nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2013‒05‒11
53 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. Urban wastewater and agricultural reuse challenges in India By Amerasinghe, Priyani H.; Bhardwaj, Rajendra Mohan; Scott, Christopher A.; Jella, Kiran; Marshall, Fiona
  2. US policy contributions to agricultural commodity price fluctuations, 2006.12 By Rausser, Gordon C.; de Gorter, Harry
  3. The political economy of food price policy: The case of rice prices in Vietnam By Manh Hai, Nguyen; Talbot, Theodore
  4. Agricultural Policy Options to Maintain Indonesian Rice Self-Sufficiency By Trewin, Ray; Erwidodo
  5. Policy Reform without Administrative Reform: The Case of the Common Agricultural Policy of the EC By Brown, Colin G.
  6. The political economy of food pricing policy in China By Huang, Jikun; Yang, Jun; Rozelle, Scott
  7. Characterizing the Cereal Systems and Identifying the Potential of Conservation Agriculture in South Asia By Krishna, Vijesh V.; Mehrotra, Meera Bhatia; Teufel, Nils; Bishnoi, Dalip Kumar
  8. International to domestic price transmission in fourteen developing countries during the 2007-08 food crisis By Baltzer, Kenneth
  9. The political economy of food price policy: The case study of India By Ganguly, Kavery; Gulati, Ashok
  10. The political economy of food price: The case of Ethiopia By Admassie, Assefa
  11. Effects of U.S. Public Agricultural R&D on U.S. Obesity and its Social Costs By Alston, Julian M.; Okrent, Abigail M.; Parks, Joanna
  12. Modern ICT for Agricultural Development and Risk Management in Smallholder Agriculture in India By Mittal, Surabhi
  13. Food policy volatility and EU policies By Swinnen, Johan; Knops, Louise; Van Herck, Kristine
  14. The political economy of food price policy: Country case study of Mozambique By Nhate, Virgulino; Massingarela, Claudio; Salvucci, Vincenzo
  15. The political economy of food price policy in Nigeria By Olomola, Aderibigbe S.
  16. Financing sustainable agriculture under climate change with a specific focus on foreign aid By Huang, Jikun
  17. An Innovation Learning Platform for Drought Tolerant Maize in Malawi: Lessons Learned and the Way Forward By Kassie, Girma Tesfahun; Erenstein, Olaf; Mwangi, Wilfred; Setimela, Peter S.; Langyintuo, Augustine S.; Kaonga, K.K.
  18. Dealing with the 2007/08 global food price crisis: The political economy of food price policy in Malawi By Chirwa, Ephraim; Chinsinga, Blessings
  19. Determinants of Adoption and Spatial Diversity of Wheat Varieties on Household Farms in Turkey By Negassa, Asfaw; Hellin, Jonathan; Shiferaw, Bekele A.
  20. Regional Food Hubs: Improving Market Access for Local Producers By Barham, James; Tropp, Debra; Dimitri, Carolyn
  21. Political economy of public policies : insights from distortions to agricultural and food markets By Anderson, Kym; Rausser, Gordon; Swinnen, Johan
  22. The multiplicity of goals in tree-cultivating farms in Greece By Pavlos Karanikolas; Stelios Rozakis; Dimitris Kremmydas
  23. The political economy of food price policy: The case of Kenya By Nzuma, Jonathan Makau
  24. The Distributive Effect and Food Security Implications of Biofuels Investment in Ethiopia: A CGE Analysis By Gebreegziabher, Zenebe; Mekonnen, Alemu; Ferede, Tadele; Guta, Fantu; Levin, Jörgen; Köhlin, Gunnar; Alemu, Tekie; Bohlin, Lars
  25. A cacophony of policy responses: Evidence from fourteen countries during the 2007/08 food price crisis By Bryan, Shane
  26. Farmer Access and Differential Impacts of Zero Tillage Technology in the Subsistence Wheat Farming Systems of West Bengal, India By Krishna, Vijesh V.; Aravindakshan, Sreejith; Chowdhury, Apurba; Rudra, Bankim
  27. Effects of Tactical Responses and Risk Aversion on Farm Wheat Supply By Kingwell, Ross S.
  28. The Valuation of Biodiversity Conservation by the South African Khomani San “Bushmen” Community By Dikgang, Johane; Muchapondwa, Edwin
  29. Contract Duration under Incomplete Land Ownership Rights: Empirical Evidence from Rural Ethiopia By Beyene, Abebe D.; Bezabih, Mintewab; Gebreegziabher, Zenebe
  30. The political economy of food price policy: The case of Bangladesh By Raihan, Selim
  31. Aid for agriculture and rural development: A changing landscape with new players and challenges By Chimhowu, Admos
  32. The Economics of Climate Change and Science of Global Warming Debate:African Perspectives By Nwaobi, Godwin
  33. Predicting agricultural impacts of large-scale drought: 2012 and the case for better modeling By Joshua Elliot; Michael Glotter; Neil Best; Ken Boote; Jim Jones; Jerry Hatfield; Cynthia Rozenweig; Leonard A. Smith; Ian Foster
  34. Community Controlled Forests, Carbon Sequestration and REDD+: Some Evidence from Ethiopia By Beyene, Abebe D.; Bluffstone, Randall; Mekonnen, Alemu
  35. Poverty Dynamics of Households in Rural China By Katsushi S. Imai; Jing You
  36. Futures price volatility in commodities markets: The role of short term vs long term speculation By Matteo Manera; Marcella Nicolini; Ilaria Vignati
  37. The Role of Economists in Land and Water Management By Marshall, Graham R.; Wall, Lisa M.; Jones, Randall E.
  38. Technical efficiency in small-scale irrigation cooperative and its determinants from the perspective of social capital heterogeneity–the case of northwestern China By Wang, Xin; McIntosh, Christopher S.; Watson, Philip; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Qian
  39. Testing Hicksian Separability Over Space By John Gibson; Bonggeun Kim
  40. Thanks but No Thanks: A New Policy to Avoid Land Conflict By Dufwenberg, Martin; Köhlin, Gunnar; Martinsson, Peter; Medhin, Haileselassie
  41. Implementing REDD through Community-Based Forest Management: Lessons from Tanzania By Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z.; Albers, H.J.; Meshack, Charles; Lokina, Razack B.
