farmers do not act according to the classical investment theory. A relatively new approach which can help to explain farmers’ reluctance is the real options approach (ROA). Compared to the classical investment theory, the investment triggers are shifted upwards. We want to answer the question of whether the ROA is an explanatory approach for farmers’ reluctance to invest in SRC. To do so, we develop a model to calculate the investment triggers of the gross margins (GM) of SRC a farmer should switch from rye production to SRC. The results show that the trigger GMs calculated according to the ROA are higher than those of the net present value and a risk-averse farmer invests earlier than a risk-neutral farmer. It can be concluded that a part of famers’ reluctance concerning SRC can be explained by the ROA.
    Keywords: Land conversion, short-rotation-coppice, rye, real options approach, net-present-value, Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152184&r=agr
  23. By: Newby, J.C.; Manivong, V.; Cramb, R.A.
    Abstract: The cultural and economic importance of paddy rice production for households in the lowlands of Lao PDR cannot be overstated. Annual rice production is viewed by households and the Government alike as an indicator of poverty and food security. Over the past decade the adoption of new technologies has resulted in productivity improvements in lowland rice systems, yet further gains are being sought to maintain national rice self-sufficiency. The Government of Laos has established optimistic yield targets for both the lowland rainfed and irrigated rice production systems. However, survey evidence shows that, despite the adoption of improved technologies, most rainfed farmers remain subsistence-oriented and there is a significant yield gap between the current situation and the proposed targets. The diversification of household livelihoods through wage migration has reduced farm labour availability and increased farm wages. At the same time, price fluctuations due to supply shocks and government responses have created a further disincentive to the intensification of rice production systems. An economic analysis of rainfed rice production suggests that given current conditions we are likely to continue to see the adoption of low-input, labour-efficient, and relatively stable rice production systems for most households, with small areas of high-input, commercially-oriented systems in favourable conditions. We argue that research and extension efforts should recognise this diversity of production systems and household livelihood strategies.
    Keywords: Rainfed lowland rice, fertility management, risk analysis, Lao PDR, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152172&r=agr
  24. By: Sharp, Paul (Department of Business and Economics); Uebele, Martin (Faculty of Arts)
    Abstract: In recent years, there has been an increasing focus by policymakers on rural infrastructure in the United States, including most recently tax credits to encourage investment. Previous work has documented the importance of railroad expansion for nineteenth century development, and demonstrated that policy failure led to the disintegration of agricultural markets in the interwar period, with potentially serious macroeconomic consequences. Using a database of average prices by state of seven agricultural products for the period ca. 1870-2010, we extend this analysis to the postSecond World War period. We find a striking disintegration in recent decades, as measured by price dispersion, which we attribute to decades of underinvestment, particularly in railroads. We thus provide strong support for the present policy focus on investment in rural infrastructure.
    Keywords: United States; agriculture; market integration; rural infrastructure
    JEL: N52 N72 Q13 R42
    Date: 2013–07–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hhs:sdueko:2013_010&r=agr
  25. By: Brewin, Derek G.; Arzandeh, Mehdi
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151863&r=agr
  26. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: Expansion of global trade has been heralded as a great boon for agriculture. However, benefits of such expansion has been seen by some quarters as inequitable due to the role of large agribusiness firms and conglomerates. This study synthesizes existing research on the market structure of agro-industry trade. Its key findings are as follows: - The dominance of large-scale operations is more pronounced in the downstream stages. Moreover, distribution for foreign markets is the most concentrated part of the global chain. - Increasing horizontal concentration, and vertical coordination, arises from a set of supply drivers (e.g., technological change), demand drivers (e.g., rising purchasing power), policies, and institutional factors. - There is some evidence for significant market power being exercised among the more concentrated value chains. Furthermore, indications that market concentration can also be leveraged to widen the exercise of market power via coordination along a supply chain. However, the association is not absolute. - At the farm level, the evidence is more solid: size of land asset or scale of production, by itself, does not seem to disqualify smallholders from supplying to consolidated value chains, as there are enabling schemes such as supervised contract growing, cooperatives, farmer associations, and the like. More critical however are human capital, farm management practices, and other assets such as equipment and irrigation facilities. Despite the great volume of relevant literature, the tentative nature of the findings stated above indicate wide scope for further research in this area. Better information and analysis could perhaps pave the way toward design of policies for more equitable and yet productive and efficient global value chains.
    Keywords: distribution, agricultural trade, market structure, global value chain
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:phd:dpaper:dp_2013-15&r=agr
  27. By: Islam, Nazrul; Kingwell, Ross; Xayavong, Vilaphonh; Anderton, Lucy; Feldman, David; Speijers, Jane
    Abstract: Improving farm productivity is often touted as essential for the future prospects of Australian agriculture, particularly for the export-oriented broadacre farm sector. This paper draws on farm panel data for the period 2002 to 2011. The annual components of productivity of the same group of 223 farms are measured each year for a decade by using a multiplicatively complete Färe-Primont index number and applying DEA methods. Results often show pronounced variability in the annual productivity of these farms. Farms are classed according to the geometric mean of their total factor productivity and the variance of this productivity. The convexity of this relationship suggests that to achieve high growth in productivity in broadacre farming, farm businesses are exposed to greater volatility in productivity. There are only a small proportion of farms that over the decade were able to achieve high, stable growth in productivity. Most farms either experienced high growth and high variability in productivity or low growth and low variability in productivity. The characteristics of farm businesses in both categories are examined to ascertain links between farm characteristics and change in farm productivity. Key findings are that overall most farms experienced growth in their total factor productivity with the principal cause of this growth being greater technical efficiency rather than technical change. Farms that experienced the highest growth in their total factor productivity typically increased their farm size, became more crop dominant, often operated farms in lower rainfall regions, generated more profit and were less exposed to debt and generated more crop yield and more livestock income per millimetre (mm) of growing season rainfall.
