nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2013‒07‒05
87 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. Subsidy Incidence in Farmland Rents: An Application of Ricardian Rent Theory with Uncertainty and Transaction Costs By Qiu, Feng
  2. On the Institutional Details that Mediate the Impact of Cash Crops on Food Crop Intensification: The Case of Cotton By Tschirley, David; Theriault, Veronique
  3. Food Aid and Consumption: Evidence from the Indian State of Chhattisgarh By Krishnamurthy, Prasad; Pathania, Vikram; Tandon, Sharad
  4. Interlinkage between Farmland Rental and Credit Markets in China By Long, Cheryl; Xu, Lihe; Yuan, Yan
  5. Agriculture Development Lowers the Risk of Cognitive Disability: Evidence from China's Rural Household Responsibility System Reform By Niu, Mengqi; Zhang, Xiaobo
  6. The implications of environmental policy on nutrient outputs in agricultural watersheds By Sohngen, Brent; Kim, Sei Jin; Sam, Abdoul; King, Kevin
  7. Agriculture and economic security of Russia: retrospective research By Fyodorov, Mikhail; Kuzmin, Evgeny
  8. Effects of CAFO Regulations on Livestock Producers’ Behaviors By Sneeringer, Stacy; Key, Nigel
  9. Differences between Livestock and Crop Producers’ Participation in Nutrient Trading By Sneeringer, Stacy
  10. Assessing Conditional Probabilities of Adopting Conservation Practices of Kansas Farmers By Gong, Sheng; Bergtold, Jason
  11. Iodine residues in bulk-tank milk: Economic versus consumer imperatives By West, Gale E.
  12. Impact of Changing Seasonal Rainfall Patterns on Rainy-Season Crop Production in the Guinea Savannah of West Africa By Müller, Marc; Sanfo, Safietou; Laube, Wolfram
  13. Managing the Agricultural Revenue Risk in Brazil: Implications for Developing a Crop Insurance Program By Ozaki, Vitor Augusto; Adami, Andreia Cristina de Oliveira
  14. Are biofuels economically competitive with their petroleum counterparts ?production cost analysis for Zambia By Sinkala, Thomson; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Ekanayake, Indira J.
  15. Response of rice yields in Ghana: some prescriptions for future rice policy By Boansi, David
  16. Macroeconomic and distributional impacts of jatropha-based biodiesel in Mali By Boccanfuso, Dorothee; Coulibaly, Massa; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Savard, Luc
  17. Problematising the Effect of Rural - Urban Linkages on Food Secutiry and Malnutrition in Guatemala´s Western Highlands By Ioulia Fenton
  18. The Effect of Agricultural Diversification on the Anthropometric Outcomes of Children: Evidence from Tanzania By Chen, Susan E.; Salas, Paula Cordero
  19. Local institutions and territorial competitiveness in the case of Parmigiano Reggiano localised production system By Arfini, Filippo; Mancini, Maria Cecilia
  20. Estimating the Cost of Agricultural Pollution Abatement: Establishing Beneficial Management Practices in the Bras d’Henri Watershed By Roy, René; Baker, Laurie; Thomassin, Paul J.
  21. Stochastic viability of second generation biofuel chains: Micro-economic spatial modeling in France By Laure Bamière; Vincent Martinet; Christophe Gouel
  22. The Impact of EU Trade Preferences on the Extensive and Intensive Agricultural and Food Product Margins By Scoppola, M.; Raimondi, V.; Olper, A.
  23. Optimal Path for Global Land Use under Climate Change Uncertainty By Steinbuks, J.; Cai, Y.; Elliott, J.W.; Hertel, T.W.; Judd, K.L.
  24. Why Do Livestock Farmers Participate in Voluntary Environmental Programs? An Empirical Study of the Michigan Agriculture Environmental Assurance Program (MAEAP) By Chantorn, Charapon
  25. Does Early Cash-Based Interventions in a Food Crisis Enhance Resilience? Evidence from Niger By Tumusiime, Emmanuel
  26. Analysis of Consumer Preferences and Willingness-to-Pay for Organic Food Products in Germany By Illichmann, Rebecca; Abdulai, Awudu
  27. Food Environment and Weight Outcomes: A Stochastic Frontier Approach By Li, Xun; Lopez, Rigoberto A.
  28. Consumer Attitudes, Labeling Regimes and the Market Success of Food Nanotechnology By Tran, Van T.; Yiannaka, Amalia; Giannakas, Konstantinos
  29. State Grain Rail Statistical Summary By Prater, Marvin; O'Neil Jr., Daniel; Adam, Sparger
  30. Design and Implementation of Food-Import Related Regulations: Experiences from Some Regional Trade Agreements By Martin von Lampe; Hyunchul Jeong
  31. An Analysis of Farmers' Insurance Choices and Federal Crop Insurance Subsidies By Feng, Hongli; Du, Xiaodong; Hennessy, David A.
  32. El Ni˜no Southern Oscillation Impacts on Crop Insurance By Tack, Jesse B.; Ubilava, David
  33. Embodied-Technical Change of Farm Tractors in U.S. Agricultural Productivity Analysis: What Does Hedonic Price Tell Us? By Wang, Sun Ling; Schimmelpfennig, David; Ball, Eldon
  34. Mobile Phone Coverage and Producer Markets: Evidence from West Africa By Jenny C. Aker; Marcel Fafchamps
  35. The impact of violent political conflict on commodity prices: The Israeli food market By Rubin, Ofir D.; Ihle, Rico; Kachel, Yael; Goodwin, Barry K.
  36. Asymmetric Information and Food Safety: Maize in Kenya By Hoffmann, Vivian; Mutiga, Samuel; Harvey, Jagger; Nelson, Rebecca; Milgroom, Michael
  37. The effect of product standards on agricultural exports from developing countries By Ferro, Esteban; Wilson, John S.; Otsuki, Tsunehiro
  38. Price and non-price determinants and supply response of rice in Côte d’Ivoire By Boansi, David
  39. "Billions and Billions Served" Heterogeneous Effects of Food Source on Child Dietary Quality By Smith, Travis A.
  40. The Effect of Stochastic Oscillations in Property Rights Regimes on Forest Output in China By Salant, Stephen W.; Yu, Xueying
  41. Disaggregated Retail Food Price Indices Using Homescan Data: An Application to Income Levels and SNAP Benefits By Kumcu, Aylin; Volpe, Richard
  42. Access versus Choice: testing the “food desert” construct in Champaign, IL By Jerch, Rhiannon L.; Baylis, Katherine R.; Dissanayake, Sahan T. M.
  43. Managing Weather Risk for Cotton in Texas High Plains with Optimal Temporal Allocation of Irrigation Water By Nair, Shyam; Wang, Chenggang; Knight, Thomas; Segarra, Eduardo; Johnson, Jeff; Maas, Stephan; Mauget, Steven
  44. Public Works in Ethiopia. Crowding out on-farm labor? By Rodrigo, María F
  45. "Local is the New Organic": Do Consumers Agree? By Meas, Thong; Hu, Wuyang; Batte, Marvin T.; Woods, Timothy; Ernst, Stan
  46. Should Zambia produce biodiesel from soybeans ? some insights from an empirical analysis By de Gorter, Harry; Drabik, Dusan; Timilsina, Govinda R.
  47. Off-Farm Work and Economic Performance on Corn Farms By Nehring, Richard; Mishra, Ashok; Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge; Hallahan, Charlie; Erickson, Kenneth; Harris, Michael
  48. Economic aspects of segregation between GM and non-GM Crops along the Food Supply Chain By Varacca, A.; Boccaletti, S.; Soregaroli, C.
  49. Do Speculators in Futures Markets Make Cash Markets More Volatile? By Li, Yingzi; Fortenbery, T. Randall
  50. Better communication for successful food technology development: A Delphi study By Ragona, M.; Raley, M.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Frewer, L.J.
  51. Effects of Meat Recalls on Firms' Stock Prices By Pozo, Veronica F.; Schroeder, Ted C.
  52. Designing contracts for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation By Cordero Salas, Paula
  53. COOL Effects on U.S. Shrimp Trade By Joseph, Siny; Lavoie, Nathalie; Caswell, Julie
  54. Evaluating the Importance of Multiple Imputations of Missing Data on Stochastic Frontier Analysis Efficiency Measures By Shaik, Saleem; Tokovenko, Oleksiy
  55. Addressing additionality in REDD contracts when formal enforcement is absent By Cordero Salas, Paula; Roe, Brian; Sohngen, Brent
  56. Nutrition Label Usage, Diet Health Behavior, and Information Uncertainty By Schroeter, Christiane; Anders, Sven
  57. Consumers' Evaluation of Biotechnology in Food Products: New Evidence from a Meta-Survey By Hess, Sebastian; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan; Redekop, William; Pakseresht, Ashkan
  58. FOOD SECURITY AND ECONOMICS OF INNOVATION IN MAIZE PRODUCTION: A CASE STUDY OF ADOPTION OF DROUGHT TOLERANT MAIZE VARIETY IN KWARA STATE, NIGERIA By Ayinde, O. E.; Muchie, M.; Abduolaye, T.; Olaoye, G.; Akangbe, J.; Folorunsho, O.J.
  59. Impact Assessment with Opt-in Treatments: Evidence from a rural development project in Nicaragua By Peralta, M. Alexandra; Swinton, Scott M.
  60. The Impacts of Protected Area Size on Land Acquisition Costs for Conservation By Kim, Taeyoung; Cho, Seong-Hoon; Larson, Eric R.; Armsworth, Paul R.
  61. The U.S. Obesity Epidemic:New Evidence from the Economic Security Index By Smith, Trenton G.; Stillman, Steven; Craig, Stuart
  62. The Influence of Dining Location on Adult Overweight and Obesity in Urban China By Wahl, Thomas I.
  63. OWN AND CROSS PASS-TROUGH IN A STRUCTURAL FRAMEWORK By Hovhannisyan, Vardges; Bozic, Marin
  64. Financial Inclusion and Rural Financial Services in China By Xiong, Xueping; Turvey, Calum G.; Li, Chongguang
  65. Private Sector Incentives and the Diffusion of Agricultural Technology: Evidence from Developing Countries By Spielman, David J.; Ma, Xingliang
  66. On Technological Change in Crop Yields By Tolhurst, Tor; Ker, Alan P.
  67. What Happens When Food Marketers Require Restrictive Farming Practices? By Saitone, Tina L.; Sexton, Richard J.; Sumner, Daniel A.
  68. Product Differentiation: Implications for Agricultural Producers By Xia, Tian; Li, Xianghong
  69. Parental Nutrition Label Usage and Children's Dietary-related Outcomes By Vi˜noles, Maria V.; You, Wen; Nayga, Rodolfo M. Jr.
