nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2012‒11‒03
48 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. A LAND DEMAND AND SUPPLY SYSTEM WITH ENDOGENOUS LAND PRICES IN THE CAPRI AGRICULTURAL SECTOR MODEL By Adenauer, Marcel; Britz, Wolfgang
  2. The Impact of Infrastructure on Agricultural Productivity By Llanto, Gilberto M.
  3. INVESTMENT SUBSIDIES IN THE FOOD INDUSTRY: EXPERIENCES IN THE GERMAN DAIRY SECTOR By Efken, Josef; Schmitz, Jochen; Weber, Sascha A.; Wendt, Heinz
  4. Integrating Water Resources into Computable General Equilibrium Models - A Survey By Roberto Ponce; Francesco Bosello; Carlo Giupponi
  5. CALCULATING THE ‘GREENING’ EFFECT – A CASE STUDY APPROACH TO ESTIMATE THE GROSS MARGIN LOSSES IN DIFFERENT FARM TYPES IN GERMANY DUE TO THE REFORM OF THE CAP By Heinrich, Barbara
  6. 2011 Michigan Cash Grain Farm Business Analysis Summary By Wittenberg, Eric; Wolf, Christopher A.
  7. AGRICULTURAL TRADE AND ITS IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT By Schmitz, Christoph; Lotze-Campen, Hermann
  8. Impact of Climate Change on the Indian Economy-Evidence from Foodgrain Yields By SHREEKANT GUPTA; PARTHA SEN; SUCHITA SRINIVASAN
  9. Global and Regional Trends in Production, Trade and Consumption of Food Legume Crops By Akibode, Sitou; Maredia, Mywish K.
  10. HOW DO AGRICULTURAL TRADE POLICIES AFFECT THE REGIONAL ENVIRONMENT? AN INTEGRATED ANALYSIS FOR THE AUSTRIAN MARCHFELD REGION By Kirchner, Mathias; Schmid, Erwin
  11. Weather Shocks, Spot and Futures Agricultural Commodity Prices- An Analysis for India By N. R. BHANUMURTHY; PAMI DUA; LOKENDRA KUMAWAT
  12. Price transmission from international to domestic markets By Greb, Friederike; Jamora, Nelissa; Mengel, Carolin; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Würriehausen, Nadine
  13. Weather Variability and Agriculture-Implications for Long and Short-term Migration in India By K.S. Kavi Kumar; BRINDA VISWANATHAN
  14. HOW DOES EU CO-FUNDING AFFECT REGIONAL AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL SCHEME IMPLEMENTATION COSTS? By Weber, Anja Michaela
  15. HOW DO WORLD AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY PRICE SPIKES AFFECT THE INCOME DISTRIBUTION IN ISRAEL? By Grethe, Harald; Siddig, Khalid; Goetz, Linde; Ihle, Rico
  16. 2011 Michigan Dairy Farm Business Analysis Summary By Wittenberg, Eric; Wolf, Christopher A.
  17. The ASEAN Economic Community Blueprint: Implementation and Effectiveness Assessment for Philippine Agriculture By Israel, Danilo C.; Briones, Roehlano M.
  18. Economic Analysis of Sugarcane Crop in District Charsadda By Husain, Anwar Hussain; Khattak, Naeem Ur Rehman Kjhattak
  19. VARIATION IN FARM GATE MILK PRICES AND THE COOPERATIVE YARDSTICK REVISITED – PANEL EVIDENCE FROM THE EUROPEAN DAIRY SECTORS By Hanisch, Markus; Rommel, Jens; Mueller, Malte
  20. Food for fuel: The price of ethanol By Dominic K. Albino; Karla Z. Bertrand; Yaneer Bar-Yam
  21. Can Numerical Models Estimate Indirect Land-use Change? By Thierry Brunelle; Patrice Dumas
  22. Impact of Credit Disbursement, Area under Cultivation, Fertilizer Consumption and Water Availability on Rice Production in Pakistan (1988-2010) By Hussain, Anwar Hussain
  23. Impact of behavioral issues on green growth policies and weather-related disaster reduction in developing countries By Kunreuther, Howard; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann
  24. On the Sources of Risk Preferences in Rural Vietnam By Anh Duc Dang
  25. SPATIAL RETAIL PRICING STRATEGIES FOR BEER IN GERMANY By Empen, Janine; Glauben, Thomas; Loy, Jens-Peter
  26. Property Rights and Natural Resources: Socio-Economic Heterogeneity and Distributional Implications of Common Property Resource Management By Bhim Adhikari
  27. Use of the Agricultural Competitiveness Enhancement Fund (ACEF) by the Department of Agriculture By Israel, Danilo C.