    Keywords: Productivity, Profitability, Farm characteristics, Volatility, Agribusiness, Farm Management, International Relations/Trade, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152158&r=agr
  28. By: Schuster, Monica; Maertens, Miet
    Abstract: While recent studies emphasize the importance of firm heterogeneous effects in understanding international trade and its gains, these insights have largely been ignored in the literature on standards. In this paper we analyze how the adoption of private food standards by individual firms affects their export performance at the intensive and extensive margins of trade. We use unique 18-year panel data from 95 asparagus export firms in Peru and apply fixed effects and system GMM models. Results indicate that, when export persistence, unobserved heterogeneity and reversed causality are controlled for, certification to private standard schemes does not improve firms’ propensity to export, nor their export volumes and values. This insight puts doubt on the effectiveness of development programs to support developing country exporters to comply with private food standards in order to maintain or improve international market access.
    Keywords: Food standards, Private standards, Firm heterogeneity, New new trade theory, Export performance, Developing countries, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, C23, F14, Q17,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:kucawp:152084&r=agr
  29. By: Svend Rasmussen (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen); Anders L. Madsen (HUGIN EXPERT A/S; Aalborg University); Mogens Lund (Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: The importance of risk management increases as farmers become more exposed to risk. But risk management is a difficult topic because income risk is the result of the complex interaction of multiple risk factors combined with the effect of an increasing array of possible risk management tools. In this paper we use Bayesian networks as an integrated modelling approach for representing uncertainty and analysing risk management in agriculture. It is shown how historical farm account data may be efficiently used to estimate conditional probabilities, which are the core elements in Bayesian network models. We further show how the Bayesian network model RiBay is used for stochastic simulation of farm income, and we demonstrate how RiBay can be used to simulate risk management at the farm level. It is concluded that the key strength of a Bayesian network is the transparency of assumptions, and that it has the ability to link uncertainty from different external sources to budget figures and to quantify risk at the farm level.
    Keywords: Bayesian network, Risk, Conditional probabilities, Stochastic simulation, Database, Farm account
    JEL: C11 C63 D81 Q12
    Date: 2013–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:foi:wpaper:2013_12&r=agr
  30. By: Crean, Jason; Milham, Nick; Singh, Rajinder
    Abstract: The burning of rice stubbles is widely practised in rice based farming systems in north-west India (Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh). The practice leads to substantial air pollution and associated adverse health effects, increased greenhouse emissions, loss of soil organic matter and lower soil moisture levels. The recently developed ‘Happy Seeder’ (HS) technology, a tractor powered machine capable of direct drilling wheat in standing rice stubbles, provides an alternative to burning. However, the adoption of this technology has been limited and burning of rice stubbles remains widespread. The Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) funded research to assess possible policy responses to encourage alternatives to stubble burning. In this paper we use a whole farm model to evaluate potential policy incentives that might lead to the wider adoption. We assess farm level responses to alternative settings and consider the merits of different forms of intervention.
    Keywords: Stubble burning, environmental pollution, technology, policy, rice, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152178&r=agr
  31. By: Greiner, Romy; Ballweg, Julie
    Abstract: This paper reports on the experimental design process and considerations of a discretecontinuous choice experiment conducted in collaboration with landholders in northern Australia. The purpose of the research is to inform the design of effective and efficient payments-for-ecosystem services schemes to safeguard north Australia’s biodiversity values by promoting the contractual provision of biodiversity conservation services by landholders, in particular pastoralists and graziers. The paper focusses in particular on the discrete choice experimental (DCE) aspects. The DCE is employed to estimate landholders’ preference heterogeneity for supplying ecosystem services, specifically their willingness to accept remuneration for the on-farm conservation of biodiversity, based on potential program attributes. The design of the choice experiment draws on best practice standards (Hoyos 2010), a recognition of the benefits of embedding design in a consultative process (Klojgaard et al. 2012) and recent advances in accounting for response certainty (Brouwer et al. 2010; Hensher et al. 2012). DCE design decisions relating to attribute selection, attribute levels, alternatives and choice tasks are explained based on literature, focus group discussions, expert interviews and an iterative process of efficient DCE design. Additional design aspects include (i) a set of supplementary questions after each choice set to measure respondents’ choice certainty and elicit decision heuristics; (ii) embedding of the experiment in a socio-economic-psychological questionnaire, and (iii) logistical design.
    Keywords: Choice experimental design, efficient design, iterative process, response certainty, willingness to accept, farmers, on-farm biodiversity conservation, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Institutional and Behavioral Economics,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152153&r=agr
  32. By: Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Arakelyan, Irina; Chalmers, Neil; Chitika, Rollins
    Abstract: Dairy is a key investment sector for the Government of Malawi. Advocacy institutions operating in the country have successfully lobbied for increasing the duty applied for powder milk, with the aim of improving the price received by farmers. It should be noted that whilst an increase of the price paid to farmers would rise their revenues (assuming the same amount of milk delivery), it might also bring additional blessings, in the sense that if farmers respond to prices, they may rise their revenues beyond the increase in prices, and furthermore, they would expand their delivery of milk to processors offsetting the imports of powder milk and reducing their idle capacity in factories. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to measure the responsiveness of the deliveries of milk at the milk bulking groups to prices paid to farmers (i.e., the elasticity of supply faced by processors). This is done using a unique dataset that comprises information by milk bulking group from January 2009 to February 2013. The results indicate that the supply of milk is price responsive. The price elasticity in the short term is equal to 0.6 and in the long term is 1.44. This indicates that farmers’ revenues not only benefit from an increase in the price of milk but also from the increase in the quantity produced. Furthermore, it indicates the possibility that domestic producers could offset imports of milk powder by processors, although answer to this requires further research.