  70. Risk and Ambiguity Preferences and the Adoption of New Agricultural Technologies: Evidence from Field Experiments in Rural India By Ward, Patrick S.; Singh, Vartika
  71. Cash for Cooperation? Payments for Ecosystem Services and Common Property Management in Mexico By Yanez-Pagans, Patricia
  72. Competition between Private Label and National Brand for Health-differentiated Food Product: A Canadian Retailing Case By Ying, Xiongwei; Anders, Sven M.
  73. Estimating the Censored Demand for U.S. Cheese Varieties Using Panel Data: Impact of Economic and Demographic Factors By Bouhlal, Yasser; Capps, Oral Jr.; Ishdorj, Ariun
  74. How Much Marginal Land Is Available for Bioenergy Crops? Evidence from Michigan By Hayden, Noel J.; Swinton, Scott M.
  75. Rural finance, development and livelihoods in China By Zhang, Heather Xiaoquan; Loubere, Nicholas
  76. Food Inflation in EU: Distribution Analysis and Spatial Effects By Angelos Liontakis; Dimitris Kremmydas
  77. An economic model of Brazil's ethanol-sugar markets and impacts of fuel policies By de Gorter, Harry; Kliauga, Erika M.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
  78. Economic Ideas for a Complex Climate Policy Regime By Burtraw, Dallas; Woerman, Matt
  79. How does space affect the distribution of the EU RDP funds? By Camaioni, B.; Esposti, R.; Lobianco, A.; Pagliacci, F.; Sotte, F.
  80. Comparative Life Cycle Assessments: Carbon Neutrality and Wood Biomass Energy By Sedjo, ROger A.
  81. Climate Shocks and East African Maize Prices By Chonabayashi, Shun
  82. Somatic Cell Counts in Dairy Marketing: Quantile Regression for Count Data By Volpe III, Richard; Park, Timothy; Hennessy, David; Jensen, Helen H.
  83. Agricultural and Resource Economics Ph.D. Students: Who are They and What Do They Want? By Penn, Jerrod; Sandberg, H. Mikael
  84. A Spatial Dynamic Panel Analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve in European Countries By Hermann Pythagore Pierre Donfouet; P. Wilner Jeanty; Eric Malin
  85. Buyer-Specific Land Valuation and Prices: An Empirical Analysis of the Farmland Market in the Czech Republic By Curtiss, Jarmila; Jelinek, Ladislav; Hruska, Martin; Medonos, Tomas; Vilhelm, Vaclav
  86. An Assessment of the Canadian Federal-Provincial Crop Production Insurance Program under Future Climate Change Scenarios in Ontario By Li, Shuang; Ker, Alan P.
  87. A multi-factor inequality approach to a transfer scheme: the case of Common Agricultural Policy By A. Palestini; G. Pignataro

  1. By: Qiu, Feng
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151209&r=agr
  2. By: Tschirley, David; Theriault, Veronique
    Abstract: The surge in basic food commodity prices in 2007/08 and again in 2011, have led to a renewed focus among governments and donors on agricultural growth, especially in staple food production in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is widely agreed that smallholder-led agricultural growth would contribute most to improved food security and reduced poverty. Yet, how to achieve broader and more sustainable access by smallholder farmers to productivity enhancing inputs for food crop production remains a largely unsolved riddle. In light of the great institutional diversity across cotton sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa, this study investigates whether cotton market structures can be used to spur the intensification of smallholder food production. Especially, it examines how the particular institutional structure of a cotton sector might affect its ability to spur such growth in food crop intensification and productivity. With this aim, a conceptual framework linking cotton institutional structures to food crop intensification is first developed. Drawing on the literature, country experience is then reviewed and predictions from the conceptual framework are compared with empirical evidence.
    Keywords: Intensification, Institutional details, cotton, food crops, conceptual framework, Crop Production/Industries, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151263&r=agr
  3. By: Krishnamurthy, Prasad; Pathania, Vikram; Tandon, Sharad
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151431&r=agr
  4. By: Long, Cheryl; Xu, Lihe; Yuan, Yan
    Abstract: Capital inputs are by and large ignored in the study of farmland rental in previous literature. With the micro-data of rural household finance survey in year 2009, this paper empirically tests whether credit market promotes the development of farmland rental market in rural China. Results show that loans from banks promote the development of farmland rental market. Furthermore, farmers are more likely to use trade credit to alleviate credit constraints in the process of agricultural production and as a result, trade credit promotes the agricultural land rentals.
    Keywords: Interlinkage, farmland rental, financing, China, Agricultural and Food Policy, Land Economics/Use, Q15, O17, O12,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151290&r=agr
  5. By: Niu, Mengqi; Zhang, Xiaobo
    Keywords: agricultural reform, cognitive disability, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, I15,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151286&r=agr
  6. By: Sohngen, Brent; Kim, Sei Jin; Sam, Abdoul; King, Kevin
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151215&r=agr
  7. By: Fyodorov, Mikhail; Kuzmin, Evgeny
    Abstract: The article is focused on problems of economic security of Russia from prospective of trade and production relations in the sector of food commodities that form the nation’s food provision. It also provides a method of identification whether the economic conditions are safe or dangerous tested on statistical data of 2007-2011 years and analyses the derived values of agriculture and economic security by the commodity groups.
    Keywords: food provision, agricultural sector, economic security, economic autarchy
    JEL: F52 Q02 Q10
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:47895&r=agr
  8. By: Sneeringer, Stacy; Key, Nigel
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151430&r=agr
  9. By: Sneeringer, Stacy
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151224&r=agr
  10. By: Gong, Sheng; Bergtold, Jason
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151136&r=agr
  11. By: West, Gale E.
    Keywords: Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151433&r=agr
  12. By: Müller, Marc; Sanfo, Safietou; Laube, Wolfram
    Abstract: Rainy-season farming is a major source of income for the rural population in the Guinea Savannah zone of West Africa. Farming systems in the region are dominated by rain-fed production of cereals, but include also leguminous crops and oilseeds. A recent World Bank study has identified high potentials for competitive agricultural production and agriculture-led growth in the Guinea Savannah zones of Sub-Saharan Africa. This optimistic outlook is conditional on appropriate investment strategies, policy reforms, and institutional changes. Furthermore, the World Bank warns that global climate change could pose a potential constraint for agricultural growth due to likely reductions in rainfall levels and significant increases in rainfall variability. This could lead to serious dry spells and a drop of crop yields. The study regions are the département Atakora in Benin, the région Sud-Ouest in Burkina Faso, and the Upper East Region in Ghana. Climate projections and trend estimates for these regions show very heterogeneous results for level and variability of monthly rainfall patterns. Therefore, we want to investigate which potential future developments pose the greater threat for agricultural production in the study regions. We develop a set of regional agricultural supply models, each representing 10-12 cropping activities and roughly 150.000 ha of agricultural area. We distinguish two stages of crop production: The planting stage from April to June and the yield formation stage between June and November. Preliminary results suggest that drought events during the planting stage have a more severe impact on the output of individual crops than drought events during the second stage. In contrast, the impact on total farm revenues appears to be more prominent during the second stage, when farmers have a limited capability to adjust their production plan. A clear if not surprising result is the larger vulnerability of crops with growth cycles ranging from the very beginning to the very end of the rainy season. The observed diversity of cropping activities serves the purpose to reduce the vulnerability to adverse rainfall events within a certain range. However, some extreme events are associated with very poor harvests of specific cash crops, thus severely affecting the income of the farming sector. A comprehensive picture will be obtained once the climate change scenarios are completed and the model results are tested and validated for various settings.
    Keywords: Climate change, West Africa, agricultural production, stochastic production frontier, highest posterior density estimation, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Development, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151208&r=agr
  13. By: Ozaki, Vitor Augusto; Adami, Andreia Cristina de Oliveira
    Abstract: Since 2003 crop insurance programs became the focus of agricultural policy in Brazil. Given the increasing interest in insurance, accurate calculation of premium values is of great importance. We address the issue of the revenue distribution at the farm-level and its implication to the Brazilian crop insurance contract. We estimate the probability of loss by using the Skew-normal distribution of revenue in the West of Parana (South of Brazil). Results show that insurers (empirical) rates tend to underestimate the risk in the lower coverage levels (50% and 60%). At the level of 70% of coverage the Empirical Rate and the Skew-Normal Rate are similar on average.
    Keywords: revenue insurance, premium rate, skew-normal distribution, agricultural policy, Agricultural and Food Policy, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151289&r=agr
  14. By: Sinkala, Thomson; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Ekanayake, Indira J.
    Abstract: With increased global interest in biofuels, Zambia, a Sub-Saharan African country that entirely depends on imports for its petroleum supply, is planning to implement blending mandates for biofuels. But, a large number of issues -- including production costs of biofuels, land requirements to meet the mandates, and environmental benefits -- have not yet been explored. This study aims to contribute in filling this gap. It finds that depending on feedstock type, costs of ethanol production range from US$0.360 a liter to US$0.680 a liter while the costs for biodiesel production range from US$0.612 a liter to US$0.952 a liter. Even if lower energy contents of biofuels are taken into account, the analysis shows that biofuels are cheaper than their petroleum counterparts. Considering the cost advantage of these biofuels over petroleum products and the availability of surplus agricultural land, Zambia is likely to benefit from the development of a biofuel industry. Biofuels is expected to reduce Zambia's petroleum import bill, which currently stands at more than US$700 million, enhance food security by providing incentives to increase yields, and increase affordability and accessibility to modern energy in the country where 77 percent of the population still lacks access to modern energy. It could also stimulate rural employment and development.