  28. THE IMPACT OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI) ON THE FUTURE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ETHIOPIA By Adenaeuer, Lucie
  29. Interregional Trade of High-value Fruits and Vegetables: Issues on Transport and Shipping By Llanto, Gilberto M.; Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Sombilla, Mercedita A.
  30. Food Security Program in the Time of Economic Crisis: a lesson to learn from Indonesia By Pangaribowo, Evita Hanie
  31. Environmental and Social Values from Plantation Forests: A Study in New Zealand with Focus on the Hawke’s Bay Region By Rivas Palma, Rosa Maria; Manley, Bruce; Kerr, Geoffrey N.
  32. Poverty, Private Property and Common Pool Resource Management: The Case of Irrigation Tanks in South India By R. Balasubramanian; K.N. Selvaraj
  33. MEASUREMENT OF DYNAMIC EFFICIENCY USING DATA ENVELOPMENT ANALYSIS – FIRST EVIDENCE FROM WEST GERMAN DAIRY FARMS By Salzwedel, Arvid; Huttel, Silke; Odening, Martin
  34. Migration, Remittances and Rural Employment Patterns : Evidence from China By Sylvie Démurger; Li Shi
  35. Payments for Water Ecosystem Services in Latin America: Evidence from Reported Experience By Julia Martin-Ortega; Elena Ojea; Camille Roux
  36. The effect of the Eurozone crisis on U.S. food companies By Epperson, James E.; Escalante, Cesar L.
  37. Do food commodity prices have asymmetric effects on Euro-Area inflation? By Mario Porqueddu; Fabrizio Venditti
  38. Tools for assessing the costs and benefits of green growth : the U.S. and Mexico By Harrington, Winston; Morgenstern, Richard; Velez-Lopez. Daniel
  39. Relaxing Constraints as a Conservation Policy By Ben Groom; Charles Palmer
  40. China’s Ambiguous Impacts on Commodity-Dependent Countries: the Example of Sub-Saharan Africa (with a Focus on Zambia) By Lee Robinson; Alice Nicole Sindzingre
  41. Development of biofuels in China : technologies, economics and policies By Shiyan, Chang; Lili, Zhao; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Xiliang, Zhang
  42. THE INFLUENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON SHORT-TERM FARM MANAGEMENT - AN INTERDISCIPLINARY MODELLING APPROACH By Aurbacher, Joachim; Reinmuth, Evelyn; Parker, Phillip; Calberto, German; Steinbach, Jennifer; Ingwersen, Joachim; Dabbert, Stephan
  43. Advanced Biofuels: Future Perspectives from an Expert Elicitation Survey By Giulia Fiorese; Michela Catenacci; Elena Verdolini; Valentina Bosetti
  44. Examples of Consistency and Variability: Rural Policy Reviews of OECD Countries January 2012 By Freshwater, David; Trapasso, Raffaele
  45. The use of contingent valuation in assessing marine and coastal ecosystems’ water quality: A review By Halkos, George
  46. North / South Contractual Design through the REDD+ Scheme. By Mireille Chiroleu-Assouline; Jean-Christophe Poudou; Sébastien Roussel
  47. Green industrial policy : trade and theory By Karp, Larry; Stevenson, Megan
  48. The Effect of Fair Trade Affiliation on Child Schooling: Evidence from a Sample of Chilean Honey Producers By Leonardo Becchetti; Stefano Castriota; Melania Michetti

  1. By: Adenauer, Marcel; Britz, Wolfgang
    Abstract: Questions about land use change induced by policies impacting the agricultural sector such as bio-fuel mandates have clearly raised the interest of understanding to which extent changes in agricultural productions stem from the extensive margins – expansion of agricultural land cover – or from the intensive margin – changes in the special intensity which increase yields or stocking rates. Agricultural sector models being able to answer these questions in a consistent manner are still rare. In this paper, we develop a land demand and supply system with endogenous land prices in the CAPRI agricultural sector model.
    Keywords: Land use change, CAPRI, agricultural sector modelling, land market, Agricultural and Food Policy, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:137137&r=agr