  42. Every drop counts: Assessing aid for water and sanitation By Anand, P.B.
  43. Climate uncertainty and economic development: Evaluating the case of Mozambique to 2050 By Arndt, Channing; Thurlow, James
  44. Impact of climate change on crops, irrigation and hydropower in the Zambezi River Basin By Fant, Charles; Gebretsadik, Yohannes; Strzepek, Kenneth
  45. Regional scale characterization of the topographic control on soil organic carbon spatial distribution. By Stevens, François
  46. Markets for Development Rights: Lessons Learned from Three Decades of a TDR Program By Walls, Margaret
  47. Climate Change and Carbon Capture and Storage By Moreaux, Michel; Withagen, Cees
  48. How can safety nets contribute to economic growth ? By Alderman, Harold; Yemtsov, Ruslan
  49. What Changes Energy Consumption, and for How Long? New Evidence from the 2001 Brazilian Electricity Crisis By Gerard, Francois
  50. Water Resources Planning under Climate Change: A “Real Options” Application to Investment Planning in the Blue Nile By Jeuland, Marc; Whittington, Dale
  51. Economic Ideas for a Complex Climate Policy Regime By Burtraw, Dallas; Woerman, Matt
  52. Do Natural Resources Define Convergence Clubs? Empirical Evidence from the Kazakh Regions By Miriam Frey; Carmen Wieslhuber; Daniel Frey
  53. The Value of Climate Amenities: Evidence from US Migration Decisions By Sinha, Paramita; Cropper, Maureen L.

  1. By: Amerasinghe, Priyani H.; Bhardwaj, Rajendra Mohan; Scott, Christopher A.; Jella, Kiran; Marshall, Fiona
    Abstract: Urban wastewater management has become a challenge in India as infrastructural development and regulations have not kept pace with population growth and urbanization. Annually, more and more people are moving into cities, and the figures are expected to reach about 600 million by 2030 making India more peri-urban than rural. This study attempted to analyze the current status of wastewater generation, its uses and livelihood benefits especially in agriculture, based on national data and case studies from Ahmedabad, New Delhi, Hyderabad, Kanpur and Kolkata.
    Keywords: Water management, Wastewater irrigation, Wastewater treatment, Sewage, Irrigated sites, Water quality, Water use, Water supply, Irrigated farming, Crop production, Drinking water, Health hazards, Sanitation, Households, Living standards, Income, Case studies, GIS, India, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Health Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use, Marketing, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iwmirp:147104&r=agr
  2. By: Rausser, Gordon C.; de Gorter, Harry
    Abstract: Since 2006, global prices and price volatility for foodgrain commodities have spiked frequently and dramatically. Such spikes have had the heaviest economic and social impact on developing nations, where agriculture accounts for a sizable portion of econo
    Keywords: agriculture in international trade, agricultural policy, environmental economics, food policy, food security, price level
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-033&r=agr
  3. By: Manh Hai, Nguyen; Talbot, Theodore
    Abstract: Rice is a key agricultural commodity in Vietnam, and the agriculture, forestry, and fisheries sector remains a major source of employment and value addition. This paper uses episodes of rice price volatility to understand how the interplay of market force
    Keywords: Vietnam, political economy, rice, crisis, agriculture
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-035&r=agr
  4. By: Trewin, Ray; Erwidodo
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare93:147893&r=agr
  5. By: Brown, Colin G.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare94:148078&r=agr
  6. By: Huang, Jikun; Yang, Jun; Rozelle, Scott
    Abstract: The overall goal of this paper is to analyse the political economy of food price policies in China during the global food crisis. The results show that given China.s unique economic and political context and the nature of its agricultural markets, the gov
    Keywords: food price, agriculture, price shocks, political economy, Mozambique
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-038&r=agr
  7. By: Krishna, Vijesh V.; Mehrotra, Meera Bhatia; Teufel, Nils; Bishnoi, Dalip Kumar
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2012–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cimmsp:147109&r=agr
  8. By: Baltzer, Kenneth
    Abstract: This paper synthesizes the evidence on price transmission from international maize, rice and wheat markets to domestic markets in fourteen developing countries during the global food crisis in 2007-08. A great variation in the price transmission patterns
    Keywords: Price transmission, global food crisis, cereal prices
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-031&r=agr
  9. By: Ganguly, Kavery; Gulati, Ashok
    Abstract: India did not experience any food price spikes during 2007.08 when global food prices erupted. It was partly due to India.s ban on exports of wheat and common rice. But the fiscal stimulus that the government provided in 2009 in the wake of G8 countries.
