nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2013‒06‒30
28 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. Short Food Supply Chains and Local Food Systems in the EU. A State of Play of their Socio-Economic Characteristics By Moya Kneafsey; Laura Venn; Ulrich Schmutz; Balász Bálint; Liz Trenchard; Trish Eyden-Woods; Elizabeth Bos; Gemma Sutton; Matthew Blackett
  2. Partial stochastic analysis with the European Commission's version of the AGLINK-COSIMO model By Zebedee Nii-Naate; Alison Burrell
  3. Market Oriented Advisory Services through Women Advisory Service Providers in Punjab, India: The Case of value addition through food processing By Meena, M.S.; Singh, K.M.
  4. Lineage and Land Reforms in Malawi: Do Matrilineal and Patrilineal Landholding Systems Represent a Problem for Land Reforms in Malawi? By Berge, Erling; Kambewa, Daimon; Munthali, Alister; Wiig, Henrik
  5. Food safety control system of Chinese eel exports and its challenges By Mori, Romio; Nabeshima, Kaoru; Yamada, Nanae
  6. Making Growth Green and Inclusive: The Case of Ethiopia By Steve Bass; Shannon Siyao Wang; Tadele Ferede; Daniel Fikreyesus
  7. Response of rice output to price and non-price factors in Ghana By Boansi, David
  8. Partial Identification of the Long-Run Causal Effect of Food Security on Child Health By Millimet, Daniel L.; Roy, Manan
  9. Species Imperilment on the Global Scale: Empirical evidences of economic causes By Gren, Ing-Marie; Campos, Monica; Gustafsson, Lena; Elofsson, Katarina
  10. Climate Change and Economic Growth: An Intertemporal General Equilibrium Analysis for Egypt By Elshennawy, Abeer; Robinson, Sherman; Willenbockel, Dirk
  11. Structural change, collective action, and social unrest in 1930s Spain By Jordi Domènech Feliu; Thomas Jeffrey Miley
  12. Commodities Inventory Effect By Jean-François Carpantier; Arnaud Dufays
  13. On the Spatial Economic Impact of Global Warming By Klaus DESMET; Esteban ROSSI-HANSBERG
  14. Essays on development economics. By Zenthöfer, A.F.
  15. High discount rates: - An artifact caused by poorly framed experiments or a result of people being poor and vulnerable? By Holden, Stein
  16. Co-managing common pool resources: Do formal rules have to be adapted to traditional ecological norms? By Björn Vollan; Sebastian Prediger; Markus Frölich
  17. Establishing a Sustainable Development Goal for Oceans and Coasts to Face the Challenges of our Future Ocean By Martin Visbeck; Ulrike Kronfeld-Goharani; Barbara Neumann; Wilfried Rickels; Jörn Schmidt; Erik van Doorn
  18. Mobility of Knowledge. Knowledge resources and markets: What territorial economic systems ? By Hugues Jeannerat; Leila Kebir
  19. Can Certain Intellectual Property Rights both Protect and Promote Unique Traditional Products and Cultural Heritage from Developing Countries for Economic Benefit? The Case of Georgia By Patrick Martens
  20. Firm voluntary measures for environmental changes, eco-innovations and CSR : Empirical analysis based on data surveys By Christian Le Bas; Nicolas Poussing
  21. Successes and Failures in the Fight against Child Mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Lessons from Senegal By Gilles Pison; Laetitia Douillot; Géraldine Duthé; Malick Kante; Cheikh Sokhna; Jean-François Trape
  22. Are Consumers more Loyal to National Brands than to Private Labels?. By Bergès, Fabian; Hassan, Daniel; Monier-Dilhan, Sylvette
  23. Threshold Preferences and the Environment By Benteng Zou; Ingmar Schumacher
  24. The endogenous formation of an environmental culture By Ingmar Schumacher
  25. The Commission proposal for a European Tobacco Products Directive - A critical evaluation of the Roland Berger studies By Frank Maier-Rigaud