  2. By: Llanto, Gilberto M.
    Abstract: <p>Recent literature indicates the significant role played by rural infrastructure in improving agricultural productivity in developing economies. While the availability and quality of rural infrastructure are never substitutes to efficient macroeconomic and agriculture-specific policies and the effective implementation of such policies, inadequate infrastructure can be a significant constraint to growth and productivity. Rural infrastructure, like other public investments, raises agricultural productivity, which in turn induces growth in the rural areas, bringing about higher agricultural wages and improved opportunities for nonfarm labor. The rise in agricultural productivity, which reduces food prices, benefits both urban and rural inhabitants who are net food buyers. Thus, aside from its growth benefits, agricultural productivity has significant poverty-reduction effects.</p><p>The paper`s overall empirical results indicate a significant link between rural infrastructure and agricultural productivity. Electricity and roads are significant determinants of agricultural productivity. This is consistent with a related finding on the constraints imposed on growth by inadequate infrastructure. Rural roads provide the important connectivity with growing markets adjacent to rural areas; they also lessen input costs and transaction costs of rural producers and consumers. Access to electricity creates various income-earning opportunities for rural households.</p>
    Keywords: agricultural productivity, poverty reduction, rural infrastructure, transaction costs, connectivity, regional convergence
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:phd:dpaper:dp_2012-12&r=agr
  3. By: Efken, Josef; Schmitz, Jochen; Weber, Sascha A.; Wendt, Heinz
    Keywords: Agricultural Policy, Investment Promotion, Competitiveness, Evaluation, Agricultural and Food Policy, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:137147&r=agr
  4. By: Roberto Ponce (Department of Economics, Ca’ Foscari University, Italy); Francesco Bosello (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei, Italy); Carlo Giupponi (Department of Economics, Ca’ Foscari University, Italy)
    Abstract: Water resources are facing several stresses in terms of quantity and quality. These pressures are closely related to the human interventions in fields like: agriculture, land-use/land use change, construction/management of reservoirs, pollutant emissions, and water /wastewater treatment, among others. Considering the critical role that water plays for agricultural production, any shock in water availability will have great implications for agricultural production, and through agricultural markets these impacts will reach the whole economy with economy-wide consequences. The aim of this report is to present a literature review about the state of the art methodology regarding the study of water issues using the CGE approach at global and national scale. The analysis of the different studies confirms the economy wide consequences of changes in water allocation, irrigation policies, and climate change, among others water related issues.
    Keywords: Computable General Equilibrium Models, Water, Irrigation, Agricultural Policy, Water Allocation
    JEL: C68 Q18 Q25 Q54
    Date: 2012–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fem:femwpa:2012.57&r=agr
  5. By: Heinrich, Barbara
    Abstract: The European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy is currently undergoing a reform process which inter alia aims to achieve a higher environmental standard in agricultural production by binding direct payments to practices beneficial for the climate and the environment (the so-called ‘greening’). Some experts as well as some farmers doubt the effectiveness of the proposed measures. I simulate how farms would respond to these measures using a case study farm modeling approach and data for different farm types in Germany. I find that the currently envisaged ‘greening’ measures can be expected to function in general due to the linkage to the direct payments, which provide a strong disincentive to forego participation. The individual economic outcome strongly depends on the current intensity of the farm in question and on the implementation details of the introduced measures. However, farms with very high gross margins per hectare will forego the support scheme.
    Keywords: Greening, Common Agricultural Policy, reform of the CAP, direct payments, ecological focus area, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:137155&r=agr
  6. By: Wittenberg, Eric; Wolf, Christopher A.
    Abstract: This report summarizes the 2011 financial and production records of 86 Michigan cash grain farms. To be included, the farms must have produced at least 50 percent of gross cash farm income from a combination of these crops: corn, soybeans, wheat, navy beans, oats, sugar beets and other small grains. The records came from Michigan State University’s TelFarm system and GreenStone Farm Credit Services. The values were pooled into averages for reporting purposes.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Economic Analysis, Farm Management, Financial Economics, Production Economics, Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Farm Management, Financial Economics, Production Economics,
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:midasp:137152&r=agr
  7. By: Schmitz, Christoph; Lotze-Campen, Hermann
    Abstract: International trade in agricultural goods has increased tremendously throughout the past decades, thereby affecting environment and climate. Since this trend in agricultural trade is likely to be continued in the future, questions regarding global and local environmental impacts arise. We analyse linkages between trade liberalisation and environmental outcomes using a spatially explicit economic land-use model coupled to a biophysical vegetation model. Our reference case assumes constant trade patterns, whereas the two trade scenarios consider a path of increasing trade liberalisation and differ according to their assumed carbon price policy. Results indicate that increased trade liberalisation leads to further deforestation in Amazonia due to comparative advantages of agriculture in South America. In contrast, less deforestation takes place in Pacific countries, like Malaysia and Indonesia. Globally, around 40 million ha of forest would be cleared additionally due to trade liberalisation, causing around 26 Gt additional CO2 emissions until 2050. On the other hand, water scarcity decreases with increasing liberalization, foremost in South-, South-East Asia, and the Middle East. Although the inclusion of a carbon prices would increase water scarcity in some regions, it would lead to a considerable reduction in tropical deforestation. In general, additional demand from developed and transition countries through trade should be compensated by investments in technological change and more international efforts to protect natural resources.