    Keywords: economic development, agricultural economics
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-034&r=agr
  10. By: Admassie, Assefa
    Abstract: Food prices increased significantly in 2007.08 in Ethiopia due to several supply- and demand-side factors. The Ethiopian government released emergency food grain reserves, imported and distributed wheat at subsidized price, banned the export of staple cer
    Keywords: agriculture, political economy, food price, Ethiopia
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-001&r=agr
  11. By: Alston, Julian M.; Okrent, Abigail M.; Parks, Joanna
    Abstract: How much has food abundance, attributable to U.S. public agricultural R&D, contributed to the high and rising U.S. obesity rates? In this paper we investigate the effects of public investment in agricultural R&D on food prices, per capita calorie consumption, adult body weight, obesity, and public health-care expenditures related to obesity. First we use an econometric model to estimate the average effect of an incremental investment in agricultural R&D on the farm prices of ten categories of farm commodities. Next, we use the econometric results in a simulation model to estimate the implied changes in prices and quantities consumed of nine categories of food for given changes in research expenditures. Finally, we estimate the corresponding changes in social welfare, including both the traditional measures of changes in economic surplus in markets for food and farm commodities, and changes in public health-care expenditures associated with the predicted changes in food consumption and hence obesity. We find that a 10 percent increase in the stream of annual U.S. public investment in agricultural R&D in the latter half of the 20th century would have caused a very modest increase in average daily calorie consumption of American adults, resulting in very small increases in social costs of obesity. On the other hand, such an increase in spending would have generated very substantial net national benefits given the very large benefit-cost ratios for agricultural R&D.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2013–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare13:148420&r=agr
  12. By: Mittal, Surabhi
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cimmsp:147107&r=agr
  13. By: Swinnen, Johan; Knops, Louise; Van Herck, Kristine
    Abstract: Changes in global food prices have affected EU producers and consumers and have triggered policy reactions through the EU.s political process. In particular, the EU and member states responded by social policies to protect their consumers, attempts to reg
    Keywords: food prices, EU policies, biofuels, Common Agricultural Policy, political economy
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-032&r=agr
  14. By: Nhate, Virgulino; Massingarela, Claudio; Salvucci, Vincenzo
    Abstract: The 2007-09 price shocks affected in particular the prices of food commodities and fuel. As a consequence, Mozambique experienced reduced exports, more expensive imports and increased food and oil prices, contributing to the stagnant poverty rates registe
    Keywords: food price, agriculture, price shocks, political economy, Mozambique
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-037&r=agr
  15. By: Olomola, Aderibigbe S.
    Abstract: The food crisis of 2008 in Nigeria was influenced by price changes in the world market and the escalation of the price of imported fuel into Nigeria which led to sharp increases in the prices of agricultural inputs and transportation cost. The soaring pri
    Keywords: food crisis, policy responses, political economy
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-016&r=agr
  16. By: Huang, Jikun
    Abstract: Agricultural development is facing great challenges in meeting global food security and is expected to face even greater difficulties under climate change. The overall goal of this paper is to examine how foreign aid in particular can be used to achieve t
    Keywords: climate change, finance, foreign aid, agriculture, mitigation, adaption
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-047&r=agr
  17. By: Kassie, Girma Tesfahun; Erenstein, Olaf; Mwangi, Wilfred; Setimela, Peter S.; Langyintuo, Augustine S.; Kaonga, K.K.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2012–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cimmsp:147181&r=agr
  18. By: Chirwa, Ephraim; Chinsinga, Blessings
    Abstract: The paper examines the underlying political economy motivations of the government.s policy responses to food price increases in 2007/08 focusing particularly on maize as the main staple crop. The main government policy responses to the food price spikes i
    Keywords: food policy, price policy, food security, policy processes, political economy
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-030&r=agr
  19. By: Negassa, Asfaw; Hellin, Jonathan; Shiferaw, Bekele A.
    Abstract: The Heckman two-stage estimation procedure was used to investigate factors influencing the adoption of modern and/or landrace wheat varieties and spatial diversity of wheat varieties in Turkey. In the first stage, the multinomial logit choice model (MNLM) was used to determine factors influencing farmers’ adoption of modern varieties (MVs) and/or landrace varieties (LVs) of wheat. Conditional on the choice of a given wheat variety or combination of MVs and LVs, a Tobit regression model was used to assess the determinants of on-farm spatial diversity of wheat varieties in the second stage. Our empirical approach allows for the analysis of partial adoption decision of wheat varieties and controls for self-selection problem in analyzing the determinants of spatial diversity of wheat varieties. The empirical model was conceptualized based on random utility model(RUM).The analysis was based on cross-sectional survey data collected on 486 sample households in six provinces of Turkey. Results showed that household size, the number of owned cattle, the number of buildings on farm, farm size, farm land fragmentation, the percentage of irrigable farm plots and regional variations are the important factors in determining the farmers’ first-stage choice of wheat variety types. The selfselection problem was significant only in one of the three cases for the landrace wheat varieties. In the second stage, the farm size and land fragmentation were found to be the key variables influencing the level of on-farm spatial diversity of wheat varieties. The results showed that considerable spatial wheat genetic diversity was maintained on-farm at the household level, mainly through the simultaneous adoption of modern and traditional wheat varieties. Growing a combination of modern and landrace wheat varieties was observed to yield significantly higher level of spatial diversity of wheat genetic resources as compared to growing modern varieties alone or landrace varieties alone. This result suggests that the modern and landrace wheat varieties can coexist and could still support more on-farm spatial diversity of wheat genetic resources. This finding has significant implications for future extension, research and policy efforts for on-farm conservation and utilization of wheat genetic resources in Turkey. There is a need for the government and private sector research and extension efforts to support farmers’ use of both modern and landrace varieties, for example, in terms of seed supply, provision of extension and credit services and marketing support instead of just giving undue priority to popularization and adoption of modern varieties alone.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics,
    Date: 2012–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cimmsp:147106&r=agr
  20. By: Barham, James; Tropp, Debra; Dimitri, Carolyn
    Abstract: This is a PDF of a Powerpoint presentation.