    Keywords: Milk supply, autoregressive distributed lags, panel data., Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2013–07–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:saclwp:152214&r=agr
  33. By: Mieke Meurs
    Abstract: Post-socialist restoration of property rights brought expectations that small commercial farming would expand, raising smallholder incomes. However, commercial farming remains limited among smallholders in many places. This paper uses interviews with Bulgarian smallholders to analyze the decision-making process related to land use. Land holders differ in their goals for farming and these differences are associated with land use. Some landholders adjust their goals toward more income-generating uses as they experience better-than-expected returns, while others are content with more modest returns. But few seem willing to give up farming altogether. If goals differ, many farmers adjust slowly from a starting point strongly influenced by local history, and few exit farming altogether, more complete development of property rights, markets and contracting systems alone will not result in wider adoption of commercial farming. While commercially-, and even growth-oriented smallholders may emerge, significant smallholder land will remain in less productive uses for some time.
    Keywords: Bulgaria, smallholder, agriculture
    JEL: D13 Q12
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:amu:wpaper:2013-08&r=agr
  34. By: Levins, Richard A.
    Abstract: Paper presented at Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems Funders 11th Annual Conference, Providence, RI, June 27, 2013
    Keywords: Agribusiness,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:umaemp:151975&r=agr
  35. By: Nordström, Jonas (Department of Economics, Lund University); Thunström, Linda (Department of Economics and Finance, University of Wyoming)
    Abstract: Food high in energy but low in nutritional value is an important contributor to several serious illnesses, and one type of food that is particularly high in energy but low in nutrition is food consumed away from home. In this paper, we examine the demand and willingness to pay for healthy, Keyhole-labelled meals. A Keyhole-labelled meal is particularly low in calories, fat, sugar and salt, but particularly high in fibre. The results suggest that to get the majority of individuals to choose the healthy option regularly it would be necessary to alter the relative price between healthy and less healthy meals. Generally groups of individuals with a poor nutritional intake require a larger compensation (subsidy) before they choose the healthy alternative. About one third of respondents would choose the healthy option regularly if the prices for a healthy and less healthy meal were the same. In particular groups of individuals who already have a relatively good nutritional intake would select the healthy option. Groups with a generally poor nutritional intake (men and individuals with lower education and lower income) would gain health benefits from a subsidy of Keyhole-labelled meals.
    Keywords: subsidy; food demand; food away from home; healthy; restaurant
    JEL: D12 H20 H31 I18
    Date: 2013–06–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hhs:lunewp:2013_021&r=agr
  36. By: Iwamoto, Hiroyuki
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the potential of food waste reduction through the green purchasing in Japanese consumers’ tofu purchasing decisions. Tofu is indispensable ingredient in Japanese cooking. But, huge amounts of food waste are produced during the paper production process. The Choice Modeling (Random Parameter Logit Model) is used in order to quantify the welfare change associated with the change in the level of local origin label, food recycling label, freshness of tofu, and price attribute for the sample of Japanese consumers in August 2012. The consumer has a positive perception of local origin label, food recycling label, freshness of tofu. The choice probability of food recycling labeled tofu is estimated at approximately 70%. The results suggest that green purchasing holds potential for food waste reduction in tofu manufacturing sector
    Keywords: choice experiment, food recycling, green purchase, Consumer/Household Economics, Environmental Economics and Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152159&r=agr
  37. By: Irz, Xavier; Kurppa, Sirpa
    Abstract: The environmental impact of food consumption depends on the type of foods consumed and the amount of food wasted. It follows that dietary change represents one means of directing food systems towards greater environmental sustainability. The difficulty, however, lies in developing ways of motivating people to modify what they purchase and eat, as many constraints potentially hinder changes in behaviour, including established habits, limited income, lack of information on environmental impact, cognitive limitations, or the difficulty of accessing environmentally friendly foods. In order to understand those constraints better, and identify potential target groups for intervention, we have analysed the environmental impact of food consumption at household level in Finland, paying particular attention to lower socio-demographic groups. The data originates from the Finnish Household Budget Survey 2006, which gives a detailed record of the foods (259 aggregates) consumed by over 4000 households. The food quantity data are matched to indicators of greenhouse gas emissions and eutrophication, as well as a food composition database. Tests of differences in means of the environmental indicators identify the socio-demographic groups that are statistically different in terms of their environmental impact of food consumption. The total environmental impact is decomposed further into a diet composition effect (i.e., what foods households consume) and a quantity effect (i.e., how much food households consume). Results indicate that the environmental impact varies widely across households, and that this heterogeneity relates both to the types and quantities of foods consumed. We find significant differences in impacts among socio-demographic groups. For instance, household income is strongly and positively associated with greenhouse gas emissions from food consumption (i.e., relatively better off households have a relatively larger climate change impact). Educational level is also positively associated with greenhouse gas emissions, although the relationship is not as strong as with income. On the other hand, differences in environmental impact for household types defined in terms of occupational status are small. Overall, and on the basis of the two indicators considered, the lower socio-demographic groups have a relatively smaller ecological footprint of food consumption than households belonging to relatively higher groups. The results suggest that there is no decoupling of household income growth and environmental impact of food consumption. The relatively better-off and better educated should be targeted for behavioural change in order to promote sustainable food consumption in Finland. Further research is needed to identify the causal mechanisms underlying the associations that we describe and assess how various policies (e.g., labelling regulation, environmental education) would affect the ecological footprint of the Finnish diet.