    Keywords: land use modelling, international trade, land use change, GHG emissions, water scarcity, International Relations/Trade, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:137141&r=agr
  8. By: SHREEKANT GUPTA (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics, Delhi, India & LKY School of Public Policy (NUS)); PARTHA SEN (South Asian University); SUCHITA SRINIVASAN (American Express)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the impact of climate change on foodgrain yields in India, namely riceand millets. We estimate a crop-specific agricultural production function with exogenous climate variables, namely, precipitation and temperature and control for key inputs such as irrigation, fertilizer and labour. Our analysis is at the district level using a panel dataset for physical yield (output per hectare – gross cropped area) for the period 1966-99. Thus, we eschew crop simulation approaches that rely on experimental data. We do not also estimate reduced form relationships between economic variables such as profits or the monetary value of yield and weather measures. Consistent with other studies at the district and state level we find significant impacts of climate change (temperature and precipitation) on Indian agriculture. The implication of our results for inter-state disparities and corrective measures is elaborated.
    Keywords: Climate Change; Agricultural Impacts; Developing Countries
    JEL: O13 Q54 R11
    Date: 2012–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cde:cdewps:218&r=agr
  9. By: Akibode, Sitou; Maredia, Mywish K.
    Abstract: Food legumes play an important and diverse role in the farming systems and in the diets of poor people around the world. They are ideal crops for simultaneously achieving three developmental goals in targeted population—reducing poverty, improving human health and nutrition, and enhancing ecosystem resilience. This report provides global and regional trend analysis and sheds light on the pulse crop production, price, trade, and consumption patterns observed in the developing world, developed countries and globally from mid-1990s to 2008. The study is conducted through a review of secondary data and published research and analysis reports, and presents data and analysis for cereals to compare and contextualize the trends, patterns and outlook for pulses. Globally, the harvested area under pulse crops is about one-tenth the harvested area under all cereal crops and a high proportion of pulse area harvested is under rainfed-low input systems compared to cereal crops. Thus, in 2008, the average global yields of pulse crops (0.86 t/ha) was only about one-fourth the average yields of cereal crops (3.54 t/ha). On the bright side, over the past 14 years, the overall pulse production has increased at a rate higher than the growth rate in population both in developing and developed countries. Over this time period, SSA has led the developing world in terms of contribution to production growth through growth in yield (but with a low base). A major share of the pulse production growth rate in developed countries has been area expansion, especially in countries like Canada. In terms of production growth rate among major pulse crops, cowpeas and soybean in West Africa have shown the biggest increase, which are followed by pigeon peas and dry beans. However the overall picture for faba beans, chickpeas and lentils over the last 14 years has not been so favorable with small positive growth rate for faba beans and an overall negative growth rate for lentils due to decline in area. Farm-gate prices for pulses have fluctuated during the past 14 years due to supply and demand mismatch, and have experienced an upward pressure recently. This pressure is expected to continue in the near future but may be reversed in the medium and long term. Over the past 14 years, developing countries on aggregate have increasingly met their growing pulse requirements through increased imports and have now become net importers of pulses. Trade in pulses grew more rapidly between 1994 and 2008 than output. The expansion in international trade of pulses has provided a good opportunity for several developing and developed countries to expand their exports. China, Myanmar and Argentina, among developing countries, and Canada, U.S. and Australia among developed countries have emerged as major exporters of pulses. However, despite this rapid growth in exports and imports, pulse trade remains a relatively thin market, especially when compared to other food commodities, such as cereals and oil crops. On the demand side, over the past 14 years, a stable and modest positive trend in per capita consumption is observed within the context of a declining overall historical trend. This declining historical trend in per capita consumption of pulses is expected to continue into the future. Dietary patterns are changing all over the world and the share of non-cereal foods in the total calorie and protein consumption is increasing. However, at least over the past 14 years, pulses have not seen a dramatic decline in the total calorie and protein contribution as seen by the cereal crops. Household level survey data from India show the continuing importance of pulses as a source of protein in poor people’s diet, despite the overall changing dietary pattern, rising income and declining per capita consumption of pulses.
    Keywords: Grain legumes, Pulse crops, Production, Trade, Consumption, Developing countries, Agricultural development, Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Development, International Relations/Trade, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q11, Q16, Q18,
    Date: 2012–10–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:midasp:136293&r=agr
  10. By: Kirchner, Mathias; Schmid, Erwin
    Abstract: It is still difficult to derive general findings and conclusions from either economic theory or empirical studies on the relationship between trade and environment. Consequently, we aim to analyse environmental effects of agricultural trade policies in the Austrian Marchfeld region by applying an integrated modelling framework that accounts for heterogeneity in agricultural production and emission. Monte-Carlo simulations have been performed in order to assess the uncertainty of model parameters and policy impacts. The model results indicate that changes in trade policies have statistically significant but small effects on the environment in Marchfeld. Policy makers should rather concentrate on identifying efficient domestic environmental policies, which are in accordance with WTO trade rules.