    Keywords: food hub, local food, Agribusiness, Marketing,
    Date: 2012–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:uamsts:147447&r=agr
  21. By: Anderson, Kym; Rausser, Gordon; Swinnen, Johan
    Abstract: The agricultural and food sector is an ideal case for investigating the political economy of public policies. Many of the policy developments in this sector since the 1950s have been sudden and transformational, while others have been gradual but persistent. This paper reviews and synthesizes the literature on trends and fluctuations in market distortions and the political-economy explanations that have been advanced. Based on a rich global data set covering a half-century of evidence on commodities, countries, and policy instruments, the paper identifies hypotheses that have been explored in the literature on the extent of market distortions and the conditions under which reform may be feasible.
    Keywords: Economic Theory&Research,Emerging Markets,Agribusiness,Climate Change Economics,Population Policies
    Date: 2013–05–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6433&r=agr
  22. By: Pavlos Karanikolas (Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Agricultural University of Athens); Stelios Rozakis (Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Agricultural University of Athens); Dimitris Kremmydas (Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Agricultural University of Athens)
    Abstract: The aim of this study is the elicitation of farmers’ goals through a multi-criteria weighted programming model. This is pursued in the area of Ancient Epidaurus (Peloponnesus), where farming systems comprise various combinations of tree crops, such as olive-, orange- and mandarin- groves. The analysis is carried out at the level of four representative farms, whose members have a multiplicity of on- and off- farm employment opportunities. Research findings indicate that farms with tree crops aim at the achievement of multiple goals. Both components of the composite entity family farm/farm household are represented at the decision-making process, by means of including manifold objectives. Minimization of variable expenses and attainment of a living standardareprioritized as the most important ones. The identification of sets of hierarchical goals for different types of farms/households goes beyond the conventional-simplistic hypothesis of profit maximization in all different farm entities, pointing towards a satisficing behavior.
    Keywords: Farmers’ objectives, goal programming, satisficing, bounded rationality, Argolida, Greece
    JEL: Q12 B5 C61
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:aua:wpaper:2013-2&r=agr
  23. By: Nzuma, Jonathan Makau
    Abstract: This paper evaluates Kenya.s food price crisis over 2002.11 using a political economy approach. Kenya.s food prices have been high and volatile relative to world food prices. Moreover, domestic food markets are highly integrated while about 30 per cent of
    Keywords: political economy, food prices, policy processes
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-026&r=agr
  24. By: Gebreegziabher, Zenebe; Mekonnen, Alemu; Ferede, Tadele; Guta, Fantu; Levin, Jörgen; Köhlin, Gunnar; Alemu, Tekie; Bohlin, Lars
    Abstract: In response to global opportunities and domestic challenges, Ethiopia is revising its energy policy to switch from high-cost imported fossil fuel to domestically produced biofuels. Currently, there are biofuel investment activities in different parts of the country to produce ethanol and biodiesel. However, there is no rigorous empirical study to assess impacts of such investments. This paper assesses the distributive effect and food security implications of biofuels investment in Ethiopia, using data from 15 biofuels firms and 2 NGOs in a CGE (computable general equilibrium) analysis. Findings suggest that biofuels investments in the context of Ethiopia might have a ‘win-win’ outcome that can improve smallholder productivity (food security) and increase household welfare. In particular, the spillover effects of certain biofuels can increase the production of food cereals (with the effect being variable across regions) without increasing cereal prices. When spillover effects are considered, biofuel investment tends to improve the welfare of most rural poor households. Urban households benefit from returns to labor under some scenarios. These findings assume that continued government investment in roads allows biofuels production to expand on land that is currently unutilized, so that smallholders do not lose land. Investment in infrastructure such as roads can thus maximize the benefits of biofuels investment.
    Keywords: biofuels investment, CGE model, food security, household welfare, equivalent variation, Ethiopia
    JEL: Q56 Q42 O44 O5
    Date: 2013–01–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-13-02-efd&r=agr
  25. By: Bryan, Shane
    Abstract: Phenomenal increases in food prices in 2007 and 2008 caused governments around the globe to panic. During the chaos which ensued, most developing countries responded to the crisis with a convoluted array of policies intended to stabilize domestic markets,
    Keywords: food prices, crisis, policy, response
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-029&r=agr
  26. By: Krishna, Vijesh V.; Aravindakshan, Sreejith; Chowdhury, Apurba; Rudra, Bankim
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2012–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:cimmsp:147204&r=agr
  27. By: Kingwell, Ross S.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2013–04–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare93:147706&r=agr
  28. By: Dikgang, Johane; Muchapondwa, Edwin
    Abstract: The restitution of parkland to the Khomani San “bushmen” and Mier “agricultural” communities in May 2002 marked a significant shift in conservation in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park and environs in South Africa. Biodiversity conservation will benefit from this land restitution only if the Khomani San, who interact with nature more than do other groups, are good environmental stewards. To assess their attitude toward biodiversity conservation, this study used the contingent valuation method to investigate the values the communities assign to biodiversity conservation under three land tenure arrangements in the Kgalagadi area. For each community and land tenure arrangement, there are winners and losers, but the winners benefit by more than the cost that losers suffer. The net worth for biodiversity conservation under the various land tenure regimes ranged from R928 to R3,456 to R4,160 for municipal land, parkland, and communal land respectively for the Khomani San, compared to R25,600 to R57,600 to R64,000 for municipal land, parkland, and communal land respectively for the Mier. Both communities have the highest preference for the implementation of the biodiversity conservation programme on communal land. There are no significant differences in the WTP between the two communities when adjusted for annual median household income; hence, the Khomani San can be trusted to become good environmental stewards. However, in order for all members of the local communities to support biodiversity conservation unconditionally, mechanisms for fair distribution of the associated costs and benefits should be put in place.