  26. Multinational enterprises and climate change strategies By Ans Kolk; Jonatan Pinkse
  27. Wholesale Milk Markets: A Study of Market Integration in Indian Markets By Jha, A.K.; Singh, K.M.; Singh, R.K.P.
  28. Land development, search frictions, and city structure By Yasuhiro Sato; Wei Xiao

  1. By: Moya Kneafsey (Centre for Agroecology and Food Security, Coventry University); Laura Venn (Innovative Futures research); Ulrich Schmutz (Centre for Agroecology and Food Security, Coventry University); Balász Bálint (Institute of Environmental and Landscape Management, Szent Istvan University); Liz Trenchard (Centre for Agroecology and Food Security, Coventry University); Trish Eyden-Woods (Centre for Agroecology and Food Security, Coventry University); Elizabeth Bos (Centre for Sustainable Regeneration, Coventry University); Gemma Sutton (Centre for Agroecology and Food Security, Coventry University); Matthew Blackett (Environment and Disaster Management, Coventry University)
    Abstract: The present study aims at describing the state-of-play of short food supply chains (SFSC) in the EU understood as being the chains in which foods involved are identified by, and traceable to a farmer and for which the number of intermediaries between farmer and consumer should be minimal or ideally nil. Several types of SFSCs can be identified, for example CSAs (Community-Supported Agriculture), on-farm sales, off-farm schemes (farmers markets, delivery schemes), collective sales in particular towards public institutions, being mostly local / proximity sales and in some cases distance sales. Such type of food chain has specific social impacts, economic impacts at regional and farm level as well as environmental impacts translating themselves into a clear interest of consumers. SFSCs are present throughout the EU, although there are some differences in the different MS in terms of dominating types of SFSCs. In general, they are dominantly small or micro-enterprises, composed of small-scale producers, often coupled to organic farming practices. Social values (quality products to consumers and direct contact with the producer) are the values usually highlighted by SFSCs before environmental or economic values. In terms of policy tools, there are pros and cons in developing a specific EU labelling scheme which could bring more recognition, clarity, protection and value added to SFSCs, while potential costs might be an obstacle. Anyhow, a possible labelling scheme should take into account the current different stages and situations of development of SFSCs in the EU and be flexible enough accommodate these differences. Other policy tools, in particular training and knowledge exchange in marketing and communication are considered important and should continue to be funded by Rural Development programmes, as well as possibly other EU funds in view of the positive social and not specifically rural impacts.
    Keywords: sustainable agriculture, rural development, CAP, food labelling, quality agricultural products, short food supply chain, local products, direct sales
    Date: 2013–03
  2. By: Zebedee Nii-Naate (European Commission – JRC - IPTS); Alison Burrell
    Abstract: The Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development (DG AGRI) publishes annually its medium-term agricultural outlook for the main agricultural sectors (i.e. cereals, oilseeds, sugar, meat, dairy, and biofuels) using a partial equilibrium model. The report contains EU-wide projections of supply balance sheets (production, consumption, exports, imports, and change in stocks) for the next 8-10 years. It is inevitable that the results from a partial equilibrium simulation model are conditional on values used for variables that enter the model exogenously. These exogenous variables include some of the key drivers of market behaviour. Because of the uncertainty surrounding their assumed values, it is very useful to conduct sensitivity analysis with respect to key exogenous variables. Stochastic analysis has been used in the DG AGRI agricultural outlooks in both 2011 and 2012 to assess the degree of sensitivity of the baseline projections to uncertainty in the macroeconomy and fluctuations in agricultural yields. This report presents the methodology underlying that analysis.
    Keywords: Economic analysis, agricultural markets, modelling tools, price volatility, partial stochastic analysis, uncertainty analysis
    Date: 2012–11
  3. By: Meena, M.S.; Singh, K.M.
    Abstract: Inclusion of women in scientific and technological endeavors and realizing women’s intellectual potential is a big challenge as they play a decisive role in many facets of agricultural sector in India. Self-help groups (SHGs) have emerged as an effective mechanism for empowerment through group action. Capacity building through training programmes has a positive impact for motivating the rural women to adopt the food preservation technologies which improved the knowledge level significantly. In pluralistic extension system in India public extension plays an important role. Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering & Technology (CIPHET-a unit of Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Ministry of Agriculture, New Delhi), made efforts to support the public extension system through commercialization of processing technologies through social capital, capacity building and transfer of processing technologies among peer members and other rural women. The present case study documents the methods adopted by the Women Advisory Services Providers in providing advisory services to Women Self Help Groups in Punjab state of India in food processing sector and thereby making them socially and economically empowered.