    Keywords: Energy Production and Transportation,Renewable Energy,Economic Theory&Research,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Food&Beverage Industry
    Date: 2013–06–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6499&r=agr
  15. By: Boansi, David
    Abstract: With local rice production lagging well behind demand as a result of low productivity of farmers’ fields, this study analyzed the response of rice yields in Ghana to major internal and external factors which have direct and indirect effects on production and to producers. Yield of rice was found to increase with producer price of rice, irrigated area, labor availability and world price of rice to producer price of rice ratio. It however decreases with increases in harvested area and price of urea fertilizer due to fertility issues, producer price of maize due to influences from resource allocation, and with nominal rate of assistance due to secondary distortions on input prices. To increase and sustain rice yields, future rice policy measures should couple area expansion with vital intensification measures to help mitigate the adverse impact from sole expansion of area and should as well ensure appropriate transmission of prices with least distortion. Investment should be made towards the initiation and diffusion of low cost water control and irrigation systems across the country and vital measures be devised to reduce labor shortages. In improving the fertility of farmers’ fields, the current fertilizer subsidy structure should be improved upon and measures put in place to improve farmers access to credit as this is a vital issue that needs addressing to ensure appropriate response of farmers to future price and non-price incentives
    Keywords: Yield response, rice planning, productivity, Ghana
    JEL: Q11 Q18
    Date: 2013–06–21
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:47889&r=agr
  16. By: Boccanfuso, Dorothee; Coulibaly, Massa; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Savard, Luc
    Abstract: Mali, a landlocked West African nation at the southern edge of the Sahara Desert, has introduced a program to produce biodiesel using jatropha curcas, a non-edible shrub widely available throughout the country by farmers for generations as a living fence for their gardens. The aim of the program is to partially substitute diesel, which is entirely supplied through imports, with domestic biodiesel produced from a feedstock that does not have any commercial value otherwise and thus has zero opportunity cost. This paper uses a computable general equilibrium model to investigate economy-wide and distributional impacts of large-scale jatropha production on different types of lands, and conversion of jatropha oil to biodiesel for domestic consumption. It assesses impacts on agricultural and other commodity markets, resource and factor markets, and international trade. The results are fed into a detailed household survey-based micro-simulation model to assess impacts on poverty and income distribution. The study finds that the expansion of jatropha farming would be beneficial in terms of both macroeconomic and distributional impacts as long as idle lands, which have been neither used for agriculture nor protected as forests, are utilized. However, if jatropha plantation is carried out on existing agriculture lands, the economy-wide impacts would be negative although it would still help reduce rural poverty.
    Keywords: Economic Theory&Research,Rural Poverty Reduction,Renewable Energy,Markets and Market Access,Labor Policies
    Date: 2013–06–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6500&r=agr
  17. By: Ioulia Fenton (Institute for Advanced Development Studies)
    Abstract: Strong rural-urban linkages are increasingly seen as key to achieving sustainable livelihoods and food security in developing countries. However, not all linkages are positive and, although this is recognised in literature, few explore their potential unfavorable characteristics. Based on twelve weeks fieldwork in Guatemala this paper aims to contribute in four ways. Firstly, it details the extent of rural-urban linkages in the lives of ordinary Guatemalans, the reasons for their existence and the contribution they make to food security. Secondly, it highlights the existence of rural-urban criminal networks that negatively impact livelihoods and food security. Thirdly, it illustrates how poor quality linkages in government administration and service provision render them ineffective in alleviating food insecurity and malnutrition. Finally, by focusing on the case of Coca-Cola, it illustrates how extensive rural-urban networks of processed food and drink companies bring with them economic benefits, but adversely affect food security and nutrition through a number of mechanisms. The paper concludes that in order to better design policies aimed at improving livelihoods, food security and nutrition, the growth of rural-urban linkages in different spheres of private and public life should be analysed for its negative as well as positive contributions.
    Keywords: Rural-urban linkages, food security, malnutrition, livelihood, diversification, Guatemala, service provision, land ownership, agriculture
    JEL: R23 Y40 Y91 Q15 Q18
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:adv:wpaper:201303&r=agr
  18. By: Chen, Susan E.; Salas, Paula Cordero
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence of the eect of agricultural diversication and commercialization on the health of preschool children. We specically look at the impact of diversication and commercialization on stunting, wasting and underweight by using a nationally representative sample of households taken from the Tanzania National Panel Survey (TNPS). We nd that engaging in contract farming for producing food crops has a negative eect on stunting and wasting. Diversication only has a positive eect on stunting of children at the bottom of the nutritional distribution while commercialization eects vary according to the type of crop that the household sells and the position of children in the nutritional distribution. The results provide insight into the eects of policies that pursue agricultural diversication and commercialization on the household well-being.
    Keywords: nutrition, agricultural diversification, commercialization, household welfare, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Health Economics and Policy, Public Economics, I12, I15, Q12, Q18,
    Date: 2013–06–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:150952&r=agr
  19. By: Arfini, Filippo; Mancini, Maria Cecilia
    Abstract: Aim of this work is to define the characteristics and actions of local institutions in promoting the competitiveness of regions specialized in agricultural food production. . The article considers these areas as localized production systems and focuses on the role of local institutions in managing food chains, local resources affecting the sustainability of local production system, the reputation of the area and the competitiveness of the entire system. It analyzes the example of the province of Parma and the production of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese focusing on the system of relationships that different local institutions have developed and the effectiveness of governance generated by the Consortium of Parmigiano Reggiano with reference to sector level competition
    Keywords: SYAL, REPUTATION, QUALITY, LOCAL INSTITUTION, SUSTAINABILITY, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Marketing, L150, L660, Q130,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aiea13:151448&r=agr
  20. By: Roy, René; Baker, Laurie; Thomassin, Paul J.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, Environmental Economics and Policy, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:150956&r=agr
  21. By: Laure Bamière; Vincent Martinet; Christophe Gouel
    Abstract: To better understand the production of biofuels derived from lignocellulosic feedstock, we investigate the interplay between the agricultural sector and a biofuel facility, at the local level. More specifically, we investigate the economic and technological viability of a bioenergy facility over time in an uncertain economic context using a stochastic viability approach. Two viability constraints are taken into consideration: the facility's demand for lignocellulosic feedstock has to be satisfied each year and the associated supply cost has to be lower than the facility's profitability threshold. We assess the viability probability of various strategies the facility can adopt to ensure that the agricultural sector meets its demand for biomass. These supplying strategies are determined at the initial time and define the constant share of total demand met by contracting out the demand to farmers who grow perennial crops. Any remaining demand is met by annual crops or wood. The demand constraints and agricultural price scenarios over the time horizon are introduced in an agricultural and forest biomass supply model, which in turns determines the supply cost per unit of energy and computes the viability probabilities of the supplying strategies. If a facility is to be viable over time, it is best for it to ensure that 100% of its demand is contracted out to farmers supplying perennial dedicated crops. This result is robust to the price context.
    Keywords: Biofuel, biomass production, spatial economics, stochastic viability, Monte Carlo simulation
    JEL: Q12 Q16 Q42
    Date: 2013–06–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:apu:wpaper:2013/02&r=agr
  22. By: Scoppola, M.; Raimondi, V.; Olper, A.
    Abstract: In this paper we study the trade creation effects of the EU preferential trade agreements (PTAs) in the agriculture and food sectors for a large sample of developing countries in the period 1990-2006. We build upon the existing literature on trade with heterogeneous firms, by investigating the extent to which the effects of PTAs occurs mainly through the extensive – number of exported products – or the intensive – volume of existing products – margins. A direct measure of export diversification based on the theoreticallyfounded decomposition of trade into the two margins is here used. Empirically, we use a gravity framework in a panel data setting, and different estimators to deal with the issues of zero trade flows and of the presence of an upper bound in the dependent variable, which has been recently shown to raise new problems in the most common gravity econometric approaches. Main results show that the EU PTAs positively affect the agricultural extensive margins, especially through other than tariff provisions linked with the PTA, while in the food industry results are more sensitive to the estimator used. As far as concern the intensive margin, the PTAs effect is only driven by the role of tariff, while other provisions of the PTAs do not exert any relevant impact in both agricultural and food products.
    Keywords: Gravity equation, trade preferences, extensive mergin, Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade, F13, Q17, F14,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151145&r=agr
  23. By: Steinbuks, J.; Cai, Y.; Elliott, J.W.; Hertel, T.W.; Judd, K.L.
    Abstract: This study seeks assess how the uncertainties associated with the un- derlying biophysical processes in uence the optimal prole of land use over the next century, in light of potential irreversibility in these deci- sions. Our analysis is based on a dynamic stochastic model of global land use, and employs 3 modeling scenarios constructed using global crop simulation and climate models. The results of the deterministic model show that climate impacts appear to have mixed eects on yields - higher temperatures hurt food production but this eect is partially oset by greater CO2 fertilization eect. Declining food crop yields result in rela- tively small expansion of cropland and accumulated GHG emissions from land use change. We then contrast this optimal path to that obtained when the uncertainty is not ignored, thereby demonstrating signicance of factoring uncertainty in the optimization stage.
    Keywords: climate change, crop yields, dynamic stochastic models, global land use, uncertainty, Crop Production/Industries, Land Economics/Use, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, C61, Q15, Q23, Q26, Q40, Q54,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151413&r=agr
  24. By: Chantorn, Charapon
    Abstract: Previous studies have identified regulatory preemption and differentiation as two main motives for participation in voluntary environmental programs (VEPs). This research examines the motivations of livestock farmers to participate in the Michigan Agricultural Environmental Assurance Program (MAEAP). It employs a signaling model of interaction between the regulator and livestock farmers under imperfect information to analyze the potential equilibria of participation decisions in VEPs. Data from a survey of livestock farmers in Michigan is analyzed to test hypotheses regarding the realized equilibrium in MAEAP participation. The results suggest that livestock farmers who are interested in regulatory preemption are more likely to be MAEAP-verified while those who are interested in differentiation are less likely to be verified at the time of the survey. Consistent with the model predictions under the regulatory preemption equilibrium, MAEAP-certified farms also perceived more stringent enforcement effort by the regulators.
    Keywords: Voluntary environmental program, Animal agriculture, Environmental policy, Environmental economics and policy, Agribusiness, Environmental Economics and Policy, Livestock Production/Industries, Q5,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:midagr:151404&r=agr
  25. By: Tumusiime, Emmanuel
    Abstract: This study examined how households’ responded in the Tillabery region, Niger given early cash transfer intervention and the impact on household food access and ability to cope and recover from a food crisis. Data was also collected from households that did not benefit from the cash transfer program for comparative purposes. Food access indicators are linked to the cash transfer program and structural characteristics of households and the relationships estimated using a propensity weighted econometric model. Results indicate that early cash transfer intervention had a positive impact on staving off short term food deficiency and reducing vulnerability but limited in contributing to longer lasting impact. The results also demonstrate that certain social-structural characteristics of a household, namely, more economically active adults, male head of a household and concerted decision making, are important for improved food access status. Focusing safety net programs based on these household characteristics could benefit efforts to better target those most vulnerable.
    Keywords: Early cash transfer, Food crisis, Niger, Vulnerability, Resilience, Agricultural Finance, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151270&r=agr
  26. By: Illichmann, Rebecca; Abdulai, Awudu
    Abstract: This study employs a choice experiment approach to investigate consumers’ preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for organic food products. We use mixed logit and latent class models to examine preference heterogeneity. The results revealed significant heterogeneity in preferences for organic apples, milk, and beef product attributes among consumers. The WTP results obtained from mixed logit indicate gender-specific differences for the examined products of this study. Female respondents have a significant higher WTP for apple attributes, while significant higher WTP values for beef attributes are observed for male respondents. The findings of the latent class models indicate that consumers’ trust tend to influence their preferences for organic food products.