    Keywords: biodiversity, contingent valuation, Khomani San, land restitution
    JEL: Q01 Q53 Q57
    Date: 2012–10–17
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-12-10-efd&r=agr
  29. By: Beyene, Abebe D.; Bezabih, Mintewab; Gebreegziabher, Zenebe
    Abstract: Using the land tenure system in Ethiopia, where all land is state-owned and only farm households have usufruct rights, as a case study, we assessed the links between land owners’ tenure insecurity, associated behavioral factors, and contract length. In this paper, we analyze these links with survey data of rural households in the Amhara National Regional State of Ethiopia. The empirical strategy follows a hazard function model employed in duration data analyses and investigates the fitness of the data to the alternative exponential and Weibull functional forms. The results show that landlords’ risk aversion increases the duration of contracts, which is in line with the reverse tenancy argument that landlords’ risk preferences affect land-contract decisions. The findings of the study also indicate that tenure insecurity is a critical factor in the nature and length of contracts; hence, policies should aim to reduce landlords’ frustrations regarding future land redistribution by the state. An important implication of the results is that secure tenure systems can reduce the disincentives from tenure insecurity due to uncertainty about contract duration and thereby enhance tenants’ welfare. Longer-term and stable contracts can improve the land rental market. In addition, the impact of risk preferences points toward the importance of poverty in the functioning of the land rental market.
    Keywords: contract length, tenure insecurity, risk and rate of time preferences, Ethiopia
    JEL: D2 Q12 Q15
    Date: 2012–07–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-12-09-efd&r=agr
  30. By: Raihan, Selim
    Abstract: Global food price hikes during 2007 and 2008 resulted in a sharp rise in staple food prices in Bangladesh. The poor and marginalized households were particularly vulnerable to such an adverse situation as their real purchasing power eroded. Several studie
    Keywords: global food price hike, Bangladesh, political economy
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-002&r=agr
  31. By: Chimhowu, Admos
    Abstract: This paper analyses the way aid for agriculture and rural development in the global south has changed over time. It finds three key shifts. First, a change in funding priority that has seen aid commitments move to the social sectors. Second is a shift in
    Keywords: aid agriculture, rural development, high-impact investments, venture philanthropy
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-014&r=agr
  32. By: Nwaobi, Godwin
    Abstract: As at today, it is an indisputable fact that the climate is changing and there is a scientific consensus that the world is becoming a warmer place principally attributable to human activities. Regrettably, the physical impacts of future climate change on humans and the environment will include increasing stresses on and even collapses of ecosystems, biodiversity loss, changing timing of growing seasons, coastal erosion, and ocean acidification as well as shifting ranges for pests and diseases. Consequently, development goals are threatened by climate change with heaviest impacts on poor countries and poor people. In particular, African countries will bear the brunt of effects of climate change, even as they strive to overcome poverty and advance economic growth. For these countries, climate change threatens to deepen vulnerabilities, erode hard-won gains and seriously undermine prospects for development. Using environmental impact and sustainability applied general equilibrium model, this paper argues that climate change will negatively affect agricultural productivity in Africa. Although the obligations to mitigate and adapt to climate change (and to go green) may be costly, it can actually represent an opportunity for African economies. As latecomers, Africa has indeed an opportunity to be at the forefront of the green revolution by implementing green development strategies based on low energy –intensity, low-carbon emissions and clean technologies.
    Keywords: Climate Change, Global Warming, Sustainable Development, Carbon Dioxide, Emissions, Methane, Nitrox Oxide, Simulations, Africa, Climate Finance, Abatement, Mitigation, Policies, Green Growth, Green Economy, Environment, Strategies, Perspectives, Challenges, Development Models, Temperature, Agriculture, Productivity, Poverty, Global Partnership, Ocean, Earth, Greenhouse Gases, Envisage, Cge Model, Energy Climate Change, Global Warming, Sustainable Development, Carbon Dioxide, Emissions, Methane, Nitrox Oxide, Simulations, Africa, Climate Finance, Abatement, Mitigation, Policies, Green Growth, Green Economy, Environment, Strategies, Perspectives, Challenges, Development Models, Temperature, Agriculture, Productivity, Poverty, Global Partnership, Ocean, Earth, Greenhouse Gases, Envisage, Cge Model, Energy
    JEL: D5 D62 H2 I3 L50 O1 O13 O14 O19 O2 O21 O3 O30 O33 O4 Q0 Q2 Q3 Q4 R0
    Date: 2013–05–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:46807&r=agr
  33. By: Joshua Elliot; Michael Glotter; Neil Best; Ken Boote; Jim Jones; Jerry Hatfield; Cynthia Rozenweig; Leonard A. Smith; Ian Foster
    Abstract: Not available.
    Date: 2013–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:lsg:lsgwps:wp111&r=agr
  34. By: Beyene, Abebe D.; Bluffstone, Randall; Mekonnen, Alemu
    Abstract: REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, “plus” afforestration) is a tool that supports forest carbon-enhancing approaches in the developing world in order to mitigate and hopefully reverse climate change. A key issue within REDD+ is to appropriately bring in the almost 25% of developing country forests that are effectively controlled by communities. Many authors have discussed the social aspects of appropriateness, but there is limited analysis of the actual carbon sequestration potential of better-managed community controlled forests (CCFs). Drawing on an analytical framework that relies heavily on the common property and social capital literatures, our paper contributes to closing this research gap and sheds light on whether community forest management structures should be given serious consideration as REDD+ partners in the battle to mitigate climate change. Using household and community level data from four regional states in Ethiopia, we examine whether CCFs with design features known to be associated with better management appear to sequester more carbon than community systems with lower levels of these characteristics. The empirical analysis suggests that the quality of local level institutions may be important determinants of carbon sequestration. Developing country CCFs may therefore play a positive role within the context of REDD+ and other carbon sequestration initiatives. However, because of the nature of our data, results should be considered indicative. Better and smarter data combined with innovative techniques are needed to conclusively evaluate linkages between CCFs, carbon sequestration and REDD+.