    Keywords: consumption, sustainability, environmental impact, food, diet, nutrition, Finland, eutrophication, climate change, greenhouse gas emissions, consumption, household, footprint, socio-demographic, socio-economic, demographic, heterogeneity, variability, variation, Consumer/Household Economics, Environmental Economics and Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2013–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:mttfdp:152215&r=agr
  38. By: Nordblom, T.L.; Hume, I.H.; Finlayson, J.D.; Pannell, D.J.; Holland, J.
    Abstract: This study focuses on the problem of water use by new upstream commercial tree plantations where fully-committed water entitlements are already held and traded among downstream sectors (urban water, wetlands and agricultural industries). High tree product prices strongly incentivise expansion of upstream plantation areas, particularly if there is no accounting for the predictable extra interception and use of water by trees. Planters could benefit greatly at the expense of downstream water users. Plotting this in a public-private benefit framework (PPBF) suggests a policy of “flexible negative incentives” to limit expansion of new trees, rather than ‘across the board’ banning of new plantations. We explore the ‘flexible’ option and the current ‘no control’ option for a case-study area, the Macquarie River catchment in central- west NSW, Australia, using three scenario sets: (1) Policy setting — without or with the requirement for distributions of water use entitlements to be handled by extending the existing downstream market to new upstream plantations (the flexible negative incentive). (2) Expected tree-product values — four exogenous levels ($40, $50, $60 or $70/m3), provide positive incentives for establishing trees. (3) Water quality — FRESH or a hypothetical SALTY scenario where one of six up- stream watersheds seeps so much salt into the river that water for urban use is compromised when new plantations reduce fresh water yields from the other five. We estimate quantitative consequences of all 16 combinations of the above scenarios, and show how an extended water market can deliver “flexible incentives” for efficient water distributions in which all new upstream and old downstream users either benefit by trading or remain unaffected.
    Keywords: Water-catchment, Downstream-externality, Environmental-services, Policy, Interception, Murray-Darling Basin, Supply, Demand, Market, Urban-water, Irrigation, Wetlands, Biodiversity, Tree-plantations, Environmental-economic tradeoffs, Aggregation, Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Q0, Q57, Q58,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152173&r=agr
  39. By: Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Florkowski, Wojciech J
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyse the demand for fresh fruits in Scotland in order to provide evidence about their sensitivity to changes in prices and income. Six fresh fruit categories were studied using time series for the period 2006 to 2011: citrus, apples and pears, bananas, grapes soft fruit and a residual category, other fruits. The series were constructed from a consumer panel that reports weekly purchases by approximately 1,300 households and which allowed constructing thirteen periods of four weeks each year. The demand for fruits was modelled using a dynamic version of the Almost Ideal Demand System. Short term and long term conditional elasticities (Marshallian, Hicksian and expenditure) were estimated. The results from the long term elasticities indicated the demand for all the categories were sensitive to changes in prices. Grapes and soft fruits were most price elastic fruits. In addition, whilst all the expenditure elasticities were positive, the elasticity of citrus was greater than one, apple and pears, bananas and grapes were approximately one and soft fruit and other fresh fruits were less than one.
    Keywords: Fresh fruits, Demand analysis, Scotland., Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2013–07–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:saclwp:152212&r=agr
  40. By: Ward, Patrick S.; Ortega, David L.; Spielman, David J.; Singh, Vartika; Magnan, Nicholas
    Abstract: Recent efforts to develop rice cultivars with drought-tolerance (DT) traits have resulted in the release of several varieties that demonstrate significant resiliency to drought stresses. In this paper, we use discrete choice experiments to examine farmers’ preferences for DT traits and explore heterogeneity in these preferences using primary data collected in rural Bihar, India. We evaluate farmers’ preference for yield performance under different weather scenarios, duration, seed reusability and seeding rate. Our results show that farmers value the reduction in yield variability offered by DT cultivars, but are willing to pay even more for cultivars that offer yield advantages even under normal conditions. Rice farmers were found to prefer short duration cultivars, which provide an alternative pathway by which farmers can manage drought risk. Finally, we find that farmers highly value seed-reusability, and would, other things equal, demand a discount on hybrid seeds that do not have this characteristic.
    Keywords: choice experiments, drought tolerance, rice, India, Agribusiness, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, International Development, International Relations/Trade, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q12, Q16, O33,
    Date: 2013–06–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:150786&r=agr
  41. By: Kamanda, Josey; Birner, Regina; Bantilan, Cynthia
    Abstract: International agricultural research centres (IARCs) have a mission to reduce poverty, improve food security, human health and nutrition, and ensure sustainable management of natural resources. Their role in the research for development (R4D) continuum has long been a subject of discussion, often with emphasis that they should conduct research that produces international public goods (IPGs). However, national agricultural research systems (NARS) in many developing countries have insufficient capacity to translate these products into welfare benefits. This coupled with higher dependence on bilateral donors that exert pressure to show impacts have increasingly driven IARCs to engage in participatory downstream work. This shift has been criticized for placing emphasis on local development agendas at the expense of IPG delivery. This paper uses insights from the literature to discuss the rationale for setting up IARCs under the consultative group on international agricultural research (CGIAR), their governance and transformation over the years and the critical question of how the centres should position themselves. A conceptual framework based on transaction cost economics and fiscal federalism literature is used to complement discussions on their comparative advantage from a normative point of view. While low transaction intensity, asset specificity, economies of scale and potential for spillovers are important attributes of transactions that increase the comparative advantage of IARCs over other actors in the R4D spectrum, contextual factors in different locations may drive centres to deviate from conducting activities that they are best at.
    Keywords: Agricultural innovation, comparative advantage, research spillovers, transaction costs, CGIAR, Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152160&r=agr
  42. By: Mausch, K.; Chiwaula, L.; Irshad, A.; Bantilan, C.; Silim, S.; Siambi, M.
    Abstract: To examine key factors influencing global research spillovers, this study compares direct and spillover impacts of groundnut (GN) and pigeonpea (PP) research to be used for resource allocation. The estimation of global research benefits from breeding research uses an economic surplus based international trade model. GIS tools are used to analyze applicability of new technologies across a range of agro-climatically homogeneous zones. High photoperiod sensitivity and concentrated production of PP limits global applicability of varieties and thus spillover effects are lower as compared to GN. Comparing these two crops highlights the differences across crops and their potential global benefits. Utilization of spillover measures will assist in tailoring research investments to the individual characteristics of the crop, and thus increase research efficiency and ultimately enhance diffusion of improved varieties for the benefit smallholder farmers globally.