    Keywords: Agricultural trade policies, agri-environmental payments, integrated assessment modelling, Monte-Carlo simulations, nitrate pollution, soil organic carbon, Agrarhandelspolitik, Agrarumweltmaßnahmen, Integrierte Modelanalyse, Monte-Carlo- Simulationen, Nitratverschmutzung, Organischer Bodenkohlenstoff, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:137160&r=agr
  11. By: N. R. BHANUMURTHY (National Institute of Public Finance and Policy); PAMI DUA (Department of Economics, Delhi School of Economics, Delhi, India); LOKENDRA KUMAWAT (Ramjas College, University of Delhi)
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of climate shocks on price formation in spot and futures market for food in India where until the recent introduction of commodity futures markets in 2005, the transmission of these shocks on short-term (spot) price movements was unclear. The existence of a futures market is expected to reduce risk, a major component in agricultural production as well as in price formation. Hitherto, the price discovery mechanism was weak and end price was expected to be different (mostly higher unless if some product prices are administered) from equilibrium price. In addition, this weak mechanism was expected to result in higher price volatility. Though the commodity futures market in India is nascent, we model transmission of weather shocks to future and spot prices using monthly data. Based on cointegration analysis, our results suggest strong cointegration between futures prices (based on MCX AGRI-future index) and spot prices (MCX AGRI-spot index) for commodities traded in futures markets. Our causality and impulse response results show futures prices Granger cause spot prices--a shock in futures prices appears to have an impact on spot prices at least for a five month period with maximum impact with a lag of one month. Changes in rainfall affect both futures and spot prices with different lags. Although there could be other factors that affect the futures prices, after controlling for fuel prices our results clearly show the transmission mechanism of weather shocks to prices. Further, with the help of smooth transition models, the study finds that the bivariate relationship between rainfall and prices of rice, wheat and pulses show some non-linearity with the structural change happening after the introduction of futures market. Also, this relation is found to be much stronger with the introduction futures market.
    Keywords: Weather shock, spot prices, futures prices, smooth transition models, India
    JEL: G14 Q10 E30
    Date: 2012–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cde:cdewps:219&r=agr
  12. By: Greb, Friederike; Jamora, Nelissa; Mengel, Carolin; von Cramon-Taubadel, Stephan; Würriehausen, Nadine
    Abstract: This study aims to improve our understanding of the extent and speed of the transmission of international cereal prices to local markets in developing countries. We analyse two samples of price transmission (PT) estimates, one extracted from a comprehensive literature sample of 31 published papers and studies on cereal price transmission and one containing of own estimates of cereal PT using the FAO’s GIEWS dataset. We also present the results of a non-parametric analysis of PT in which we analyse the share of periods in which domestic and international prices have jointly increased or decreased. We find a higher share of cointegrated commodity market pairs in the literature sample (79% compared to 43%). This may be due to publication bias. Cointegration is more prevalent for maize market pairs and less prevalent for rice market pairs. Both the literature and the GIEWS-based estimates point to average long-run PT coefficients of roughly 0.75 and average short-run adjustment parameters of roughly 0.09-0.11. In most cases domestic prices adjust to deviations from the long-run price relationship, but international prices do not. The only notable exception to this rule is rice, which suggests that the determination of international rice prices differs fundamentally from the determination of international wheat and maize prices. In a subsequent meta-regression analysis we measure how much of the variation in the samples of PT estimates can be explained by country- or product-specific factors. However, this analysis fails to generate compelling results. An analysis of domestic price volatility reveals that median volatility has increased since July 2007.
    Keywords: price transmission, cointegration, developing countries, agricultural trade, maize, rice, wheat, commodity prices, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Development, International Relations/Trade, C32 - Time-Series Models, Q11 - Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis, Prices Q17 - Agriculture in International Trade Q18 - Agricultural Policy, Food Policy,
    Date: 2012–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gagfdp:137101&r=agr
  13. By: K.S. Kavi Kumar (Madras School of Economics,Chennai); BRINDA VISWANATHAN (Madras School of Economics,Chennai)
    Abstract: While a wide range of factors influence rural-rural and rural-urban migration in developing countries, there is significant interest in analyzing the role of agricultural distress and growing inter-regional differences in fuelling such movement. Given climate sensitivity of agriculture, there is also interest in exploring three-way linkage between agriculture, migration and weather anomalies. This strand of research acquires importance in the context of climate change adaptation. In the Indian context this analysis gets further complicated due to significant presence of short-term migration. Acknowledging the specific features of migration in India and with evidence from multiple data sources, this paper, (a) analyses the role of weather variability in inducing short-term migration using NSS (2007-08) data; and (b) estimates elasticity of long-term migration with respect to weather variability using Census data over the period 1981-2001. The results suggest that weather variability has an important role to play in both long-term and short-term migration in India.