    Keywords: carbon stock, local institutions, REDD, rural Ethiopia
    JEL: Q23 Q54
    Date: 2013–03–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-13-07-efd&r=agr
  35. By: Katsushi S. Imai (Economics, School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester (UK) and RIEB, Kobe University (Japan)); Jing You (School of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Renmin University of China, China)
    Abstract: The objective of our study is to identify patterns and causes of households' transitions in and out of poverty using the long household panel data on rural China in the period 1989-2009. We propose a discrete-time multi-spell duration model that not only corrects for correlated unobserved heterogeneity across transitions and various destinations within the transition, but also addresses the endogeneity due to dynamic selection associated with household's livelihood strategies. Duration dependence is generally found to be negative for both poverty exit and entry. The household choosing either farming or out-migration as a main livelihood strategy was more likely to escape from the persistent poverty than those taking local non-agricultural employment. Overall, the present study emphasises the central role of agriculture in helping the chronically poor escape from poverty.
    Keywords: Poverty Transition, Discrete-time duration model, Correlated unobserved heterogeneity, Dynamic selection, Rural China
    JEL: C33 C41 I32 O15
    Date: 2013–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:kob:dpaper:dp2013-16&r=agr
  36. By: Matteo Manera (University of Milan-Bicocca and Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Marcella Nicolini (Department of Economics and Management, University of Pavia); Ilaria Vignati (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei)
    Abstract: This paper evaluates how different types of speculation affect the volatility of commodities’ futures prices. We adopt four indexes of speculation: Working’s T, the market share of non-commercial traders, the percentage of net long speculators over total open interest in future markets, which proxy for long term speculation, and scalping, which proxies for short term speculation. We consider four energy commodities (light sweet crude oil, heating oil, gasoline and natural gas) and seven non-energy commodities (cocoa, coffee, corn, oats, soybean oil, soybeans and wheat) over the period 1986-2010 analyzed at weekly frequency. Using GARCH models we find that speculation significantly affects volatility of returns: short term speculation has a positive and significant impact on volatility, while long term speculation generally has a negative effect. The robustness exercise shows that: i) scalping is positive and significant also at higher and lower data frequencies; ii) results remain unchanged through different model specifications (GARCH-in-mean, EGARCH, and TARCH); iii) results are robust to different specifications of the mean equation.
    Keywords: Commodities futures markets; Speculation; Scalping; Working’s T, Data frequency; GARCH models
    JEL: C32 G13 Q11 Q43
    Date: 2013–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pav:demwpp:demwp0042&r=agr
  37. By: Marshall, Graham R.; Wall, Lisa M.; Jones, Randall E.
    Keywords: Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2013–04–16
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aare93:147733&r=agr
  38. By: Wang, Xin; McIntosh, Christopher S.; Watson, Philip; Zhang, Hua; Lu, Qian
    Abstract: Increased attention has recently been given to technical efficiency of small-scale irrigation to achieve food security and increase agricultural development. In this paper, the authors classify irrigation supply management methods as cooperative or non-cooperative, introduce social capital by four dimensions (social network, social trust, social reputation, and social participation), and highlight the impacts of both social capital and cooperative agreements on technical efficiency in the context of small-scale irrigation management. Efficiency is assessed using data envelopment analysis (DEA), and the impact of cooperative agreements and social capital on efficiency is estimated using path analysis. The result of DEA indicates that cooperative and social capital can improve technical efficiency of irrigation. Results of path analysis show that the presence of a cooperative has a positive, significant and direct impact on efficiency. Additionally, the effect of social capital on efficiency is estimated to be reinforced via participation in cooperative methods.
    Keywords: Technical efficiency, Cooperative agreement, Social capital, Small-scale irrigation, Consumer/Household Economics, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Public Economics,
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea13:148070&r=agr
  39. By: John Gibson (University of Waikato); Bonggeun Kim (Seoul National University)
    Abstract: If relative prices of goods within a commodity group are constant, Hicksian separability lets the price of a single good represent the group price level. This is relied on by price questionnaires used in household surveys. Methods of estimating demand systems from household survey data also rely on Hicksian separability. Yet this restriction, and its weaker stochastic form under the Generalized Composite Commodity Theorem, remains untested in cross-sections. We use unique data from Vietnam with multiple specifications from within the same food groups to test if within-group relative prices are constant over space. The data firmly reject these restrictions.
    Keywords: composite commodity theorem; demand; prices; separability
    Date: 2013–05–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wai:econwp:13/07&r=agr
  40. By: Dufwenberg, Martin; Köhlin, Gunnar; Martinsson, Peter; Medhin, Haileselassie
    Abstract: Land conflicts can be detrimental. An important goal of development policy is to help define and instill respect for borders. This is often implemented through mandatory and expensive interventions that rely on the expansion of government land administration institutions. We bring to the table a new policy that, in theory, promotes neighborly relations and equitable divisions at low cost. The salient features of this policy would be the existence of a regulatory institution and the option to bypass regulation in favor of a cooperative solution. Such a policy is particularly relevant when the government formally owns the land but tenure rights are about to be individualized. The key idea combines the logic of forward induction with the insight that social preferences transform social dilemmas into coordination problems. As a first and low-cost pass at empirical evaluation, we conduct a framed field experiment among farmers in the Ethiopian highlands, a region exhibiting features typical of many countries where borders are often disputed.