    Keywords: Organic farming, choice experiment, preference heterogeneity, mixed logit, latent class model, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, C25, D12,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:150980&r=agr
  27. By: Li, Xun; Lopez, Rigoberto A.
    Abstract: Food environment includes the presence of supermarkets, restaurants, warehouse clubs and supercenters, and other food outlets. This paper evaluates weight outcomes from a food environment using a stochastic production frontier and an equation for the determinants of efficiency, where the explanatory variables of the efficiency term include food environment indicators. Using individual consumer data and food environment data from New England counties, empirical results indicate that fruit and vegetables markets and full-service restaurants are negatively associated with weight outcomes, while warehouse clubs and supercenters are positively related. Supermarkets and other grocery stores, convenience stores and limited-service eating places are not significantly linked to weight gain. Farrell’s efficiency indexes are used to rank states and counties and several policy implications are suggested.
    Keywords: food environment, obesity, stochastic frontier, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Health Economics and Policy, I12,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151277&r=agr
  28. By: Tran, Van T.; Yiannaka, Amalia; Giannakas, Konstantinos
    Abstract: The study explores the market and welfare effects of the introduction of a food nanotechnology innovation under different labeling regimes. An analytical framework of heterogeneous consumers who differ in their attitudes towards interventions in the production process and imperfectly competitive producers is developed to analyze the effects of food nanotechnology under different labeling regimes while considering different consumer preferences for food nanotechnology. Analytical results show that high consumer valuation of the enhanced attributes of nanofoods can lead to consumer acceptance of nanofoods even when consumers are averse to nanotechnology. In most cases, the introduction of food nanotechnology leads to a reduction in the prices and quantities of the existing food alternatives with the price and quantity decreases being greater when nanotechnology adoption costs are low. When this happens, welfare is lower for non-adopting producers and greater for nanofood adopters and for all consumers; consumers who benefit the most from the introduction of food nanotechnology are those who switch their consumption to nanofoods. Finally, labeling regulation has an adverse impact on consumer welfare when consumers are averse to food nanotechnology. Under this case, producers of substitute food products experience welfare gains at the expense of nanofood producers. The results, yet, are intriguingly divergent if consumers have no knowledge of or are indifferent to food nanotechnology in the absence of labeling. Moreover, if consumers perceive food nanotechnology as less invasive than conventional food technology, welfare gains and losses might be realized by different groups of consumers and producers depending on the relative magnitude of the model parameters.
    Keywords: food nanaotechnology, nanofood, heterogeneous consumers, consumer attitudes, consumer and producer welfare, nanofood labeling, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Marketing,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151262&r=agr
  29. By: Prater, Marvin; O'Neil Jr., Daniel; Adam, Sparger
    Abstract: The rail industry is an integral part of the agricultural transportation system of the United States. For producers and shippers of bulk commodities, railroads are particularly important for the movement to end users, many of whom are located long distances from the farms. Information on rail shipments from States to regions across the nation, defined as Business Economic Areas, has been aggregated in this report. State rail receipts by origin State, or where shipments originated, has also been collected. Each State that received or shipped a substantial amount of at least one of three major crops (corn, soybeans, and wheat) by rail has been described in this report by its characteristics. A State level breakdown of rail shipments, rail receipts, grain and oilseed production, animal and poultry production, grain and oilseed exports, and grain and oilseed rail rates per ton-mile have been included. This information can help to explain the variations in shipments and shipment size of these commodities. A summary of grain movement in the United States is included, as are descriptions of grain movements in the 30 States that ship substantial amounts of grain.
    Keywords: rail, grain, soybeans, wheat, corn, livestock, agricultural transportation, oilseeds, Agribusiness, Livestock Production/Industries, Marketing, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uamsrr:151393&r=agr
  30. By: Martin von Lampe; Hyunchul Jeong
    Abstract: This report looks at procedures and processes related to non-tariff measures in agricultural trade. Based on the prior that countries are likely to make efforts to reduce the trade hindering effects of domestic food regulation within regional trade agreements, we focus on three different RTAs, including the North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement, the EU-Switzerland Free Trade Agreement (and more precisely, the EU-Switzerland Agreement on Trade in Agricultural Products), and the EU-Chile Free Trade Association. The paper first compares the texts of these RTAs with the provisions made in the WTO SPS and TBT Agreement and assesses their revealed ambition with respect to avoiding NTM-related frictions in agricultural trade between party countries. Based on a survey covering the countries party to these RTAs, the paper then analyses the way processes in the design and implementation of regulations differ across these countries. It identifies several areas where processes within RTA member countries could potentially inform process developments in other RTAs or at a multilateral level and calls for further research to better understand the empirical implications of such processes.
    Keywords: transparency, non-tariff measures, WTO, RTA, SPS measures, regulatory impact assessment, dispute settlement mechanism
    JEL: F13 F15 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2013–06–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:oec:agraaa:62-en&r=agr
  31. By: Feng, Hongli; Du, Xiaodong; Hennessy, David A.
    Abstract: The U.S. crop insurance has two distinct features that set itself apart from insurance in other areas: (i) it is explicitly subsidized with an average premium subsidy rate of about 60 percent in recent years; and (ii) the law requires the premium rate be set at actuarially fair level with the federal government paying the administrative and operational costs related to the sale and service of insurance policies. Bearing in mind these features, we examine to what extent farmers’ crop insurance choices conform to economic theory and estimate the implications of changes in premium subsidy structure. A standard expected utility maximization framework is set up to analyze the trade-offs between higher risk protection and larger subsidy payment. We show that, given actuarially fair premium, a rational farmer will choose the coverage level with the highest premium subsidy or a higher coverage level. With a large insurance unit level data, we fail to find empirical support for this theoretical results, which suggest a possible “anomaly” in insurance decisions. Estimation through mixed logit models reveals that out-of-pocket premium has a negative impact on the probability of an insurance product being chosen.
    Keywords: actuarial fairness, agricultural policy, coverage level, federal crop insurance, premium subsidy, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Q15, Q18, Q24,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151284&r=agr
  32. By: Tack, Jesse B.; Ubilava, David
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151429&r=agr
  33. By: Wang, Sun Ling; Schimmelpfennig, David; Ball, Eldon
    Abstract: This study employs new data and a hedonic function to estimate the quality-adjusted price and quantity for farm tractors over the 1950-2011 period. The estimated hedonic prices for tractors are lower than the BLS’ tractor price index in most time period. The lower prices will result in a higher estimate of tractor stock and service flow, which reflects an increase in embodied technical change of farm tractors. After replacing the BLS deflator of tractor investment with these hedonic estimates, average annual TFP growth dropped by 0.13 percentage points over the 1991-2011 period compared with the current USDA’s productivity estimate. The changes can be attributed to properly accounting for embodied technical change in farm tractors over this period.
    Keywords: Hedonic price, farm tractor, total factor productivity (TFP), Agribusiness, Demand and Price Analysis, Production Economics, O3, O4, Q1,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151211&r=agr
  34. By: Jenny C. Aker; Marcel Fafchamps
    Abstract: Expansion in mobile phone coverage has improved access to information throughout the developing world, particularly within sub-Saharan Africa. The existing evidence suggests that information technology has improved market efficiency and reduced consumer prices for certain commodities. There are fewer studies assessing the impact of the technology on producers. Using market-level data we estimate the impact of mobile phone coverage on producer prices in Niger. We find that mobile phone coverage reduced the spatial dispersion of producer prices by 6 percent for a semi-perishable commodity, cowpea. These effects are strongest for remote markets and lowest at harvest time. Mobile telephony, however, has no effect on price dispersion for millet and sorghum, two storable crops. There is also no impact on the average producer price, but mobile phone coverage is associated with a reduction in the intra-annual price risk, primarily for cowpeas. These findings are confirmed by data from a farmer-level survey: we find that farmers owning mobile phones obtain more price information but do not engage more in spatial arbitrage and hence do not receive higher prices – except for peanuts. The additional evidence presented here helps understand how mobile phone coverage affects agricultural market efficiency in developing countries. It suggests that the impact differs across agents – depending on whether they use the information for arbitrage or not – and across crops – depending on whether inter-temporal arbitrage is possible or not.
    Keywords: Africa, Information, Information Technology, Market Performance, Search Costs, Niger
    JEL: O1 O3 Q13
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:csa:wpaper:2013-09&r=agr
  35. By: Rubin, Ofir D.; Ihle, Rico; Kachel, Yael; Goodwin, Barry K.
    Abstract: The impact of violent conflict on the state of the economy has been studied extensively since the two recent decades. In most studies the state of the economy is operationalized by stock market indices of the respective countries. In this paper we suggest investigating the impact of violent conflict on the lives of civilians by looking also at food prices. We gathered a unique dataset of daily frequency for this purpose which offers a number of variables quantifying relevant events which occurred between 1997 and 2011 in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. We model domestic Israeli prices of several fresh fruits and vegetables using a GARCH framework and control for the state of the economy, exchange rate effects, international prices, seasonal variation and Muslim holidays. Intensity of the conflict is measured by the incidences of movement restrictions which are implemented due to security reasons and temporarily cut off the otherwise dynamic agricultural trade between Israel and the Palestinian Territories, and daily casualty numbers for both sides of the conflict. Our analysis yields plausible results for the comprehensive impact of the controls as well as of the conflict variables. We find that comprehensive closures imposed on the Palestinian Territories do not show much impact on food price dynamics in Israel. Conversely, while days with many Israeli casualties raise both the mean and the volatility of several prices, the opposite effect is observed in the case of high numbers of fatalities on the Palestinian side.
    Keywords: Casualties, Closures, Food prices, GARCH, Intifada, Israeli-Palestinian conflict, Middle East, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Relations/Trade, F15, F51, Q11,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:150961&r=agr
  36. By: Hoffmann, Vivian; Mutiga, Samuel; Harvey, Jagger; Nelson, Rebecca; Milgroom, Michael
    Abstract: When quality is not observable by prospective buyers, theory predicts that the quality of marketed goods will suffer, and the volume of trade will be depressed. Using data from more than 2,000 maize samples collected in four Kenyan provinces, we show that the presence of aflatoxin, an invisible and dangerous fungal contaminant, is not reflected in maize prices but does affect how maize is used. This apparent market failure reduces the quality of maize available on the market. In addition, we show that self-produced maize is a normal good.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, O12, O13, O15,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151288&r=agr
  37. By: Ferro, Esteban; Wilson, John S.; Otsuki, Tsunehiro
    Abstract: The authors create a standards restrictiveness index using newly available data on maximum residue levels of pesticides for 61 importing countries. The paper analyzes the impact that food safety standards have on international trade of agricultural products. The findings suggest that more restrictive standards are associated, on average, with a lower probability of observing trade. However, after controlling for sample selection and the proportion of exporting firms in a gravity model, the analysis finds that the effect of standards on trade intensity is indistinguishable from zero. This is consistent with the assumption that meeting stringent standards increases primarily the fixed costs of exporting. Once firms enter the market, however, standards do not impact the level of exports. The analysis also finds a greater marginal effect of BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) standards on the probability of trade, relative to other countries'standards, keeping in mind however that on average BRICS standards are less restrictive. The analysis also suggests that exporters in low-income countries are more adversely affected by stricter standards.