    Keywords: Self Help Groups, Market Oriented Advisory Service, Gender empowerment
    JEL: O14 O15 O17 Q12 Q13 Q16
    Date: 2013–06–25
  4. By: Berge, Erling (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences); Kambewa, Daimon (University of Malawi); Munthali, Alister (Research Fellow at CSR); Wiig, Henrik (NIBR)
    Abstract: This paper is about land tenure relations among the matrilineal and patrilineal cultures in Malawi. Data from the National Agricultural and Livestock Census are used to characterize marriage systems and settlement and landholding patterns for local communities. Marriage systems correspond to customary land tenure patterns of matrilineal or patrilineal land holding. The differences between the two major ways of land holding represent a particular challenge for land reforms intending to unify rules for land tenure and land devolution. <p> The paper discusses the problems of formalisation and the idea of maintaining the diversity. If diversity is not respected there is a chance that some sections of society, especially communities with matrilineal land holding, might be victims of formalization. Based on analogy of the resilience of the patrilineal land holding system in Norway it is argued that a democratic system will have difficulty removing the preferential rights of linage members and it is recommended that the existing land rights are formally recognized and circumscribed by fair procedures. In a situation of diversity one goal of a well-designed land holding system should be to ease the transitions of the diverse customary tenure systems towards systems adapted to the requirements of a modern <p> large scale society rather than to a unified national system.
    Keywords: matrilinea; uxorilocal; patrilinea; virilocal; land tenur; inheritance; access rights; use rights; ownership rights; Malawi
    JEL: P48 Q15 Z13
    Date: 2013–06–18
  5. By: Mori, Romio; Nabeshima, Kaoru; Yamada, Nanae
    Abstract: This paper analyzes factors associated with the rejection of products at ports of importer countries and remedial actions taken by producers in China. As an example, it uses one of the most competitive agro-food products of China: live and processed eels. This paper provides an overview of eel production and trade trends in China. In addition, it identifies the causes of port rejection of Chinese eel products as veterinary drug residues by examining the detailed case studies of export firms and the countermeasures taken by the government and firms.
    Keywords: China, Aquaculture, International trade, Exports, Quality control, Eels, Agro-food trade, Food safety, Port rejection
    JEL: F23 L66 Q13 Q17 Q18
    Date: 2013–05
  6. By: Steve Bass; Shannon Siyao Wang; Tadele Ferede; Daniel Fikreyesus
    Abstract: Ethiopian society, economy and environment are so intimately interlinked that systematic attention is essential if clashes are to be resolved and synergies realised. For example, the majority of poor people are principally dependent on agriculture but, in turn, society is dependent on farmers managing land well to sustain water supplies, biodiversity and other environmental services. Such relationships are dynamic and increasingly intense: climate change, rising population, resource scarcities and price volatilities put them all under pressure. An integrated perspective that works operationally is needed – one that makes economic, social and environmental sense and that inspires stakeholders. The holistic approach that the Ethiopian Government has recently developed aims to tackle the problems inherent in growth paths that produce environmental problems, and to realise potentials from investing in Ethiopia’s natural assets. For example, the country’s agricultural products and potential for green hydroelectric power are unique attributes that could drive development in ways that are environmentally sound and provide new jobs and satisfying livelihoods...
    Date: 2013–06–05
  7. By: Boansi, David
    Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude and effect of various price and non-price factors on output of rough rice in Ghana for the period 1966-2009. Coefficients of the output response model were estimated through the ordinary least squares (OLS) and tested for stability and appropriate standard Gaussian properties. Output of rough rice was found to be positively and significantly driven by increases in harvested area, yield, own price and world price of rice with important indirect effects to producers. It however decreases with unit increases in the price of maize, urea fertilizer and with increasing state involvement in the rice market through nominal rate of assistance. Supply of local rice in Ghana could be improved through vigorous pursuance of intensification and area expansion and appropriate transmission of prices to farmers with least distortion.
    Keywords: Output response, nominal rate of assistance, rice supply, Ghana
    JEL: Q11 Q18
    Date: 2013–06–14
  8. By: Millimet, Daniel L. (Southern Methodist University); Roy, Manan (IMPAQ International, LLC)
    Abstract: Food security and obesity represent two of the most significant public health issues. However, little is known about how these issues are intertwined. Here, we assess the causal relationship between food security during early childhood and relatively long-run measures of child health. Identifying this causal relationship is complicated due to endogenous selection and misclassification errors. To overcome these difficulties, we utilize a nonparametric bounds approach along with data from the ECLS-K and ECLS-B. The analysis reveals a positive association between food insecurity and future child obesity in the absence of misclassification. However, under relatively innocuous assumptions concerning the selection process, we often obtain bounds that indicate a negative causal effect of food insecurity on future child obesity. All results are extremely sensitive to misclassification.