    Keywords: conflict, land grabbing game, social preferences, forward induction, Ethiopia, experiment, land reform, development aid
    JEL: C78 C93 D63 Q15
    Date: 2013–01–18
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-13-01-efd&r=agr
  41. By: Robinson, Elizabeth J.Z.; Albers, H.J.; Meshack, Charles; Lokina, Razack B.
    Abstract: REDD (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation) aims to slow carbon releases caused by forest disturbance by making payments conditional on forest quality over time. Like earlier policies to slow deforestation, REDD must change the behaviour of forest degraders. Broadly, it can be implemented with payments to potential forest degraders, thus creating incentives; through payments for enforcement, thus creating disincentives; or through addressing external drivers such as urban charcoal demand. In Tanzania, community-based forest management (CBFM), a form of participatory forest management (PFM), was chosen as the model for implementing REDD pilot programs. Payments are made to villages that have the rights to forest carbon. In exchange for these payments, the villages must demonstrably reduce deforestation at the village level. Using this pilot program as a case study, we provide insights for REDD implementation in sub-Saharan Africa. We pay particular attention to leakage, monitoring and enforcement. We suggest that implementing REDD through CBFM-type structures can create appropriate incentives and behavioural change when the recipients of the REDD funds are also the key drivers of forest change. When external forces drive forest change, however, REDD through CBFM-type structures becomes an enforcement program, with local communities rather than government agencies being responsible for the enforcement. That structure imposes costs on local communities, whose local authority limits the ability to address leakage outside the particular REDD village. In addition, for REDD to lead to lower emissions, implementation will have to emphasize conditionality of payments on measurable decreases in forest loss.
    Keywords: REDD, community-based forest management, leakage, Tanzania
    Date: 2013–03–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-13-06-efd&r=agr
  42. By: Anand, P.B.
    Abstract: Water and sanitation sectors have been the .natural. subjects of aid for several decades. However, these sectors also were among those most affected by changes in aid approaches and tools. The aim of this paper is to capture some of the complexity in asse
    Keywords: water supply, sanitation, health, aid, effectiveness
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-025&r=agr
  43. By: Arndt, Channing; Thurlow, James
    Abstract: We apply a probabilistic approach to the evaluation of climate change impacts in the Zambeze River Valley. The economic modeling relies on an economywide modeling approach. Taking a distribution of shocks as inputs, we create hybrid frequency distribution
    Keywords: Climate change, uncertainty, economic impacts, economywide model, Mozambique
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-042&r=agr
  44. By: Fant, Charles; Gebretsadik, Yohannes; Strzepek, Kenneth
    Abstract: The past reliance on historical observed weather patterns for future investment in basic infrastructure planning (e.g., irrigation schemes, hydropower plants, roads, etc.) has been questioned considerably in recent years. For this reason, efforts to study
    Keywords: climate Change, Zambezi, southern Africa, investment risk, system model, water resource
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:unu:wpaper:wp2013-039&r=agr
  45. By: Stevens, François
    Abstract: The influence of geomorphology on the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) has been studied for a large range of scales and conditions. The larger SOC stocks found in dry valleys and concave footslopes of the Belgian loam belt have been explained jointly by the transfer of sediments along the slope and the reduced decomposition rate of buried organic matter. While erosion effect on SOC has been simulated at the hillslope scale, it is generally not considered in SOC inventories and prediction models at regional scale. However, more precise large scales inventories are demanded by the carbon modelling community. The goal of this paper is to characterize the relative importance of geomorphology on the SOC horizontal and vertical variability across whole agricultural region. The large historic dataset of soil horizons Aardewerk together with 147 recently sampled profiles was exploited for cost efficiency reasons. Mean profiles for different soil properties classes were compared. Various topographic indices were computed from a digital elevation model, and their potential to predict SOC content at different depth was quantified using multiple regression and terrain morphologic classification. Both dataset were able to show differences in mean SOC profile among soil properties classes, but only the new profiles dataset shows a clear relationship between SOC content and topographic indices. The various errors in then historic data set (e.g., positioning errors) may explain these limitations. This study thus brings in evidence the major control of topography on SOC vertical distribution in a region where observed heterogeneities for other commonly involved factors are limited. However, the large amount of unexplained variability still limits the usefulness of SOC content spatial prediction and should be addressed by alternative spatial methods.
    Date: 2013
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ner:louvai:info:hdl:2078.1/127858&r=agr
  46. By: Walls, Margaret (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: Transferable development rights (TDRs) are a market-based approach to land conservation. They allow the development rights from one property to be transferred to another, with the first “sending” property placed under a development restriction or conservation easement and the “receiving” property permitted more dense development than would otherwise be allowed by baseline zoning regulations. This paper summarizes the economics literature on TDRs and describes a long-running program in a county in Maryland, one of the few programs with an active TDR market. It updates previously published results from the program and describes some problems that have arisen in recent years as the program has matured. The paper offers some observations as to why these problems have occurred and suggestions for other communities considering TDR programs.
    Keywords: TDRs, zoning, sprawl, farmland preservation, easements
    JEL: Q24 Q28 Q15 R14
    Date: 2012–12–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-12-49&r=agr
  47. By: Moreaux, Michel; Withagen, Cees
    Date: 2013–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tse:wpaper:27162&r=agr
  48. By: Alderman, Harold; Yemtsov, Ruslan
    Abstract: The paper provides an up-to date and selective review of the literature on how social safety nets contribute to growth. The evidence is carefully chosen to show how safety nets have the potential to overcome constraints on growth linked to market failures, and is organized into 4 distinct pathways: i) encouraging asset accumulation by changing incentives and by addressing imperfections in financial markets caused by constraints in obtaining credit, and from information asymmetries; overcoming such failures helps households to invest into their human capital or productive assets; ii) failures in insurance markets especially in low income setting; safety nets are assisting in managing risk both ex post and ex ante; iii) safety nets are overcoming failure to create assets and other local economy complementary factors to household-level investments; iv) safety nets are shown to relax political constraints on policy. Safety nets have a dual objective of directly alleviating poverty through transfers to the poor and of triggering higher growth for the poor. However, the trade-off between the dual objectives of equity and growth is not eliminated by the potential for productive safety nets; this remains critical for designing social policies.