    Keywords: Free Trade,Economic Theory&Research,Labor Policies,Food&Beverage Industry,Trade Law
    Date: 2013–06–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6518&r=agr
  38. By: Boansi, David
    Abstract: Characterized by weak local rice productivity, inefficient marketing and processing of paddy among other constraints, the local rice sector in Côte d’Ivoire has failed to meet domestic rice consumption needs. In the absence of comprehension action, the country is expected to face a deficit of 1,731,583 Mt in supply of rice by the year 2020, which could consequently result in huge drainage of foreign exchange through imports. To inform future policy decisions on rice towards mitigation of the adverse effect such occurrence may have on producers, consumers and the country as a whole, this study analyzed the acreage and output responses of rice in Côte d’Ivoire for the period 1966-2009. The results suggest that rice farmers respond more to changes in price of competitive maize crop than they do own-price due to inefficiency of collection, processing and marketing in the local rice industry, limited participation of various stakeholders in development of the rice supply chain, failure of most buyers to observe contract terms and surtax on producer price due to high cost of transportation. The stagnation observed in output between the years 1988 and 2009, is found to result from a significant inverse association between area cultivated and yield of rice. As a major importer of rice and based on results of the current study, it is believed that Côte d’Ivoire could improve on its rice supply and effectively meet the anticipated deficit by putting in place measures to increase land area under cultivation, ensure a harmonization between yield and acreage cultivated, reduce labor shortages, ensure continuous government support to the sector, address the adverse fiscal effect of the exchange rate system and promote stakeholder participation in development of the rice supply chain.
    Keywords: Acreage response, output response, nominal rate of assistance, deficit in supply
    JEL: Q11 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2013–06–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:47941&r=agr
  39. By: Smith, Travis A.
    Abstract: This paper estimates heterogeneous eects of food source (food away from home, at home and from school) on child dietary quality. Using a quantile estimator designed for panel data, two non-consecutive days of intake are used to identify the eect of food source across the unconditional distribution of dietary quality. Main results suggest that food away from home has a negative impact on dietary quality for all children except those falling in the very lowest portion of the unconditional distribution. As compared to home-prepared food, school food is found to increase dietary quality for children falling in the bottom quartile of the distribution. For children with a very high underlying proneness to consume a healthful diet, food from school has a negative eect. While food consumed under the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs may not benet every child (especially at the mean), it does improve the diets of many children whom otherwise would have poorer dietary quality. The implication is that U.S. schools are fertile grounds to improve nutrition skill formation, especially for the most disadvantaged.
    Keywords: Unconditional quantiles, panel data, dietary quality, school food programs, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Public Economics, C31, D39, I12, I18,
    Date: 2013–05–29
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151212&r=agr
  40. By: Salant, Stephen W. (University of Michigan); Yu, Xueying (University of Michigan)
    Abstract: Over the past 60 years, forest tenure in China has oscillated unpredictably between private and common-property regimes. This policy-induced uncertainty has distorted land owners’ harvesting decisions and has lowered the value of China’s forest output. We provide an analytical framework for assessing these effects quantitatively and conclude that substantial losses in the net value of wood harvested over time have occurred. Understanding the consequences of this policy-induced uncertainty is particularly important since China is currently engaged in an ambitious plan to increase its domestic supply of timber. Contrary to the standard result in the literature that catastrophic risk—whether from natural disasters like forest fires or from government expropriation—necessarily leads to premature harvesting, we find that farmers may delay harvesting if sufficient compensation for loss is paid.
    Keywords: forest tenure risk, Faustmann model, optimal rotation period under uncertainty
    JEL: Q23 Q28
    Date: 2013–05–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-13-08&r=agr
  41. By: Kumcu, Aylin; Volpe, Richard
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:150985&r=agr
  42. By: Jerch, Rhiannon L.; Baylis, Katherine R.; Dissanayake, Sahan T. M.
    Abstract: How does one’s food environment affect food purchase decisions? Food access has received significant political and academic attention, particularly under the Obama administration. Existing literature on food access and “food deserts” mainly focuses on geographic distance or the retail of fresh fruits & vegetables versus fast food within a neighborhood to determine and identify inequitable access. In this paper I attempt to develop an endogenous measure of food access by asking how geographic placement of food retail affects food expenditure, particularly of fruits & vegetables. I use novel data on 886 households matched to food prices from a census of geocoded food retailers in Champaign County to approach this question from two perspectives. I first estimate the household’s share of grocery expenditures allocated to fresh, frozen, and canned fruits & vegetables versus other grocery items. I then use data on a person’s residence and geocoded data on food retail locations in Champaign County to test for relationships between retailer proximity, and the share of expenditure on fruits & vegetables. The next perspective uses a choice experiment to measure the tradeoff among store characteristics that determine where a consumer shops. The demand estimation reveals how much fruits & vegetables a person is actually consuming, while the choice experiment reveals whether that individual is constrained in their consumption by their existing characteristic set of stores. I find that while proximity to a grocery store is positively correlated with healthier food consumption, policy response should focus on improving store quality and product quality to induce behavioral change. I further find policy response should be cognizant of endogenous locational sorting which may require alternative means to improve health other than changing the food geography.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:150977&r=agr
  43. By: Nair, Shyam; Wang, Chenggang; Knight, Thomas; Segarra, Eduardo; Johnson, Jeff; Maas, Stephan; Mauget, Steven
    Abstract: Texas High Plains (THP) is a major cotton producing region in the US with low rainfall and decreasing irrigation water availability. Hence stochastic rainfall poses considerable production risk in the region and developing strategies to maximize the average profit and minimize the year to year variability in profits is an important concern. In this study, Cotton2K, which is a process based cotton growth simulation model, was used along with an economic optimization model to identify the optimal strategies for temporal allocation of irrigation water for center pivot irrigated cotton in THP. The study analyzed different strategies to allocate irrigation water during one growing season among three different growth stages of cotton (planting to first bloom, first bloom to first open boll, and first open ball to 60% open boll) at four different sub-optimal levels for irrigation water availability (6, 9, 12, and 15 acre-inches). The results showed that the profit and utility maximizing strategy was to apply all available irrigation water during stage II when six, nine, and twelve acre-inches of irrigation water were available. When fifteen inches of irrigation water was available, the optimal strategy was to use 90% of the available irrigation water in stage II and the rest in stage III. The sensitivity analysis indicated that these optimal decisions were not sensitive to variations in price of cotton lint and farmer’s attitude towards risk.
    Keywords: Cotton, Irrigation, Economics, Risk, Cotton2K, Crop Production/Industries, Production Economics, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Risk and Uncertainty, Q12, Q16,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151222&r=agr
  44. By: Rodrigo, María F
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of Public Works (PW) from the Productive Safety Net Program (PSNP) in the agricultural regions of Ethiopia. In particular, based on a household model with two inputs, I explore the eects of the program on capital and labor decisions using the Ethiopian Rural Household Surveys (ERHS) from 2004 and 2009. Results indicate that PW did not have an eect crowding out adult labor on- farm but it reduced child labor. Furthremore, after analyzing the relationship between capital and labor inputs, there is not evidence suggesting that the program had an eect on the demand of capital inputs (i.e., units of livestock and value of farming tools).
    Keywords: Farm Management, International Relations/Trade, Labor and Human Capital, Public Economics,
    Date: 2013–06–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:150806&r=agr
  45. By: Meas, Thong; Hu, Wuyang; Batte, Marvin T.; Woods, Timothy; Ernst, Stan
    Abstract: There have been numerous studies and growing interests to identify consumer preferences and compare willingness-to-pay for different value-added food labels or attributes. This paper uses stated preference data from choice experiments in a mail survey in Kentucky and Ohio to analyze consumer preferences for a host of value-added attributes of processed blackberry jam. Results from the study confirm positive willingness-to-pay for both organic and local attributes as well as other label claims. However, consumers were found to be willing to pay less for organic blackberry jam than jam identified as being produced in smaller state regions. Furthermore, the study found some evidence of substitution between these two attributes, an issue receiving minimal attention in the existing literature.
    Keywords: willingness-to-pay, local and organic processed food products, choice experiment, conditional logit model, Mixed Logit model, processed food labels, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Q13,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151265&r=agr
  46. By: de Gorter, Harry; Drabik, Dusan; Timilsina, Govinda R.
    Abstract: Facing a huge fiscal burden due to imports of entire petroleum despite the availability of a surplus of agricultural land to produce biofuels, Zambia, a country in Sub-Saharan Africa, has recently introduced a biofuel mandate. But, a number of questions, particularly those related to the economics of biofuels, have not been fully investigated yet. Using an empirical model this study analyzes the economics of meeting the biodiesel mandate through soybean feedstock. The study finds that meeting the biodiesel mandate with biodiesel from soybeans would reduce social welfare because the country's soybean imports would cost more than the expected reduction in petroleum imports. However, if Zambia increases its domestic soybean supply along with its capacity to convert soybean to biodiesel, as well as oil yield, soybean based biodiesel is likely to be welfare-beneficial, even if biodiesel prices are above diesel prices. The study also finds that under current market prices and transportation costs and constraints, the same amount of biodiesel can be produced most cost-effectively with a tax exemption. A blend mandate would be less cost effective, while a biodiesel production subsidy represents the least efficient policy option.