    Keywords: Strategic Agricultural Research Targeting, Spillover Effects, Legumes, Crop Production/Industries, International Relations/Trade, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152168&r=agr
  43. By: Bouamra-Mechemache, Zohra; Jianye, Yu
    Abstract: This paper investigates the collective choice of production standards by farmer and pro- cessor groups within a vertical food supply chain, taking into account their competition behaviors. In a context in which raising standards cannot translate into a direct price premium to consumers, we develop a general model to analyze the strategic motive of us- ing standards to limit supply and shift rents among farmers and processors in the vertical chain. We find that such a motive depends on farmers’ cost structure, final demand char- acteristics, and processors’ competition patterns. In particular, farmers prefer a stringent standard when the standard involves creating greater diseconomies of scale in production and when the demand for the final product is inelastic. However, processors only prefer a stringent standard in the presence of oligopsony competition.
    Keywords: Production standards, Vertical relationship, Imperfect competition, Technology choice
    JEL: L13 Q13
    Date: 2013–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tse:wpaper:27403&r=agr
  44. By: Thibbotuwawa, Manoj; Mugera, Amin; White, Ben
    Abstract: The paper analyses the differences of technical, allocative, cost and scale efficiencies of irrigated and rain-fed rice farmers in Sri Lanka in two different perspectives; first, relative to a common metafrontier, defined as the boundary of an unrestricted technology set and second relative to group frontiers defined to be the boundaries of restricted technology sets in each group. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) metafrontier and group frontier approaches are used for cross section survey data of 90 farms. Rain-fed farms perform comparably with the irrigated farms based on the group frontier results. Rain-fed farmers may be operating as technically efficient as they could, given the existing production technology. However rain-fed farms move significantly towards inefficiency compared to the irrigated farms under the metafrontier technology. Results indicate that the irrigation shifts the rice sector production frontier to a higher level. In addition, a second stage bootstrapped truncated regression shows that efficiency differences between two regions are explained by the timely availability of the water to a significant extent. We suggest that future sectoral policies should be designed to address the efficiency enhancing factors such as irrigation, quality seed, land ownership and scale and female labour participation.
    Keywords: technical efficiency, cost efficiency, metafrontier, group-frontier, rice farming, irrigated, rain-fed, Sri Lanka, International Relations/Trade, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Q12, D24,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152181&r=agr
  45. By: David Atkin
    Abstract: Anthropologists have long documented substantial and persistent differences across social groups in the preferences and taboos for particular foods. One natural question to ask is whether such food cultures matter in an economic sense. In particular, can culture constrain caloric intake and contribute to malnutrition? To answer this question, I first document that inter-state migrants within India consume fewer calories per Rupee of food expenditure compared to their non-migrant neighbors, even for households with very low caloric intake. I then form a chain of evidence in support of an explanation based on culture: that migrants make nutritionally-suboptimal food choices due to cultural preferences for the traditional foods of their origin states. First, I focus on the preferences themselves and document that migrants bring their origin-state food preferences with them when they migrate. Second, I link together the findings on caloric intake and preferences by showing that the gap in caloric intake between locals and migrants is related to the suitability and intensity of the migrants' origin-state food preferences: the most adversely affected migrants (households in which both husband and wife migrated to a village where their origin-state preferences are unsuited to the local price vector) would consume 7 percent more calories if they possessed the same preferences as their neighbors.
    JEL: D12 I10 O10 Z10
    Date: 2013–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:nbr:nberwo:19196&r=agr
  46. By: Ljungvall, Åsa (Department of Economics, Lund University)
    Abstract: Along with the economic and technological developments of the past decades, obesity has become a growing public health problem. This study empirically investigates whether the large and widespread increases in body-mass index (BMI) that have been observed around the world are related to economic freedom, as measured and defined by the Economic Freedom of the World Index. Economic freedom is part of the environment in which individuals make choices about food intake and physical activity, and may encourage unhealthy behavior and affect body weight by changing the opportunity sets. It may for example affect the quality and quantity of foods available to consumers, the access to safety nets, and the access to environments for physical activity. The empirical analysis is based on a panel of 31 high-income countries and data for the period 1983 to 2008. It finds a positive and statistically significant relationship between the level of economic freedom and both the level of, and five-year change in, BMI. Decomposing the freedom index into sub-indices measuring economic freedom in five sub-areas (government, legal structure, sound money, trade, and regulations) shows that freedom in the regulations dimension is the most consistent contributor to this result.
    Keywords: body-mass index; obesity; economic freedom; economic freedom of the world index; health production; panel
    JEL: I10 I12 I15 I18 O11 P10
    Date: 2013–07–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hhs:lunewp:2013_023&r=agr
  47. By: Olen, Beau; Wu, Junjie
    Abstract: We exploit variation in the timing of specialty crop insurance supply to different crops and counties in California to assess its effect on output as decomposed into yield and harvested acreage. Four woody-perennial crops and one field-annual crop are used to represent this effect. We find that the supply of crop insurance has a significant positive effect on output for several perennial crops and the field crop, but it only has a significant positive effect on yield for certain perennial crops. These findings suggest that even for disparate crops the supply of insurance reduces production risks for the insured crops and causes harvested acreage to expand. The positive significant effect of insurance supply on yield for several of the woody-perennial crops suggests that, regardless of the effect on acreage, it accelerates growers’ adoption of improved tree/vine varieties and rootstocks, which are likely to be risk-increasing inputs due to the their relatively high cost of investment.