    Keywords: Climate Change; Agricultural Impacts; Migration; Developing Countries
    JEL: O15 Q54 R11
    Date: 2012–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:cde:cdewps:220&r=agr
  14. By: Weber, Anja Michaela
    Keywords: Agri-Environmental Schemes, Transaction Costs, CAP, Hesse, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:137170&r=agr
  15. By: Grethe, Harald; Siddig, Khalid; Goetz, Linde; Ihle, Rico
    Abstract: We assess the distributional effects of the transmission of world market price shocks for the highly import dependent economy of Israel. We combine a CGE simulation with an empirical cointegration analysis for assessing the direction and extent of the connectedness of Israeli and world market prices. The Israeli and the world market for wheat are found to be integrated. Price shocks are completely transmitted from the world market to the domestic Israeli market. We find negative effects on the amount of domestic household income, on consumption and on welfare. Regressive expenditure effects dominate progressive income effects so that the resulting domestic income distribution appears to be more unequal.
    Keywords: Agricultural trade, CGE, commodity prices, income distribution, Israel, Middle East, price transmission, Agrarhandel, CGE, Agrarpreise, Einkommensverteilung, Israel, Naher Osten, Preistransmission, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:137154&r=agr
  16. By: Wittenberg, Eric; Wolf, Christopher A.
    Abstract: This report summarizes the financial and production records of 101 dairy farms from throughout Michigan in 2011. To be included, the farms must have produced at least 50 percent of gross cash farm income from milk and dairy animal sales. The records came from Michigan State University’s TelFarm system and the Farm Credit Service system in Michigan. The values were pooled into averages for reporting purposes. The average herd included here is larger than would be the average dairy herd in Michigan. Average values are reported in the summary tables and discussion that follows but one should be aware that considerable variation across herds exists in virtually every measure.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Economic Analysis, Farm Management, Financial Economics, Production Economics, Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Farm Management, Financial Economics, Production Economics,
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:midasp:136307&r=agr
  17. By: Israel, Danilo C.; Briones, Roehlano M.
    Abstract: <p>The ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) Blueprint states the plan of ASEAN countries to unify into a single market and production base. A priority focus for integration is enhancement of trade among ASEAN member countries and long-term competitiveness of food and agriculture products produced within ASEAN. Based on key person interviews, this study identifies the specific gaps in the implementation of the blueprint for the case of Philippine agriculture, and makes appropriate recommendations.</p><p>The widest gaps in AEC blueprint implementation appears to be in cooperation areas related to private sector linkages, agricultural cooperatives, R&D, and technology transfer. For the private sector, a key factor accounting for the gap is preference for own networking and business arrangement. Development of producer cooperatives is at a nascent phase within the country. Considerable progress has been made in GAP, GAHP, GHP, and GMP; in general harmonization is most advanced where foreign markets have imposed stringent standards, i.e., the case of HACCP.</p><p>The following measures are recommended: First, to re-examine objectives and targets for cooperation with the private sector, agriculture cooperatives, R&D, and technology transfer. Trade standard harmonization is relatively easily justified; however, the collective rationale for cooperation in the other areas need to be better articulated. Second, within trade standard harmonization, a couple of action items are: i) expedite completion of the ASEAN GAqP; and ii) highlight the issue of small producer inclusion. ASEAN-wide mechanisms toward inclusion of small producers hold a long-term potential for uplifting livelihoods of millions of small farmers and fishers in Southeast Asia; however, this cannot follow the same modality as standards certification for large exporting companies. The blueprint objectives for cooperatives, including other types of producer associations, should be re-examined toward more collective approaches to gain approval and certification.</p>
    Keywords: Philippines, market integration, trade harmonization, product standards, producer linkages
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:phd:dpaper:dp_2012-18&r=agr
  18. By: Husain, Anwar Hussain; Khattak, Naeem Ur Rehman Kjhattak
    Abstract: A study was conducted during 2008 to make economic analysis of sugarcane crop in district Charsadda. The study was based on primary data collected from randomly selected five villages namely Dargai, Mani Khela, Sapula Khile, Qalat Naseer and Khule. The data were collected through structured questionnaire using a sample size of 50 farmers, allocating proportionally to these villages. The results reveled that the socio-economic variables like capital employment, labor employment, marketing, credit and financing and sources of income were moreclosely related with sugarcane production. The major economic practices were;preparation of land, water management, weed control, insecticides and making of black sugar (Gur). Main sugarcane varieties grown were 77/400,44,Mardan-92, 48, 310 and 722082. Variety 77/400 was observed as the most profitable variety. The average per acre cost was calculated asRs. 35450 for all varieties. The major cost elements were;land rent, labor input, seed, manure, irrigation, land preparation, fertilizer, hand weeding and making of black sugar (Gur). The net revenue of variety-77/400, 44, Mardan-92, 48, 310 and 722082 were observed as Rs. 54550, 48550, 48550, 45550, 48550 and 45550, respectively. Sugarcane crop was characterized by increasing returns to scale. It is recommended that modern techniques should be adopted for making Gur. Awareness among sugarcane growers about improved varieties should be created.