    Keywords: food insecurity, health outcomes, nonclassical measurement error, nonparametric bounds
    JEL: C14 C21 I12 I32
    Date: 2013–06
  9. By: Gren, Ing-Marie (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences); Campos, Monica (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences); Gustafsson, Lena (Department of Ecology); Elofsson, Katarina (Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)
    Abstract: Economic factors contribute to biodiversity directly through activities such as pollution and land use, and indirectly by affecting preferences and institutional capabilities of implementing mitigation measures. This paper tests the explanatory power of these different mechanisms on threats to biodiversity on a global scale. Econometric analyses are performed with invasive species, land use, climate, economic prosperity, corruption, and spatial autocorrelation as explanatory variables. This is carried out for all taxonomic groups and separately for mammals, birds, plants, amphibians, and reptiles. Different models are tested and robust results appear for detrimental effects of invasive species, pollution, and high average temperature. Results also indicate that economic prosperity and institutional capacity do not act as curbing factors in isolation, but instead together which points out the need for sufficient levels of both prosperity and institutional capability in order to preserve biodiversity. These impacts are significant for all taxonomic groups but of different magnitude. Plants show the highest relative response to several factors and mammals the lowest.
    Keywords: threatened species; climate; land use; non-indigenous species; spatial autocorrelation; economic development; institutions; econometrics
    JEL: Q56 Q57
    Date: 2013–06–19
  10. By: Elshennawy, Abeer; Robinson, Sherman; Willenbockel, Dirk
    Abstract: Due to the high concentration of economic activity along the low-lying coastal zone of the Nile delta and its dependence on Nile river streamflow, Egypt's economy is highly exposed to adverse climate change. Adaptation planning requires a forward-looking assessment of climate change impacts on economic performance at economy-wide and sectoral level and a cost-benefit assessment of conceivable adaptation investments. This study develops a multisectoral intertemporal general equilibrium model with forward-looking agents, population growth and technical progress to analyse the long-run growth prospects of Egypt in a changing climate. Based on a review of existing estimates of climate change impacts on agricultural productivity, labor productivity and the potential losses due to sea-level rise for the country, the model is used to simulate the effects of climate change on aggregate consumption, investment and welfare up to 2050. Available cost estimates for adaptation investments are employed to explore adaptation strategies. On the methodological side, the present study overcomes the limitations of existing recursive-dynamic computable general models for climate change impact analysis by incorporating forward-looking expectations. Moreover, it extends the existing family of discrete-time intertemporal computable general equilibrium models to which our model belongs by incorporating population growth and technical progress. On the empirical side, the model is calibrated to a social accounting matrix that reflects the observed current structure of the Egyptian economy, and the climate change impact and adaptation scenarios are informed by a close review of existing quantitative estimates for the size order of impacts and the costs of adaptation measures. The simulation analysis suggests that in the absence of policy-led adaptation investments, real GDP towards the middle of the century will be nearly 10 percent lower than in a hypothetical baseline without climate change. A combination of adaptation measures, that include coastal protection investments for vulnerable sections along the low-lying Nile delta, support for changes in crop management practices and investments to raise irrigation efficiency, could reduce the GDP loss in 2050 to around 4 percent.
    Keywords: Climate change adaptation, Computable general equilibrium analysis, Dynamic CGE
    JEL: C68 D9 D90 E17 O44 Q54
    Date: 2013–01
  11. By: Jordi Domènech Feliu; Thomas Jeffrey Miley
    Abstract: The Spanish 2nd Republic (1931-1936) witnessed one of the fastest and deepest processes of popular mobilization in interwar Europe, generating a decisive reactionary wave that brought the country to the Civil War (1936-1939). We show in the paper that both contemporary comment and part of the historiography makes generalizations about the behaviour of the working classes in the period that stress idealistic, re-distributive and even religious motives to join movements of protest. In some other cases, state repression, poverty, and deteriorating living standards have been singled out as the main determinants of participation. This paper uses collective action theory to argue that key institutional changes and structural changes in labour markets were crucial to understand a significant part of the explosive popular mobilization of the period. We argue first that, before the second Republic, temporary migrants had been the main structural limitation against the stabilization of unions and collective bargaining in agricultural labour markets and in several service and industrial sectors. We then show how several industries underwent important structural changes since the late 1910s which stabilized part of the labour force and allowed for union growth and collective bargaining. In agricultural labour markets or in markets in which unskilled temporary workers could not be excluded, unions benefitted from republican legislation restricting temporary migrations and, as a consequence, rural unions saw large gains membership and participation. Historical narratives that focus on state repression or on changes in living standards to explain collective action and social conflict in Spain before the Civil War are incomplete without a consideration of the role of structural changes in labour markets from 1914 to 1931.