    Keywords: federal crop insurance program, specialty crops, yield, acreage, input-risk relationship, Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis, Production Economics,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:150787&r=agr
  48. By: Wit, J.W. de
    Abstract: After the Doi Moi (‘renovation’) reforms in Vietnam from 1986, land ownership rules were adjusted, effectively terminating former land collectivisation efforts. While land ownership remained fully under the control of the state, a 1993 land law conferred 20-year leaseholds to most farmers. They could now utilize farm land individually, and sell, swap and mortgage the land in a situation similar to private ownership. These leaseholds are now expiring and a new 2013 land law is in the making. This paper was initially written for UNDP Vietnam which supports Vietnam to help formulate a strong new land law, and brings out the complexities of land governance in the suburban areas of fast expanding Vietnamese cities. It first considers the present and changing land use of suburban areas and the key stakeholders involved here – powerful State Owned Enterprises, farmers, bureaucrats and communist party leaders. Planning practices are then assessed – and seen to be both rigid and complex, with different departments at various levels working at cross purposes under conditions of conflicting rules, laws and weak capacities. This is one reason for the dominance of informal arrangements and widespread corruption, where powerful actors benefit hugely and illegally from conditions of opacity and informal networks. Overall outcomes are that cities expand in a haphazard (‘leapfrog’) and inefficient manner, with insufficient attention for timely and adequate infrastructure, the environment and for people’s welfare as in social amenities and parks. As a result of lopsided incentive systems, it is the state which foregoes huge incomes and faces more costly investments, while many suburban farmers are affected through (arbitrary) land acquisition and inadequate compensation.
    Keywords: planning;Vietnam;environment;urban housing;land governance;suburban land
    Date: 2013–06–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:dgr:euriss:561&r=agr
  49. By: Martin Uebele; Tim Grünebaum; Michael Kopsidis
    Abstract: This article presents new data on grain production, storage and prices in Saxony between 1789 and 1830. We contribute to three interrelated debates. First, we discuss whether monthly price increases were sufficient to cover storage costs, and how they relate to storage levels at the end of the harvest year. Second, we estimate price elasticity of demand, a test of “King’s Law”. Finally, we investigate the main determinants of grain storage in a framework that takes reverse causality into account. We find that price fluctuations within the harvest year were consistent with interest rates of about 5%. On the second subject, our findings are mainly consistent with “King’s Law”, according to which price elasticity of demand is relatively low with -0.4, and reject higher estimates of the recent literature. Finally, we show that storage quantity reacted in the predicted way to price shocks but way about as much driven by harvest variations. Between harvests, storage indeed smoothed food supply over time as theory predicts, however to a limited extent.
    JEL: A
    Date: 2013–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cqe:wpaper:2613&r=agr
  50. By: Dietrich, Sadie M.
    Abstract: This Plan B paper improves and expands on the work of Wang (2011). Using data from the Consumer Expenditure survey and the American Community Survey we estimate regional food expenditures for 19 food categories in Southeast Minnesota and the Twin Cities Metro. Wang's original research almost always underestimated food expenditures. This project rst looked carefully at resolving the issues to accurately estimate food expenditures for the United States when compared to the BLS reported national food expenditures. We then proposed using a dierent model to better achieve the goals of the research. Lastly, we look into the feasibility of converting expenditures into quantities to assess the the quantity of food demand by region.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:umapmt:151865&r=agr
  51. By: Charyulu, D.Kumara; Bantilan, MCS; Rajalaxmi, A
    Abstract: Sorghum is the third cereal crop after rice and wheat in India, mostly grown under marginal and stress-prone areas of Semi-Arid Tropics (SAT). NARS, ICRISAT and private seed companies are the major stakeholders working for sorghum crop improvement in the last five decades (1960-2012). Altogether more than 256 improved cultivars have been notified and made available to farmers during the same time. The current knowledge about spread and impact of sorghum improved crop varieties in the country is incomplete. The present study made an attempt to address these issues with help of primary as well as secondary sources of information. The analysis has concluded that nearly 80 per cent of total sorghum area is under improved cultivars which helped to increase the country productivity levels by 85 per cent during 1960 and 2010. This aptly proves that role of sorghum improved cultivars in sustaining the higher yields.
    Keywords: Development of improved cultivars, diffusion of sorghum improved cultivars in India, Impact on yield Growth and variability, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152141&r=agr
  52. By: Ramirez, Octavio; Colson, Greg
    Keywords: risk, premium, subsidies, crop insurance, premium estimation, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2013–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:scc013:152130&r=agr
  53. By: Mullen, John; Keogh, Mick
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to review likely trends in key drivers of productivity with a view to suggesting the rate of productivity growth that is likely to be required to maintain the competitiveness of Australian agriculture both within the Australian economy and relative to the agricultural sectors of other economies. The paper also canvasses prospect for achieving this level of productivity performance over the period to 2030.Growth in agricultural productivity has slowed over the last two decades and a significant proportion of this slowdown in growth can be attributed to the stagnation in public investment in agricultural R&D since the late 1970s. The prospect that rate of growth of TFP could stay at less than 1.0% rather than recover to a long term rate of 2.0% is obviously quite concerning for the future competitiveness of agriculture both domestically and internationally. It would seem that to maintain TFP growth in the 2.0 – 2.5% per year range, investment in agricultural R&D has to be returned to a level of 3.0% of agriculture’s GVP (or 5% of GDP), a major challenge for government and industry.