    Keywords: Sugarcane; farmers; input-output analysis; Pakistan
    JEL: A1 A10
    Date: 2011
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:41984&r=agr
  19. By: Hanisch, Markus; Rommel, Jens; Mueller, Malte
    Abstract: With an average market share of about 57%, the European dairy industry is dominated by cooperatives. Large diversity exists in the importance of cooperatives across the EU-27. The cooperative yardstick school of thought suggests that agricultural cooperatives drive competition towards efficiency and “fair” prices. We revisit this argument by analyzing, whether the relative strength of cooperatives in dairy, as measured by market share, explains price variation in average national farm gate milk prices in the EU-27. Our panel data analysis shows that milk prices increase with member states´ market share of cooperatives, when controlling for GDP, fodder prices and new member states. We relate these findings to the policy debate on agricultural cooperatives and conclude that policies promoting cooperatives have the potential to increase farmer welfare.
    Keywords: EU-27, Dairy, Cooperatives, Cooperative Yardstick, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:137138&r=agr
  20. By: Dominic K. Albino; Karla Z. Bertrand; Yaneer Bar-Yam
    Abstract: Conversion of corn to ethanol in the US since 2005 has been a major cause of global food price increases during that time and has been shown to be ineffective in achieving US energy independence and reducing environmental impact. We make three key statements to enhance understanding and communication about ethanol production's impact on the food and fuel markets: (1) The amount of corn used to produce the ethanol in a gallon of regular gas would feed a person for a day, (2) The production of ethanol is so energy intensive that it uses only 20% less fossil fuel than gasoline, and (3) The cost of gas made with ethanol is actually higher per mile because ethanol reduces gasoline's energy per gallon.
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:1210.6080&r=agr
  21. By: Thierry Brunelle (Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement); Patrice Dumas (Centre International de Recherche sur l'Environnement et le Développement and Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement)
    Abstract: Motivated by the conclusions from various modelling studies, modifications to the bioenergy sector regulations are under way in Europe and in the USA to account for emissions from indirect land-use change (ILUC). Despite their influence on the policy-making, evaluations of the capacity of numerical models to estimate ILUC are sparse. To address this void, this paper reviews recent developments in land-use modelling, with a particular focus on the solutions adopted to estimate ILUC due to biofuel production. As indirect effects of bioenergy result from the interplay of various mechanisms, their modelling is a major challenge for land-use science. In recent years, numerical models have been significantly upgraded to provide a more comprehensive vision of the agricultural system. This has been performed by improving the representation of land supply and the biofuel production process in general equilibrium models (e.g., GTAP, MIRAGE, DART). At the same time, modelling systems coupling partial equilibrium models with CGE (e.g., KLUM@GTAP) or economic modules with spatially explicit models (e.g., MAgPIE, GLOBIOM, LEITAP), and modelling architecture combining land-use and life-cycle assessment models (e.g., FASOM/FAPRI/GREET) have been developed. In spite of these advances, some limitations remain and uncertainties are still numerous.
    Keywords: Indirect, Land-Use Change, Modelling, Biofuel
    JEL: O13 Q15 Q16 Q17 Q18 D58
    Date: 2012–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fem:femwpa:2012.65&r=agr
  22. By: Hussain, Anwar Hussain
    Abstract: This study estimates the impact of major agriculture inputs (credit disbursement, area under cultivation, fertilizer consumption and water availability) on total rice production in Pakistan using a time series ranging from 1988 to 2010. The study uses a log-linear Cobb-Douglas production function to estimate the impact and importance of these inputs. It finds that area under cultivation and water availability had a positive and statistically significant impact on rice production and the other two inputs had a positive but statistically insignificant impact. Estimation reveals that a 1% increase in area under rice cultivation brought a 1.64% increase in total rice production and a 1% increased in water availability increased total rice production by 0.87%. The insignificance of credit disbursement and fertilizer consumption indicates the presence of inefficiencies which begs for some policy attention.