    Keywords: Safety Nets and Transfers,Labor Policies,Rural Poverty Reduction,Banks&Banking Reform,Debt Markets
    Date: 2013–05–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6437&r=agr
  49. By: Gerard, Francois
    Abstract: There is little evidence from impact evaluation studies of ambitious residential energy conservation programs, especially in developing countries. In this paper, I investigate the short- and long-term impacts of the most ambitious electricity conservation program to date. This was an innovative program of private incentives and conservation appeals implemented by the Brazilian government in 2001-2002 in response to supply shortages of over 20%. I find that the program reduced average electricity consumption per customer by 25% over a nine-month period in affected areas. Importantly, the program reduced consumption by 12% in the long run. Such persistent effects, which arose mostly from behavioral adjustments, may substantially improve the cost-effectiveness of ambitious conservation programs. Finally, I show that a price elasticity estimated out-of-crisis would have to be increased fivefold to rationalize conservation efforts by the private incentives alone. Appeals to social preferences likely amplify consumers' responsiveness in times of crisis.
    Keywords: residential energy conservation, price and non-price policies, long-term effects, developing countries
    Date: 2013–03–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-13-06&r=agr
  50. By: Jeuland, Marc; Whittington, Dale
    Abstract: This article develops a “real options” approach for planning new water resources infrastructure investments and their operating strategies in a world of climate change uncertainty. The approach is illustrated with an example: investments in large new multipurpose dam alternatives along the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The approach incorporates flexibility in design and operating decisions – the selection, sizing, and sequencing of new dams, and reservoir operating rules. The analysis relies on a simulation model that includes linkages between climate change and system hydrology, and tests the sensitivity of the economic outcomes of investments in new dams to climate change and other uncertainties. Not surprisingly, the results for the Blue Nile basin show that there is no single investment plan that performs best across a range of plausible future climate conditions. The value of the real options framework is that it can be used to identify dam configurations that are both robust to poor outcomes and sufficiently flexible to capture high upside benefits if favorable future climate and hydrological conditions arise. The real options approach could be extended to explore design and operating features of development and adaptation projects other than dams.
    Keywords: ile Basin, real options, dams, climate adaptation, cost-benefit analysis, Ethiopia, Monte Carlo simulation
    JEL: D81 O22 Q25 Q42 Q54
    Date: 2013–03–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-13-05-efd&r=agr
  51. By: Burtraw, Dallas (Resources for the Future); Woerman, Matt (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: The parsimony of economic theory provides general insights into an otherwise complex world. However, even the most straightforward organizing principles from theory have not often taken hold in environmental policy or in the decentralized climate policy regime that is unfolding. One reason is inadequate recognition of a variety of institutions. This paper addresses three ways the standard model may inadequately anticipate the role of institutions in the actual implementation of climate policy: multilayered authority across jurisdictions, the impressionistic rather than deterministic influence of prices through subsidiary jurisdictions, and the complementary role of prices and regulation in this context. The economic approach is built on the premise that incentives affect behavior. We suggest an important pathway of influence for economic theory is to infuse incentive-based thinking into existing institutions and the conventional regulatory framework. In a complex policy regime, incentives can be shaped by shadow prices as well as market prices.
    Keywords: climate change, institutions, federalism, subsidiarity, efficiency, shadow prices, incentives, regulation
    JEL: Q54 H77 D02
    Date: 2013–03–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-13-03&r=agr
  52. By: Miriam Frey (IOS Regensburg); Carmen Wieslhuber; Daniel Frey
    Abstract: Abstract This paper deals with the hypothesis that natural resources are important in forming convergence clubs. We check this hypothesis by applying a dependence and an endowment measure of natural resource abundance and a regression tree analysis. The results indicate that for the Kazakh regions natural resources indeed play an important role in forming convergence clubs. It is further shown that rather natural resource endowment than resource dependence determines initial conditions and thereby convergence clubs.
    Keywords: Convergence clubs, Natural resources, Regression tree, Kazakhstan
    JEL: O13 O47 O53
    Date: 2013–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ost:wpaper:329&r=agr
  53. By: Sinha, Paramita; Cropper, Maureen L. (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: We value climate amenities by estimating a discrete location choice model for households that changed metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) between 1995 and 2000. The utility of each MSA depends on location-specific amenities, earnings opportunities, housing costs, and the cost of moving to the MSA from the household’s 1995 location. We use the estimated trade-off between wages and climate amenities to value changes in mean winter and summer temperatures. At median temperatures for 1970 to 2000, a 1°F increase in winter temperature is worth less than a 1° decrease in summer temperature; however, the reverse is true at winter temperatures below 25°F. These results imply an average welfare loss of 2.7 percent of household income in 2020 to 2050 under the B1 (climate-friendly) scenario from the special report on emissions scenarios (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2000), although some cities in the Northeast and Midwest benefit. Under the A2 (more extreme) scenario, households in 25 of 26 cities suffer an average welfare loss equal to 5 percent of income.
    Keywords: climate amenities, discrete choice models, migration, welfare impacts of temperature changes
    JEL: Q5 Q51
    Date: 2013–01–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rff:dpaper:dp-13-01&r=agr

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