    Keywords: Structural change, Social conflict, Labour markets, Spain, Civil War, Interwar Europe, Migration, 2nd Republic
    JEL: N14 N34 N44 P16 J21 J43 J51 J52 J53 J61 J88
    Date: 2013–06
  12. By: Jean-François Carpantier (CREA, University of Luxembourg); Arnaud Dufays (Université Catholique de Louvain)
    Abstract: Does commodity price volatility increase when inventories are low? We are the first ones to document this relationship. To that aim, we estimate asym- metric volatility models for a large set of commodities over 1994-2011. Since inventories are hard to measure, especially for high frequency data, we use positive return shocks as a new original proxy for inventories and find that asymmetric GARCH models reveal a significant inventory effect for many commodities. The results look robust. They hold if we allow the uncondi- tional variance to vary over time and if we relax the parametric form.
    Keywords: Asymmetries, Commodities, Inventory, Spline GARCH, VaR.
    Date: 2013
  13. By: Klaus DESMET; Esteban ROSSI-HANSBERG
    Abstract: We propose a dynamic spatial theory to analyze the geographic impact of climate change. Agricultural and manufacturing firms locate on a hemisphere. Trade across locations is costly; firms innovate; and technology diffuses over space. Energy used in production leads to emissions that contribute to the global stock of carbon in the atmosphere, which affects temperature.<br />The rise in temperature differs across latitudes, and its effect on productivity also varies across sectors. We calibrate the model to analyze how climate change affects the spatial distribution of economic activity, trade, migration, growth, and welfare. We assess quantitatively the impact of migration and trade restrictions, energy taxes, and innovation subsidies.
    Date: 2013–06
  14. By: Zenthöfer, A.F. (Tilburg University)
    Abstract: Abstract: The studies in this thesis investigate some of the effects of humanitarian aid and the production of natural resources in developing countries. The studies suggest that these “free lunches” can have negative (unintended) consequences. Even though it achieves its goal of increasing food consumption and life expectancy, humanitarian aid can have adverse effects on government expenditure for education, health, and military purposes. Commodity exports can negatively influence the rule of law, corruption, and political stability and can crowd out other economic activities. But if properly managed windfalls resulting from aid and natural resources can improve economic conditions.
    Date: 2013
  15. By: Holden, Stein (Centre for Land Tenure Studies, Norwegian University of Life Sciences)
    Abstract: This study revisits the issue whether poverty and shocks are associated with high discount rates by using an incentive compatible Multiple Price List approach in a poor rural population in Africa where a substantial share of the population had been affected by drought in the recent rainy season. Randomized treatments included tests for present bias, magnitude effects and time horizon effects. While the study revealed significant present bias, magnitude and time horizon effects, average rates of time preference remained high after correcting for risk aversion. Exposure to drought increased the average rates of time preference by 42-47%.
    Keywords: Time preferences; poverty; climatic shocks; risk aversion; artifactual field experiment; Multiple Price List approach; Malawi
    JEL: C93 D91 Q54
    Date: 2013–06–18
  16. By: Björn Vollan; Sebastian Prediger; Markus Frölich
    Abstract: We examine the effectiveness of three democratically chosen rules that alleviate the coordination and cooperation problems inherent in collectively managed common-pool resources. In particular we investigate how rule effectiveness and rule compliance depends on the prevailing local norms and ecological values held by resource users. For this purpose, we employ a framed field experiment that is based on a rangeland model for semi-arid regions and carried out with communal farmers in Namibia and South Africa. Participants could vote for three ‘best practice’ management rules found in many places around the world that are discussed for implementation in the study area: (temporary) private property rights, rotational grazing or limitation of livestock numbers. All rules were designed in a way that facilitated cooperation or coordination of actions. The focus of this study lies on the interactions between these rules and prevalent ecological norms exhibited in the rounds prior to rule implementation. In contrast to previous lab experimental studies, we find that democratic voting of rules is not sufficient for high rule compliance and an overall enhancement in cooperation. Rules turned out to be inefficient if they were in conflict with the prevalent ecological norm.