    Keywords: Productivity, R&D investment, Competitiveness, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152170&r=agr
  54. By: Komarek, Adam
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152197&r=agr
  55. By: Edwards, Brooke; Sluggett, Robert; East, Miriam
    Abstract: To achieve water quality targets, management practice change in the sugar cane industry has been a large focus for natural resource management initiatives such as Reef Plan and Reef Rescue. Considerable public funds have been targeted at landholders to change on-ground management practices. However, the economic implications for landholders are not well understood. To further inform future policy development of the upcoming Reef Water Quality Protection Plan 3 and Reef Rescue 2, the economic costs and benefits to landholders are required. This research used a case study approach to consider the economic implications of improved soil management through an extended fallow period in the Mackay-Whitsunday region. The results demonstrate the complexity of creating effective policy design for adoption of improved management practices for water quality in a semi perennial farming system.
    Keywords: Water quality, sugar cane, Mackay Whitsunday, extended fallow, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152148&r=agr
  56. By: Watto, Muhammad
    Abstract: We estimate the efficiency of groundwater use in cotton production in the Punjab province of Pakistan. We use a survey data of 189 cotton producers comprising 98 tube-well owners and 91 water buyers in order to get the differential impact of tube-well ownership on groundwater use efficiency. We use data envelopment analysis to compute the technical, scale, cost and allocative efficiencies for tube-well owners and water buyers relative to a meta-frontier and groupfrontiers. The DEA sub-vector and slack-based models are used to compute groundwater use efficiency. The results indicate low levels of technical inefficiencies with water buyers being more inefficient relative to tube-well owners. However, groundwater use inefficiency is more pronounced than the respective technical efficiency. The sub-vector and slack-based estimates are highly correlated suggesting the robustness of the results. The results on returns to scale indicate that the majority of cotton growers are operating at increasing returns to scale, suggesting that efficiency can be improved by expanding the scale of operation. We use a second-stage bootstrap truncated regression to investigate the factors that influence technical efficiency and groundwater use efficiency. We find that the level of education, seed quality and extension services have positive significant impacts on technical and groundwater use efficiency. We suggest that knowledge of crop water requirements and the use of improved crop varieties can play role in improving the efficiency of groundwater use.
    Keywords: Pakistan, groundwater use efficiency, groundwater markets, technical efficiency, DEA, sub-vector, slack-based model, meta-frontier, Crop Production/Industries, International Development, International Relations/Trade, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152204&r=agr
  57. By: Wright, Vic; Keeble, Brigette; Kaine, Geoff
    Abstract: Public good objectives have, for many years, encouraged governments to target farmers with propositions for change to their production practices. Initially these propositions were attempts to accelerate the adoption of innovations that offered enhanced productivity. They have come to include change designed to enhance environmental stewardship. Coarse or incomplete specification of the costs and benefits of practice change, and of the whole process in which its promotion is embedded, impedes meaningful analysis of likely levels of adoption. In this paper frameworks from marketing and organisational behaviour are applied to a case study to evaluate their possible usefulness to the better framing of adoption decision making.
    Keywords: NRM, usage context, co-production, psychological contract, adoption interface, engagement interface, relationship, Agribusiness, Farm Management, Public Economics,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152185&r=agr
  58. By: Israel, Danilo C.; Lintag, Jeffrey H.
    Abstract: The main purpose of the study was to determine if the reforestation program of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) over the years has been successful in attaining its stated objectives and in mitigating the adverse impacts of climate change on forest resources and the natural environment. The corollary goal was to develop recommendations to improve reforestation activities in light of the National Greening Program (NGP) of the current administration. The study used secondary data generated from institutional sources and primary data gathered through key informant interviews and focus group discussions conducted in some selected NGP sites in the Caraga region in Mindanao. In summary, the study found the following: a) At the national level, the reforestation program of the DENR has only partially attained its replanting targets; b) Also at the national level, it appears to have become relatively inefficient in the conduct of replanting activities over the years; and c) At the individual site level, it may have been effective to some degree in increasing incomes and livelihood opportunities, improving the natural resource and environmental situation, and achieving the other objectives of reforestation in many areas. Based on the findings, some recommendations for improvements particularly related to the implementation of the NGP were put forward by the study. In conclusion, the study asserts that other than the infusion of sufficient financial and manpower resources, a reforestation program would have a better chance of attaining its objectives if its implementers can sufficiently monitor activities and effectively implement changes in operations to address the problems encountered.
    Keywords: Philippines, zero-based budgeting, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, National Greening Program, Caraga Region, reforestation, reforestation programs, reforestation laws
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:phd:dpaper:dp_2013-22&r=agr
  59. By: Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: To illuminate the role of agro-export industry in inclusive growth, this case study on Philippine mango focuses on the role of market structure in the distribution of export benefits. It is based on review of industry trends and related studies, open-ended interviews of key informants, and structured interviews of respondents situated along the value chain. The distribution of trade benefits is hypothesized to depend on both vertical and horizontal market structure. The former implies that a contracting relationship or vertical integration is a mechanism to elevate product quality to export grade. The latter implies that economies of scale are a factor in mango exporting at the marketing and processing stages. It is noteworthy that there are no discernible economies of scale at the primary level, which accounts for the prevalence of smallholder growing at the production stage. Quantitative analysis confirms that vertical linkages are an important factor in raising mango quality to export grade. Moreover, enterprise size is an important factor in producing or procuring export grade mango. This in turn accounts for the prominence of horizontal market structure in the export sector. However, the importance of scale economies in the industry should not be overstated. Investment requirements do rule out small-scale operations, but are perfectly within reach of medium-size firms. Considerably, more entry is possible with adequate and stable supply of quality raw material at reasonable cost. In fact entry has been recorded in both fresh and processed exports, though exits are also frequent; the largest firms, especially among processors, tend to be the longest lived. To facilitate entry, encourage diversity, and widen distribution of benefits from exporting, concerned stakeholders must focus on relieving the key constraint, which is availability of stable and affordable supply of fresh mango of export grade for either fresh or processed sectors. This requires regulatory reforms, reliable database of mango growers, investments in R&D, and improvements in the extension system to offer technical assistance and technology transfer.