    Keywords: Energy Production and Transportation,Markets and Market Access,Renewable Energy,Emerging Markets,Economic Theory&Research
    Date: 2013–06–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6498&r=agr
  47. By: Nehring, Richard; Mishra, Ashok; Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge; Hallahan, Charlie; Erickson, Kenneth; Harris, Michael
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of off-farm work on the economic performance of corn farms. It estimates returns to scale and technical efficiency following an input distance function approach and compares the relative performance of corn farm operator households with and without off-farm work. We use farm-level data from the USDA’s ARMS survey for 2002-2011. The impact of off-farm work on scale and technical efficiency is examined at the household level. We find that off-farm income boosts scale efficiency on corn farms. We also find that operator hours worked off farm negatively affects technical efficiency, while we find no impact on technical efficiency for spouse hours worked off farm. Finally, we find that corn farms relying on off farm income have comparable returns on farm assets across all size classes, but significantly higher household returns (with off-farm income and assets accounted for) across all size classes.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Farm Management, Labor and Human Capital,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151422&r=agr
  48. By: Varacca, A.; Boccaletti, S.; Soregaroli, C.
    Abstract: This work provides a methodological framework for the analysis of the Italian supply chain for non-GM soybean meal, with particular regard to the upstream stages between overseas producers, international traders and feed manufacturers. Using the information collected from a set of interviews with industry representatives, we describe the organizational arrangements that agents adopt to minimize transaction costs. Consistently with transaction cost economics, we examine the impact of asset specificity and uncertainty on the coordination arrangements. We focus on two dimensions of uncertainty, namely: productquality uncertainty and environmental uncertainty. We argue that the actual organizational arrangements between transactors are consistent with the theory: whereas product-quality uncertainty and some degree of asset specificity would lead to vertically integrated forms of governance, environmental uncertainty operate in the opposite direction.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151428&r=agr
  49. By: Li, Yingzi; Fortenbery, T. Randall
    Keywords: speculation, cash price volatility, cointegration, causality in variance, crude oil, wheat, coffee, Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151296&r=agr
  50. By: Ragona, M.; Raley, M.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Frewer, L.J.
    Abstract: Despite developments in technology, design and marketing, many new food products are not successfully commercialised. Communication between key players with different expertise (food technologists, consumers scientists, end consumers, etc.) seems crucial to improve food technology development, respond better to consumer wishes and reduce innovation failures. In this study, preliminary results of a Delphi survey aiming to identify opinions and priorities of various key players regarding the elaboration of an effective communication strategy during food product development are presented. Survey participants were recruited from an ad-hoc online community and personal contacts from different areas of expertise and sectors. Results revealed that disciplinary differences constitute an important barrier to such communication, and these may relate to both theoretical and linguistic differences between communities. Inadequate communication between consumer scientists and food technologists is commonly (but not unanimously) regarded as a barrier to inclusion of consumer science data into product development. The problems include insufficient, ineffective and excessively late engagement and also non-engagement between actors. Some clear gaps between the perceptions of consumer scientists and food technologists exist, for example consumer scientists were more likely to agree that food technologists find it difficult to interpret consumer information, whereas food technologists were more likely to agree that consumer information is not specific enough for them to use. Given those identified barriers, it is important to explicitly recognise inter-disciplinary communication as a success factor in food development projects, with, e.g., the establishment of multi-disciplinary teams, and to improve knowledge and awareness of each other’s subject.
    Keywords: food product development, communication, food technology, consumer science, Delphi, Agribusiness, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Marketing, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession, C83, D83, M10, O32, Q16,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aiea13:151597&r=agr
  51. By: Pozo, Veronica F.; Schroeder, Ted C.
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151287&r=agr
  52. By: Cordero Salas, Paula
    Abstract: Reduction of carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation has been identified as a cost effective element of the post-Kyoto strategy to achieve long-term climate objectives. Its success depends primarily on the design and implementation of a financial mechanism that provides land-holders sufficient incentives to participate in such scheme. This paper proposes self-enforcing contracts (relational contracts) as a potential solution for the constraints in formal contract enforcement derived from the stylized facts of the implementation because relational contracting relies upon mutual private self-enforcement in a repeated transaction framework. The paper derives an opportunity cost function for land use and characterizes the optimal self-enforcing contract as well as provide the parameters under which private enforcement is sustainable. The optimal payment scheme suggests that all payments should be made contingent on the carbon offsets delivered, that is, at the end of the contracting period. Thus, the optimal contract does not observe any ex ante payment. Self-enforcement is more difficult to sustain the higher the opportunity cost of forest conservation is relative to the value of the carbon offsets from the contract. Necessary extensions to the relational contracting model are also discussed.
    Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Environmental Economics&Policies,Debt Markets,Forestry,Climate Change and Environment
    Date: 2013–06–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6503&r=agr
  53. By: Joseph, Siny; Lavoie, Nathalie; Caswell, Julie
    Abstract: We investigate the economic impact of partial implementation of COOL on U.S. shrimp trade by developing a conceptual model that encompasses horizontal and vertical product differentiation. Horizontal differentiation is characterized by explicitly accounting for differences in shrimp processing – fresh or frozen versus peeled, canned, or breaded. Vertical differentiation in the conceptual model is captured by two scenarios – presence and absence of COOL – on trade between major shrimp exporters and United States. COOL implementation results in quality disclosure through origin labeling and additional costs of labeling on fresh and frozen shrimp sold at retail while processed shrimp products are excluded from labeling. The conceptual model indicates a change in product mix with COOL implementation: the relative share of processed shrimp increases when compared to unprocessed shrimp. Empirically testing the hypothesis using an econometric model also shows there is a change in the product mix in the two scenarios. Regression results show that COOL has a 0.1% effect on the share of unprocessed shrimp exported with COOL implementation.
    Keywords: Country of Origin Labeling, Shrimp, Trade, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Production Economics,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151217&r=agr
  54. By: Shaik, Saleem; Tokovenko, Oleksiy
    Abstract: The robustness of the multiple imputation of missing data on parame- ter coefficients and efficiency measures is evaluated using stochastic frontier analysis in the panel Bayesian context. Second, the implications of multi- ple imputations on stochastic frontier analysis technical efficiency measures under alternative distributional assumptions−half-normal, truncation and exponential is evaluated. Empirical estimates indicate difference in the between-variance and within-variance of parameter coefficients estimated from stochastic frontier analysis and generalized linear models. Within stochastic frontier analysis, the between-variance and within-variance of technical efficiency are different across the three alternative distributional assumptions. Finally, results from this study indicate that even though the between- and within variance of multiple imputed data is close to zero, between- and within-variance of production function parameters, as well as, the technical efficiency measures are different.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:150792&r=agr
  55. By: Cordero Salas, Paula; Roe, Brian; Sohngen, Brent
    Abstract: The success of reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation depends on the design of an effective financial mechanism that provides landholders sufficient incentives to participate and provide additional and permanent carbon offsets. This paper proposes self-enforcing contracts as a potential solution for the constraints in formal contract enforcement derived from the stylized facts of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation implementation in developing countries. It characterizes the optimal self-enforcing contract and provides the parameters under which private enforcement is sustainable when the seller type that is, the opportunity cost of the land, is private information. The optimal contract suggests that the seller with low opportunity cost receives a positive enforceable payment equivalent to the information rents required for self-selection, in contrast to when the buyer knows the seller type in which case all payments should be made contingent on additional forest conservation. When the buyer does not know the seller type, a first-best self-enforcing contract can be implemented if forest conservation is sufficiently productive. If the gains from forest conservation are small, self-enforcing contracts may induce some carbon sequestration by some or all seller types, depending on the value of the shared gains of the relationship.
    Keywords: Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Contract Law,Debt Markets,Common Property Resource Development,Forestry
    Date: 2013–06–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6502&r=agr
  56. By: Schroeter, Christiane; Anders, Sven
    Abstract: The overarching goal of nutrition labeling is to transform credence attributes into searchable cues, which would enable consumers to make appropriate choices at lower search costs. However, despite an abundance of food labeling information, asymmetries regarding appropriate healthy food choices largely persist. Thus, there is need for research that exposes consumer’s label usage and their level of concern about their health in order to understand the underlying motivations that may explain consumer behavior with regard to labels. In order to better understand how current food-health behavior and related perceptions over potential future health complications are affected by present labeling usage patterns, this study will estimate 1) the impact of nutrition label usage on individual’s perceived diet health concerns using alternative propensity score matching (PSM) techniques; 2) the effect of nutrition label usage on consumer’s stated concerns on (a) diet-health, (b) obesity, and (c) general future wellbeing controlling for a wide variety of socio-demographic variables, food-intake and choice related behaviors, and lifestyles factors; and 3) conduct a series of tests and sensitivity analyses to assure robustness of matching indicators and to validate impacts of treatment effects for label users and non-users. The analysis utilizes data from the 2008 National Health and Wellness Survey conducted by Nielsen Canada. As the results suggest, consumers are not aware or use nutrition labeling information. In order to change dietary behavior, policy makers may need to adopt instruments that account for differences with regard to food preferences, food shopping habits, and overall usage patterns of food/nutrition labeling information.
    Keywords: Socio-economic factors, food labeling, preferences, behavioral factors, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Public Economics, I1, H2,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151214&r=agr
  57. By: Hess, Sebastian; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan; Redekop, William; Pakseresht, Ashkan
    Abstract: This study examines the systematic evidence entailed in existing research on consumers’ evaluation of biotechnology in food products. The extant literature related to this topic typically originates from a variety of research disciplines, but shares an underlying focus in dealing with the issue of public acceptance of biotechnology in food and its corresponding behavioural processes. We develop a meta-study methodology to measure the envelope of an underlying construct that represents consumer evaluation of biotechnology in food products. The analysis combines information from 1673 survey questions out of 214 different studies. Findings from our mixed effects meta-model show that survey questions with positive (negative) connotations about biotechnology tend to be associated with positive (negative) measures of evaluation. Stated benefits of biotechnologies in food do not produce any significant positive reaction. Price discounts, increased production and various perceived risks generate negative coefficients. The EU dummies appear insignificant, while previous meta-studies found significant negative evaluation among EU consumers. We show that survey questions related e.g. to risk and ethical concerns have been asked more often in EU surveys compared to non-EU countries. Our study sheds further light on those aspects that appear the most influential ones in directing consumer evaluation of biotechnology in food products. Furthermore, we discuss potential strategies for future research- and policy design in relation to these technologies.