    Keywords: field laboratory experiment, rule compliance, ecological norms, common-pool resource, adaptive co-management, Southern Africa
    JEL: C71 C92 Q24
    Date: 2013–06
  17. By: Martin Visbeck; Ulrike Kronfeld-Goharani; Barbara Neumann; Wilfried Rickels; Jörn Schmidt; Erik van Doorn
    Abstract: Oceans regulate our climate, provide us with natural resources such as food, materials, substances, and energy and are essential for international trade, recreational, and cultural activities. Free access to and availability of ocean resources and services, together with human development, have put strong pressures on marine ecosystems, ranging from overfishing and reckless resource extraction to various channels of careless pollution. International cooperation and negotiations are required to protect the marine environment and use marine resources in a way that the needs of future generations will be met. For that purpose, developing and agreeing on a Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Oceans and Coasts could be an essential element for sustainable ocean management. The SDGs will build upon the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and replace them by 2015. Even though ensuring environmental sustainability is one of the eight MDG goals, the ocean is not explicitly included. Furthermore, the creation of a comprehensive underlying set of oceanic sustainability indicators would help assessing the current status of marine systems, diagnose on-going trends, and provide information for forward-locking and sustainable ocean governance
    Keywords: sustainable development, ocean, sustainability indicators
    JEL: Q56 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2013–06
  18. By: Hugues Jeannerat; Leila Kebir (Group of Research in Territorial Economy GRET, Faculty of Letters and Human Sciences, University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland)
    Abstract: In their attempt to explain in ever more in-depth manner learning processes at the roots of economic change, territorial innovation models (TIMs) have remained centred on production. Consumption is mainly regarded as the expression of an abstract demand relayed by exogenous market mechanisms. Building on a socio-institutional approach of market, the article conceptualises an ‘economic system’ in which knowledge is analysed as a resource constructed and valued through the market co-evolution of a production and a consumption system. Drawing upon various case studies, four particular economic systems are depicted and contrasted with regard to different territorial knowledge dynamics (TKDs).
    Keywords: Territorial knowledge dynamics, resources, production, consumption, market, EURODITE.
    JEL: D71 D81 G1 G23 Q01 R11 R51
    Date: 2012–02
  19. By: Patrick Martens (Maastricht University)
    Abstract: This paper is focused on traditional products that include agricultural goods such as wines, spirits and cheeses as well as tangible and intangible cultural heritage and sometimes linked to the manufacture of the product. The aims are: firstly to assess the current context of International Economic Law (IEL) and how Georgia is using IEL legal frameworks to protect its traditional products and heritage; secondly, how effectively its own national treatment and policy environment are functioning; and finally, to make preliminary observations and arguments on the impact and potential of Intellectual Property (IP) systems, Geographical Indications (GIs), Traditional Knowledge (TK), Traditional Cultural Expressions (TCE) and Genetic Resources (GR), on the economic development of regions and communities. The local-global dynamic of IEL is contrasted with Georgia‟s own economic and developmental realities. Against this backdrop, the question emerges as to whether the relevant Intellectual Property (IP) systems can not only provide the necessary „defensive‟ legal protection against misappropriation, misuse, theft and bio-piracy, but also support „positive protection‟ – meaning incentives and opportunities for technological innovation, entrepreneurial endeavor and community development. The main conclusion is that is that the positive aspects of protection need more policy development and action.
    Keywords: Geographical Indications; Traditional Knowledge; Traditional Cultural Expressions; Genetic Resources; International Economic Law; defensive protection; positive protection
    JEL: F13
    Date: 2013–06
  20. By: Christian Le Bas (GATE Lyon Saint-Etienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS : UMR5824 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - École Normale Supérieure - Lyon); Nicolas Poussing (CEPS/INSTEAD - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development - Centre d'Etudes de Populations, de Pauvreté et de Politiques Socio-Economiques / International Networks for Studies in Technology, Environment, Alternatives, Development)
    Abstract: Despite the increased strategic importance of environmental innovation on the one hand and corporate social responsibility on the other, there are still few studies that show firm voluntary measures create a primary determinant of environmental changes. First, we clarify the meaning of voluntary measures and CSR. Second, we utilize a survey carried out in Luxemburg on firm CSR practices jointly with the Community Innovation Survey 2008 (CIS 2008). We merge them and show through the estimation of a probit model that CSR is an important factor that explains environmental innovation. Thanks to a question from CIS 2008 we can contribute to the literature by developing a new indicator measuring the scale of the positive impacts on the environment coming from the firm technological innovation capacity. A negative binomial regression enables us to estimate a significant and positive effect of CSR and firm value on this scale.