    Keywords: distribution, Philippines, market structure, agricultural exports, vertical linkages
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:phd:dpaper:dp_2013-16&r=agr
  60. By: Ubilava, David
    Abstract: Global climate anomalies affect world economies and primary commodity prices. One of the more pronounced climate anomalies is El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In this study I examine the relationship between ENSO and world commodity prices using monthly time series of the sea-surface temperature anomalies in the Nino 3.4 region, and real prices of thirty primary agricultural commodities. I apply smooth transition auoregressive (STAR) modelling techniques to assess causal inferences that could potentially be camouflaged in the linear setting. I illustrate dynamics of ENSO and commodity price behavior using generalized impulse-response functions.
    Keywords: El Niño Southern Oscillation, Primary Commodity Prices, Smooth Transition Autoregression, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152202&r=agr
  61. By: Bulut, Harun; Collins, Keith J.
    Keywords: crop insurance, risk management, risk aversion, risk, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2013–03–14
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:scc013:152132&r=agr
  62. By: Bosworth, Ryan C.; Bailey, DeeVon; Curtis, Kynda R.
    Abstract: A shopper survey was conducted to determine willingness to pay for ice cream with different labels. A statistical analysis was conducted using stated choices by respondents. The randomized choices were 1) a local brand with or without an indication it had a Utah’s Own designation, 2) a local brand with and without a locally-produced designation, 3) a private label product , and 4) a national brand product. The results suggested that brands affect willingness to pay for ice cream. However, shoppers were willing to pay a significant positive amount more for ice cream with the local designations.
    Keywords: choice experiments, state-sponsored food designations, ice cream, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Public Economics, Q1, Q13,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152144&r=agr
  63. By: Laurent Gobillon (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - Ecole normale supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris, INED - Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques Paris - INED); François-Charles Wolff (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - Université de Nantes : EA4272); Patrice Guillotreau (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - Université de Nantes : EA4272, IUML - Institut universitaire Mer et Littoral - CNRS : FRE3473 - Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER) - Université de Nantes)
    Abstract: Hedonic price regressions have become a standard tool to study how prices of commodity goods are related to quality attributes. In this paper, we extend the traditional price specification by incorporating three sources of unobserved heterogeneity related to sellers, buyers, and matches between buyers and sellers. The extended price specification is estimated on a unique exhaustive dataset of nearly 15 million transactions occurring in French wholesale fish markets from 2002 to 2007. Results show that unobserved heterogeneity plays a significant role in price formation. For some species, its inclusion in price regressions changes the coefficients of quality-related fish characteristics. Last, using data analysis techniques, we classify fish and crustacean species by the extent to which price variations are related to fish characteristics, time effects and the three sources of unobserved heterogeneity.
    Keywords: Fish ; Commodity price ; Unobserved heterogeneity ; Variance analysis ; Panel data
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:psewpa:halshs-00839147&r=agr
  64. By: Marshall, Graham R.
    Abstract: Adaptations in environmental management often involve complex problems of collective action. Institutions introduced to reduce the transaction costs of solving these problems often come at considerable cost. An Institutional Cost Effectiveness Analysis Framework (ICEAF) developed to provide a comprehensive and logical structure for economic evaluation of path dependent institutional choices in this domain, and a procedure for boundedly rational application of the framework, are proposed and illustrated in this article – including for the choice between water buy- back and infrastructure subsidy programs for recovering the ‘environmental water’ required to sustain the ecosystems of the Murray-Darling Basin. A research strategy developed to strengthen the knowledge base for applying this procedure is also proposed.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:152166&r=agr
  65. By: Oyewumi, Olubukola
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Industrial Organization, International Development, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:150788&r=agr
  66. By: Pierre-Andre Chiappori; Krislert Samphantharak; Sam Schulhofer-Wohl; Robert Townsend
    Abstract: We show how to use panel data on household consumption to directly estimate households’ risk preferences. Specifically, we measure heterogeneity in risk aversion among households in Thai villages using a full risk-sharing model, which we then test allowing for this heterogeneity. There is substantial, statistically significant heterogeneity in estimated risk preferences. Full insurance cannot be rejected. As the risk sharing, as-if-complete-markets theory might predict, estimated risk preferences are unrelated to wealth or other characteristics. The heterogeneity matters for policy: Although the average household would benefit from eliminating village-level risk, less-risk-averse households who are paid to absorb that risk would be worse off by several percent of household consumption.
    Keywords: Thailand
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fip:fedmsr:483&r=agr
  67. By: Llanto, Gilberto M.
    Abstract: The paper argues the case for developing more innovative financing schemes for the water supply sector. The use of traditional ODA-dependent financing channeled through government lending institutions has a somewhat moderate success record in developing and improving the water supply sector. There are limitations to the use of public funds and public institutions in financing water delivery systems and it will be helpful to think of PPP or PSP arrangements or schemes that can come up with innovative solutions to address the issues in this sector. The Philippine Water Revolving Fund (PWRF) is one such innovative financing model and there could be others but developing and establishing such models will require the collaborative effort of the concerned stakeholders. Government lending institutions must be forced by policymakers to collaborate with the private sector in solving the long-standing water supply problem for a very large segment of the population. Those government lending institutions have the advantage of ODA funds, which they traditionally use to lend to target borrowers. The ODA funds can be blended with private sector resources, including credit guarantees that have been demonstrated as good credit enhancements, to lower the cost of financing water supply projects.
    Keywords: Philippines, waterless municipalities, local government units, water supply systems, LWUA, MDFO, government financial institutions, output-based aid, MDG
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:phd:dpaper:dp_2013-34&r=agr

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