    Keywords: Biotechnology, GMO, Genes, consumers, evaluation. attitude, Meta-Analysis, Consumer/Household Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151148&r=agr
  58. By: Ayinde, O. E.; Muchie, M.; Abduolaye, T.; Olaoye, G.; Akangbe, J.; Folorunsho, O.J.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:150790&r=agr
  59. By: Peralta, M. Alexandra; Swinton, Scott M.
    Abstract: In this study we conduct an impact evaluation of a complex rural development project in Central America with multiple treatments taking place simultaneously, purposive program placement and project participant freedom to opt in to project interventions. For this purpose we use propensity score matching difference-in-differences estimation, and compare results of this method with weighted propensity score regression and simple difference-in-differences estimation. We find short term project impacts in household savings, in participation in groups and associations, and in reduction of stored grain losses. However, we find no project impacts in long-term outcomes associated with increased agricultural income or household asset accumulation. These results are not surprising, since the project evaluation was conducted two years into a three-year project, before beneficiaries had realized its full benefits. Our study calls attention to the need of more research on linking short term to long-term impacts and on longer term strategies to evaluate impacts of agricultural technology.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, International Relations/Trade, O10, O13, Q1,
    Date: 2013–06–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:150988&r=agr
  60. By: Kim, Taeyoung; Cho, Seong-Hoon; Larson, Eric R.; Armsworth, Paul R.
    Abstract: The size of the protected area is recognized as one of the key attributes for assessing the effectiveness of investing in protected areas. We evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas by examining economies of scale in size and the average cost of acquiring protected areas depending on the land acquisition contract types and motivations. We use recent land acquisitions (2000-2009) of the central and southern Appalachian forest ecosystems by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) as a case study. Our findings suggest that (1) the purchase of protected areas achieves economies of scale in size on average; (2) the fee simple deals achieve economies of scale in size while the easements do not, and the easement deals are more cost effective than the fee simple deals; (3) targeting the protection of mammals or birds achieves greater economies of scale than not targeting them; and (4) the deals without development pressures achieve greater economies of scale in size than the deals with the threat of development. Our findings will help TNC and other conservation organizations to design more cost effective investments in land conservation.
    Keywords: Cost effectiveness, Economies of Scale, Land conservation, Protected area size., Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151271&r=agr
  61. By: Smith, Trenton G.; Stillman, Steven; Craig, Stuart
    Abstract: A growing body of research supports the \economic insecurity" theory of obesity, which posits that uncertainty with respect to one's material well- being may be an important root cause of the modern obesity epidemic. This literature has been limited in the past by a lack of reliable measures of economic insecurity. In this paper we use the newly developed Economic Security Index to explain changes in U.S. adult obesity rates as measured by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1988{2010, a period capturing much of the recent rapid rise in obesity. We nd a robust positive and statistically signicant relationship between obesity and economic insecurity that holds for nearly every age, gender, and race/ethnicity group in our data, both in cross-section and over time.
    Keywords: obesity, body mass index, economic insecurity, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151419&r=agr
  62. By: Wahl, Thomas I.
    Abstract: Chinese have been experiencing dramatic changes in their body weight in the last ten years. Food service sector is believed to have significant effect on the rise of obesity in China. This paper analyses Body Mass Index (BMI) and overweight issue of adults 18 years and above in urban China with respect to food eating locations and other socio-economic and demographic variables. The data are from household surveys in three representative Chinese cities: Xi’an, Shenyang, and Xiamen. OLS is used to estimate the relationship between continuous BMI and food eating outlets, and an ordered probit model is fit to the categorical BMI. Findings indicate that the number of meals eaten at cafeterias significantly increases the probability of being overweight and obese while decreasing the probability of staying underweight and normal. The probability that a person in Xi’an, Shenyang and Xiamen is underweight and normal decreases by 0.25 and 0.49 percentage point respectively if consuming one additional meal at a cafeteria. And one unit increase in the number of meals ate at a cafeteria increases the probability to become overweight and obese by 0.55 and 0.19 percentage point correspondingly. The number of meals consumed at full service restaurants and fast food outlets are found to be insignificant on the body weight of Chinese adults. Education, household income and employment status all have significant effects on body weight change, as well as smoking status and physical activity.
    Keywords: BMI, Overweight and Obese, Food Eating Location, Dining Location, Socio-economics, China, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Health Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151267&r=agr
  63. By: Hovhannisyan, Vardges; Bozic, Marin
    Abstract: The article offers measures of own and cross cost pass-through in a structural framework. Unlike the traditional reduced-form analysis used in the previous literature, our approach is applicable in situations where firm marginal cost data are unobserved. The empirical value of the model is illustrated in an application to retail pass-through for national and store brand yogurt using an inverse demand derived from the economic theory. We find that ignoring cross pass-through between the brands biases own pass-through estimates.
    Keywords: Pass-through, retail conduct, benefit function, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, Industrial Organization, Marketing, L10, M31,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:150993&r=agr
  64. By: Xiong, Xueping; Turvey, Calum G.; Li, Chongguang
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151275&r=agr
  65. By: Spielman, David J.; Ma, Xingliang
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151281&r=agr
  66. By: Tolhurst, Tor; Ker, Alan P.
    Abstract: Technological change in plant research rarely shifts the entire yield distribution upwards as assumed in the agricultural economics literature. Rather, technologies have been targeted at a specic subpopulation of the yield distribution|for example, drought resistant seeds or so-called racehorse seeds|therefore, it is unlikely technological advancements are equal across subpopulations. In this manuscript we introduce a mixture model of crop yields with an embedded trend function in the component means, which allows dierent rates of technological change in each mixture or subpopulation. By doing so, we can test some inter- esting hypotheses that have been previously untestable. While previous literature assumes an equivalent rate of technological change across subpopulations we reject the null in 84.0%, 82.3%, and 64.0% of the counties for corn, soybean, and wheat respectively. Conversely, with respect to stable subpopulations through time (i.e. climate change) we reject in only 12.0%, 5.4%, and 4.6% of the counties for corn, soybean, and wheat respectively. These results have implications for modelling yields, directing funds regarding plant science research, and explaining the prevalence of heteroscedasticity in yield data.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151269&r=agr
  67. By: Saitone, Tina L.; Sexton, Richard J.; Sumner, Daniel A.
    Keywords: Marketing, Production Economics,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151268&r=agr
  68. By: Xia, Tian; Li, Xianghong
    Keywords: Production Economics,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151266&r=agr
  69. By: Vi˜noles, Maria V.; You, Wen; Nayga, Rodolfo M. Jr.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Health Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151274&r=agr
  70. By: Ward, Patrick S.; Singh, Vartika
    Abstract: In this paper we conduct a series of eld experiments in rural India in order to measure preferences related to risk, loss, and ambiguity. Disaggregating by data, we nd that on average women are signicantly more risk averse and loss averse than men, though the higher average risk aversion arises due to a greater share of women who are extremely risk averse. Through a series of two empirical examples, we demonstrate how these parameters aect decisions to adopt new agricultural technologies. By combining these results with a choice experiment over new and familiar rice seeds, we nd that ambiguity averse individuals are far more likely to stick with seeds they are familiar with, while a greater degree of loss aversion generally suggests people are more willing to switch to a new variety.
    Keywords: uncertainty, Prospect Theory, technology adoption, India, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, International Development, International Relations/Trade, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, O13, O33, C93,
    Date: 2013–06–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:150794&r=agr
  71. By: Yanez-Pagans, Patricia
    Abstract: This paper analyzes whether monetary incentives modify cooperative behavior in activities that have been traditionally unpaid. We provide a simple theoretical framework and exploit variation over time in community access to Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) within Mexican common property communities to analyze whether payments increase work in forest protection activities, which are increasingly incentivized under PES, and also explore their eects on other community activities that remain unpaid. We nd that cash incentives increase work, both in the intensive and extensive margins, in forest conservation activities; however, we claim that the framing of the incentive plays an important role in explaining cooperation in activities that remain unpaid. Our ndings indicate that, as long as agents are exposed to sanctions resulting from deviant behavior and their actions are visible, lump-sum transfers without specic work conditionalities can be more eective than wages to promote cooperation. Given the increased popularity of PES initiatives as tools to combat climate change, our ndings are important not only for environmental conservation but also for the sustainability and welfare of common property communities.
    Keywords: Payments for Ecosystem Services, Cooperative Behavior, Common Property Management, Incentive Framing, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151295&r=agr
  72. By: Ying, Xiongwei; Anders, Sven M.
    Abstract: Retailers in Canada are beginning to introduce private labels to gain vertical bargaining power over manufacturers and horizontal differentiation among retailers. Product differentiation in health and wellness is an emerging trend for both private labels and national brands. This study applies a model derived from a random utility nested logit model to estimate the extent to which consumer choice of health-related food attributes has affected retailer pricing and brand-level competition, using the Distance-Matrix (DM) approach to identify the location of both private label and national brands of canned soup market in their attribute space. It suggests that private label does not have a positive effect on retailers’ demand.
    Keywords: private label, national brand, health differentiation, distance matrix, nested logit, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Production Economics,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151280&r=agr
  73. By: Bouhlal, Yasser; Capps, Oral Jr.; Ishdorj, Ariun
    Abstract: The United States cheese consumption has grown considerably over the years. Using Nielsen Homescan panel data for calendar years 2005 and 2006, this paper examines the effect of economic and socio-demographic factors on the demand for disaggregated cheese varieties. In this study, we estimated the censored demand for 14 cheese varieties and identified the respective own-price and cross-price elasticities. Also, non-price factors were determined affecting the purchase of each variety as well as the impact of generic dairy advertising. Results revealed that most of the natural cheese varieties have an elastic demand while the processed cheese products exhibited inelastic demands. Strong substitution and complementarity relationships were identified as well, and a two quarter carry-over effect of advertising was observed for most of cheese demands. Results also showed that household demographics affected the demands differently, depending on the nature of the cheese varieties.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151298&r=agr
  74. By: Hayden, Noel J.; Swinton, Scott M.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151424&r=agr
  75. By: Zhang, Heather Xiaoquan; Loubere, Nicholas
    Abstract: Establishing an inclusive financial system with comprehensive and accessible services in rural areas is increasingly promoted as a crucial element for socio-economic development both in China and globally. Yet, in existing research on China's agricultural and rural development, relatively less attention has been paid to the ways in which changes in the provision of rural finance have impacted the livelihoods of individuals, families and communities from the perspectives of local people. This paper intends to contribute to our understanding of the relationship between rural finance and development by delineating a recent history of financial service extension to rural areas since the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. We analyse, in particular, the accelerated pace of the expansion and diversification of such services together with a deeper penetration of the so-called 'microfinance industry' in rural China since the mid-2000s. We analyse the major actors and dynamics involved, the strengths and weaknesses in current scholarship, and suggest ways forward in order to deepen our understanding of the relationship between rural finance, development and the livelihoods in China and beyond. --
    Keywords: rural financial services,financial extension and diversification,urban-rural integration,microcredit,livelihoods,China
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:zbw:udedao:942013&r=agr
  76. By: Angelos Liontakis (Department of Agricultural Economics & Rural Development, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece); Dimitris Kremmydas (Department of Agricultural Economics & Rural Development, Agricultural University of Athens, Greece)
    Abstract: In the European Union homogenous inflation forces are expected to prevail due to the increased economic integration, especially after the creation of the single currency area. This expectation is directly related to the issue of inflation convergence which has gained increasing attention by both academia and policy makers in Europe. While the examination of the core inflation is of great importance for macroeconomic policy, the prominent role of disaggregate inflation indices and especially food inflation has been also frequently emphasized in the literature. However, the issue of food inflation convergence has been largely ignored in empirical studies. This study explores the evolving distribution of the food inflation rates in the EU-25 member states, using the distribution dynamics analysis and covering the period from January 1997 to March 2011. This analysis rests on the assumption that each country represents an independent observation which provides unique information that can be used to estimate the transition dynamics of inflation. However, we show that inside EU-25, spatial autocorrelation prevails and therefore, the independency assumption is violated. To insure spatial independence, the Getis spatial filter is implemented prior to the distribution dynamics analysis. The results of the analysis confirm the existence of convergence trends which are even more clear after the spatial filtering procedure, indicating, on the one hand, the influence of spatial effects on food inflation and, on the other hand, the effectiveness of Getis spatial filtering.