    Keywords: environmental innovation; corporate social responsibility; Community Innovation Survey 2008; innovation impacts on the environment
    Date: 2013–06–24
  21. By: Gilles Pison (Ined); Laetitia Douillot (Ined); Géraldine Duthé (Ined); Malick Kante (Ined); Cheikh Sokhna (Ined); Jean-François Trape (Ined)
    Abstract: Child mortality has declined in Sub-Saharan Africa over the last 60 years but the decrease has not been regular: it has accelerated over some periods, as during the last decade, and slowed down in others. This is not solely attributable to HIV/AIDS. This paper examines in detail the trends observed in Senegal, an example of a country with low HIV prevalence but where trends in mortality have resembled those of the whole region. Both national and local level data are used, in particular the data on mortality and causes of deaths produced by the demographic surveillance systems (DSS) in the three rural areas of Bandafassi, Mlomp and Niakhar. Although Senegal experienced an appreciable fall in under-five mortality from the end of World War II, the country experienced a fifteen year stagnation in child mortality in the late 1980s and 1990s. This halt was due to a slowdown in vaccination efforts and a resurgence of malaria mortality linked to the spread of chloroquine resistance. The decrease in malaria and other infectious diseases thanks to renewed vaccination efforts and investment in anti-malaria programmes appears to be the main factor responsible for the return to a very rapid decline in under-five mortality observed during the 2000s.
    Date: 2013
  22. By: Bergès, Fabian; Hassan, Daniel; Monier-Dilhan, Sylvette
    JEL: D12 L81 Q13
    Date: 2013–05
  23. By: Benteng Zou (CREA, Université de Luxembourg); Ingmar Schumacher (IPAG Business School, Paris)
    Abstract: In this article we study the implication of thresholds in preferences. To model this we extend the basic model of John and Pecchenino (1994) by allowing the current level of environmental quality to have a discrete impact on how an agent trades off future consumption and environmental quality. In other words, we endogenize the semi-elasticity of utility based on a step function. We motivate the existence of the threshold based on research from political science, from arguments based on regulation and standards, cultural economics as well as ecological economics. Our results are that the location of the threshold determines both the potential steady states as well as the dynamics. For low (high) thresholds, environmental quality converges to a low (high) steady state. For intermediate levels it converges to a stable p-cycle, with environmental quality being asymptotically bounded below and above by the low and high steady state. We discuss implications for intergenerational equity and policy making. As policy implications we study shifts in the threshold. Our results are that, in case it is costless to shift the threshold, it is always worthwhile to do so. If it is costly to change the threshold, then it is worthwhile to change the threshold if the threshold originally was suffiently low. Lump-sum taxes may lead to a development trap and should be avoided if there are uncertainties about the threshold or the effectiveness of the policy.
    Keywords: thresholds, endogenous preferences, environmental quality, policy intervention
    JEL: Q28 Q56
    Date: 2013
  24. By: Ingmar Schumacher (Department of Economics, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS : UMR7176 - Polytechnique - X, IPAG - Business School)
    Abstract: We develop an overlapping generations model with environmental quality and endogenous environmental culture. Based upon empirical evidence, preferences over culturally-weighted consumption and envi- ronmental quality are assumed to follow a Leontie function. We fi nd that four diff erent regimes may be possible, with interior or corner solutions in investments in environmental culture and maintenance. Depending on the parameter conditions, there exists one of two possible, asymptotically stable steady states, one with and one without investments in environmental culture. For low wealth levels, society is unable to free resources for environmental culture. In this case, society will only invest in environmental maintenance if environmental quality is suffi ciently low. Once society has reached a certain level of economic development, then it may optimally invest a part of its wealth in developing an environmental culture. Environmental culture has not only a positive impact on environmental quality through lower levels of consumption, but it improves the environment through maintenance expenditure for wealth-environment combinations at which, in a restricted model without environmental culture, no maintenance would be undertaken. Environmental culture leads to a society with a higher indirect utility at steady state in comparison to the restricted model. Our model leads us to the conclusion that, by raising the importance of environmental quality for utility, environmental culture leads to lower steady state levels of consumption and wealth, but higher environmental quality. Thus, for societies trapped in a situation with low environmental quality, investments in culture may induce positive feedback loops, where more culture raises environmental quality which in turn raises environmental culture. We also discuss how en- vironmental culture may lead to an Environmental Kuznets Curve.