    Keywords: European Union, inflation, convergence, spatial filtering
    JEL: E31 C21 R12
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aua:wpaper:2013-3&r=agr
  77. By: de Gorter, Harry; Kliauga, Erika M.; Timilsina, Govinda R.
    Abstract: The lack of growth in the Brazilian sugarcane-ethanol complex since the 2008 financial crisis has been blamed on policies: lower mandate, holding gasoline prices below world levels, high fuel taxes, and inadequate fuel tax exemptions for ethanol. This paper develops an empirical model of the Brazilian fuel-ethanol-sugar complex to analyze the impacts of these policies. Unlike biofuel mandates and tax exemptions elsewhere, Brazil's fuel-ethanol-sugar markets and fuel policies are unique such that each policy, in theory, has an ambiguous impact on the market price of ethanol and hence on sugarcane and sugar prices. The results indicate two policies that seemingly help the ethanol industry do otherwise in reality: low gasoline taxes and high anhydrous tax exemptions lower ethanol prices. But higher mandates, hydrous ethanol tax exemptions, and gasoline prices had the expected impact of increasing ethanol and sugar prices. Eliminating Brazilian ethanol tax exemptions and mandates reduces ethanol prices by 21 percent. Observed changes in prices are explained by outward shifts in fuel transportation and sugar export demand curves, and bad weather reducing sugarcane supply.
    Keywords: Energy Production and Transportation,Markets and Market Access,Transport and Environment,Renewable Energy,Alcohol and Substance Abuse
    Date: 2013–06–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6524&r=agr
  78. By: Burtraw, Dallas (Resources for the Future); Woerman, Matt (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: The parsimony of economic theory provides general insights into an otherwise complex world. However, the most straightforward organizing principles from theory have not often taken hold in environmental policy or in the decentralized climate policy regime that is unfolding. One reason is inadequate recognition of a variety of institutions. This paper addresses three ways the standard model may inadequately anticipate the role of institutions in the actual implementation of climate policy, with a US focus: multilayered authority across jurisdictions, the impressionistic rather than deterministic influence of prices through subsidiary jurisdictions, and the complementary role of prices and regulation in this context. The economic approach is built on the premise that incentives affect behavior. We suggest an important pathway of influence for economic theory is to infuse incentive-based thinking into the conventional regulatory framework. In a complex policy regime, incentives can be shaped by shadow prices as well as market prices.
    Keywords: institutions, federalism, subsidiarity, shadow prices, incentives, regulation
    JEL: Q54 H77 D02
    Date: 2013–03–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-13-03-rev&r=agr
  79. By: Camaioni, B.; Esposti, R.; Lobianco, A.; Pagliacci, F.; Sotte, F.
    Abstract: This paper aims at investigating what influences the distribution of the RDP funds across the EU space. Eventually, funds allocation is the consequence of some political decision. Nonetheless, this political decision can not be directly observed. While the allocation across countries and, when present, across NUTS2 regions is explicitly decided ex-ante, the allocation at a lower territorial level can only be observed ex-post. This “local” allocation depends not only on the top-down decision taken at some national or local political level but also on the bottom-up (or local) capacity to attract and use these funds. To investigate this more “local” level, funds distribution across 1300 EU NUTS3 regions is considered. Three different effects are admitted as major drivers of this spatial allocation. The country effect takes into account the well known differentials in the size and intensity of support across EU countries. The rural effect captures the fact that, at least in principle, the more rural a given region is the larger is the amount of RDP support it is expected to receive. In practice, however, this effect may vary according to alternative definition of rurality, The last effect is the pure spatial effect and expresses the influence on the amount of support received by a region of the bordering regions and, in particular, of their degree of rurality. These effects are estimated adopting and estimating alternative spatial model specifications: the spatial Durbin model, the SEM and the SAR model.
    Keywords: spatial econometrics, EU rural development policy, rurality indicators, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, R58, Q01, O18,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aiea13:151598&r=agr
  80. By: Sedjo, ROger A. (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: Biomass energy is expected to play a major role in the substitution of renewable energy sources for fossil fuels over the next several decades. The US Energy Information Administration (EIA 2012) forecasts increases in the share of biomass in US energy production from 8 percent in 2009 to 15 percent by 2035. The general view has been that carbon emitted into the atmosphere from biological materials is carbon neutral—part of a closed loop whereby plant regrowth simply recaptures the carbon emissions associated with the energy produced. Recently this view has been challenged, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is considering regulations to be applied to biomass energy carbon emissions. A basic approach for analyses of environmental impacts has been the use of life cycle assessment (LCA), a methodology for assessing and measuring the environmental impact of a product over its lifetime—from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling. However, LCA approaches vary, and the results of alternative methodologies often differ (Helin et al. 2012). This study investigates and compares the implications of these alternative approaches for emissions from wood biomass energy, the carbon footprint, and also highlights the differences in LCA environmental impacts.
    Keywords: life cycle assessment, carbon neutrality, biomass, bioenergy, carbon dioxide, energy, rational expectations
    JEL: Q2 Q23 Q4 Q54
    Date: 2013–04–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-13-11&r=agr
  81. By: Chonabayashi, Shun
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151135&r=agr
  82. By: Volpe III, Richard; Park, Timothy; Hennessy, David; Jensen, Helen H.
    Abstract: We study the determinants of somatic cell count (SCC) for fluid milk among U.S. dairies. We synthesize much of the work that has been done to model SCC economically in order to identify the potential impacts of buyer-imposed penalties and incentives within the supply chain. Additionally we estimate quantile regression for count data to measure impacts specifically for those operations with the highest SCC and to account for the statistical properties of the data. Premiums in particular have the potential to reduce SCC considerably where it is currently the highest. We draw implications for profitability in relation to SCC reduction.
    Keywords: somatic cell counts, ARMS data, farm profitability, quantile regression, count data, Demand and Price Analysis, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Q16, Q12, C25, Q13,
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151425&r=agr
  83. By: Penn, Jerrod; Sandberg, H. Mikael
    Abstract: In the fall of 2012, a survey was distributed among current students in agricultural and resource economics or affiliated graduate programs at 30 major U.S. universities. The purpose of this survey was to elicit the thoughts and opinions of the graduate student population with regards to their background, view of their programs, future career goals, and what advice they would give to potential applicants considering a graduate degree in the field. This paper provides a summary of the findings of this survey. The results suggest that current Ph.D. students are well-aware of the nature of graduate schools; they have clear goals about post-graduation careers. There seems to be a structural mismatch between the field of interest and the current hiring trends in the profession; and students feel strongly about the importance of quantitative preparation prior to enrollment. Furthermore, the findings indicate that students are pragmatic about applying for, and ultimately choosing, graduate schools.
    Keywords: Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151138&r=agr
  84. By: Hermann Pythagore Pierre Donfouet (CREM CNRS, UMR 6211, University of Rennes 1, France); P. Wilner Jeanty (Kinder Institute for Urban Research & Hobby Center for the Study of Texas Rice University); Eric Malin (CREM CNRS, UMR 6211, University of Rennes 1, France)
    Abstract: Previous studies in the environmental Kuznets curve have overlooked spatial interdependence and this could bias the estimates. This paper therefore addresses the issue of spatial interdependence in the environmental Kuznets curve by using panel data on European countries over the period of 1961-2009. The results obtained from the spatial dynamic panel suggest a significant degree of persistence in the per capita CO2 emissions in European countries over time. Furthermore, it has been found that per capita CO2 emissions in a nearby country lead to a domestic increase in per capita CO2 emissions and overall, the results are robust irrespective of the concept of neighborhood.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets curve, spatial dynamic panel
    JEL: Q56 C21
    Date: 2013–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tut:cremwp:201318&r=agr
  85. By: Curtiss, Jarmila; Jelinek, Ladislav; Hruska, Martin; Medonos, Tomas; Vilhelm, Vaclav
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151273&r=agr
  86. By: Li, Shuang; Ker, Alan P.
    Abstract: Research and observations indicate climate change has and will have an impact on On- tario eld crop production. Little research has done to forecast how climate change might in uence the Canadian Federal-Provincial Crop Insurance program, including its premium rates and reserve fund balances, in the future decades. This paper proposes using a mixture of two normal yield probability distribution model to model crop yield conditions under hypothetical climate change scenarios. Then superimposes Crop Insur- ance premium rate and reserve fund balance calculations onto the yield model to forecast their trends and uctuation situations in the future decades. We nd under the scenarios where climate change alters the probability of a lower yield year occurring and where climate change alters yield averages, both have more signicant impacts on premium rates and reserve fund balances, compared to the scenarios where climate change alters yield variations. The results of this research will help Agricorp Ltd. identify the likely frequency and magnitude of both insurance premium rate uctuations and reserve fund balance uctuations under dierent climate change scenarios. Therefore the results can be used to help Agricorp Ltd. identify and forecast both premium rate uctuation risk and reserve fund liquidity risk.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade, Production Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:151213&r=agr
  87. By: A. Palestini; G. Pignataro
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to propose theoretical foundations on the impact of transfer scheme, e.g. Community Agricultural Policy, on income inequality within European Countries. First, we show that ex-post inequality (in the after-transfer distribution) may increase if either initial aggregate income or the amount of fiscal contributions are sufficiently high. Second according to welfare ordering, we characterize a multi-factor decomposition of the Atkinson index to gauge the impact of each income source on the inequality profile. Third, we introduce a methodology to construct a cooperative game played by different income factors (as net incomes and/or incoming transfers) explicitly measuring the cost of inequality across the population in terms of welfare loss. We finally rely on Banzhaf and Shapley values to determine the marginal contributions of each factor to overall inequality.
    JEL: D31 D63 I32
    Date: 2013–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bol:bodewp:wp891&r=agr

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