    Keywords: environmental culture; overlapping generations model; environment; endogenous preferences.
    Date: 2013–06–14
  25. By: Frank Maier-Rigaud (IESEG School of Management (LEM-CNRS))
    Abstract: In December 2012, the European Commission published a draft proposal for a revision of the European Tobacco Products Directive. Since then, this proposal has created significant debate fuelled partly by the economic evaluation of the Commission proposal by Roland Berger. This paper analyses the merits of the claims and criticisms voiced in that study.
    Date: 2013–06
  26. By: Ans Kolk (Amsterdam Business School - University of Amsterdam); Jonatan Pinkse (MTS - Management Technologique et Strategique - Grenoble École de Management (GEM))
    Abstract: Climate change is often perceived as the most pressing environmental problem of our time, as reflected in the large public, policy, and corporate attention it has received, and the concerns expressed about the (potential) consequences. Particularly due to temperature increases, climate change affects physical and biological systems by changing ecosystems and causing extinction of species, and is expected to have a negative social impact and adversely affect human health (IPCC, 2007). Moreover, as a result of the economic costs and risks of extreme weather, climate change could have a severe impact on economic growth and development as well, if no action is taken to reduce emissions (Stern, 2006). This means that it can affect multinational enterprises (MNEs) active in a wide variety of sectors and countries. Climate change is not a 'purely' environmental issue because it is closely linked to concerns about energy security due to dependence on fossil fuels and oil in particular, and to energy efficiency and management more generally. Controversy about the climate change issue has led to a broadening of the agenda in some cases, with policy-makers targeting energy to avoid commotion about the science and politics of climate change, and firms likewise, also because addressing climate change in practice usually boils down to an adjustment in the energy base of business models.
    Date: 2012
  27. By: Jha, A.K.; Singh, K.M.; Singh, R.K.P.
    Abstract: Market integration is an important determinant of responsiveness and behavior of the markets needed to formulate price policies. Indian wholesale milk markets are correlated with varying degrees of integration. Paper uses monthly wholesale prices of milk for the period from April 1997 to December 2009 for 5 major market centres viz. Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, and Kanpur. Prices were converted into real prices by deflating with wholesale price index of all commodities. Extent of integration among different markets is tested using method and procedure for testing co-integration suggested by Johansen (1991, 1995), and Johansen and Juselius (1990) and Engle and Granger (1987). Results reveal that milk markets of Kolkata and Mumbai are critical to sustaining long-run equilibrium which had strong bearings on the prices of other three markets viz, Delhi, Kanpur and Chennai. The speed of error correction for Kolkata and Mumbai markets are relatively faster than that of others and Kolkata and Mumbai markets can reinstate the long-run equilibrium quickly if appropriate error correction measures are taken.
    Keywords: Market Integration, Milk Markets, Wholesale market, India
    JEL: O11 O13 Q10 Q11 Q13 Q18
    Date: 2013–05–15
  28. By: Yasuhiro Sato (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University); Wei Xiao (Department of Economics, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the interactions between labor and housing (and land) markets in a city. We develop a monocentric city model involving land development and frictional unemployment. Unemployment, the spatial structure of a city, land development, housing demand, prices of housing and land are all endogenously determined in the model. We then characterize two different spatial configurations, spatial mismatch equilibrium in which unemployed workers are located far from jobs and integrated equilibrium in which unemployed workers live in areas close to jobs. To better understand how two equilibria are affected by labor market parameters, such as search intensity, wage, job finding rate, job destruction rate, and so on, we implement a comparative steady state analysis. We further explored the effects of policies such as a tax on land development to subsidize residents, a subsidy to reduce residentsf commuting costs, and a subsidy to improve unemployed workersf benefits.
    Keywords: Land development, City structure, Search frictions, Spatial mismatch
    JEL: R14 R21 R28
    Date: 2013–06

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