    Keywords: Credit disbursement; cultivated area; rice production; Cobb-Douglas
    JEL: A1
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:41963&r=agr
  23. By: Kunreuther, Howard; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann
    Abstract: This paper focuses on how developing countries can change the way they prepare for disasters so they are better equipped to sustain economic growth. It discusses the importance of considering the goals of key decision makers and the need to understand the perceptions, systematics biases, and heuristics used by the relevant interested parties (the affected public, private and public sector organizations, and nongovernmental organizations) in choosing between alternatives. The paper highlights the importance of undertaking benefit-cost analysis to evaluate disaster risk reduction measures, recognizing that decision makers might not make meaningful use of this policy tool given their behavioral biases and simplified heuristics. To address these issues, the authors propose green growth strategies that involve multi-year contracts coupled with short-term incentives that have a chance of being implemented. The strategies focus on the role of multi-year micro-insurance, long-term loans, and multi-year catastrophe bonds that reflect the institutional arrangements in the developing country. The paper illustrates this proposal in the case of farmers'agricultural practices and investment decisions that reduce losses to property from catastrophic disasters such as drought.
    Keywords: Hazard Risk Management,Debt Markets,Climate Change Economics,Insurance&Risk Mitigation,Banks&Banking Reform
    Date: 2012–10–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6241&r=agr
  24. By: Anh Duc Dang
    Abstract: In this paper, I provide new empirical evidence that the natural environment can shape individual risk preferences. By combining historical data on weather variation and contemporary survey questions on risk aversion, I find that risk aversion is significantly different for people who live in areas that have suffered high frequency of natural disasters. In particular, households highly affected by weather volatility show a longterm risk aversion and are more willing to buy insurance to protect crop losses. The finding also supports the hypothesis that when people are used to live in a risky environment, an incremental increase in risk affects their risk preferences less.
    JEL: D03 Q54 O53
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:acb:cbeeco:2012-593&r=agr
  25. By: Empen, Janine; Glauben, Thomas; Loy, Jens-Peter
    Abstract: The market for beer in Germany is special for many reasons, e.g. the purity law, the large number of breweries, or consumers who are highly loyal to local brands. To what extent brand loyalty affects spatial pricing strategies, is the main question of this article. We employ weekly retail scanner data for Germany from 2000 to 2001. We find that discounts are higher and offered more often the closer the brands are sold to the brewery they originate from. In addition, average prices are also lower on home markets. According to Anderson and Kumar (2007) this strategy is chosen because promotions generate new loyal customers who repay in periods of regular prices. Thus, loyalty of consumers may be endogenous. Alternatively, retailers use local beer brands as loss leaders, which can also explain the observed regional pricing strategies.
    Keywords: Spatial Pricing, Regional Brands, Brand Loyalty, Beer, Germany, Räumliche Preissetzung, Regionale Marken, Markentreue, Bier, Deutschland, Agricultural Finance, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Marketing,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:137150&r=agr
  26. By: Bhim Adhikari
    Abstract: Poverty, property rights and distributional implications of community-based resource management havebecome major topics of discussion and debate in recent years. This study tries to examine the contributionof community forestry to household-level income with particular emphasis on group heterogeneity andequity in benefit distribution. The assessment of household level benefits suggests that poorer householdsare currently benefiting less in absolute terms from community forestry than less poor households. Interms of the contribution of forests to household income, the study results suggest that the poor are notnecessarily more dependent than the rich, a finding that contradicts results from other similar studies.Econometric analysis suggests that income from community forests is related to socio-economic attributesand private resource endowments of households. Households with land and livestock assets, as well asupper caste households gain more from the commons, while better educated households depend less onforest resources. Female-headed households benefit less from community forests, further aggravatingthe inequity in distribution of benefits. The study makes a number of recommendations to improvecommunity forest management in Nepal, which include, due consideration for community needs inselecting species for community forestry, transferability of user rights, which would allow less endowedhouseholds to benefit more, and more and equitable representation of women and disadvantaged groupsin forest management committees (JEL Q2, Q23 ).
    Keywords: Property rights, common property resources, heterogeneity, community forestry, forest user groups, equity, distribution, forest income.
    JEL: Q2 Q23
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:snd:wpaper:70&r=agr
  27. By: Israel, Danilo C.
    Abstract: The Agricultural Competitiveness Enhancement Fund (ACEF) is an ongoing loan and grant program in the Philippines for agriculture and fisheries. From the start of its actual implementation in 2000 up to the present, it has been plagued by numerous problems which significantly derailed the attainment of its objectives. Because of this, its implementation was suspended in 2011 and an evaluation was conducted in line with the zero-based budgeting (ZBB) approach of the national government. As the output of the evaluation, this study reviewed the ACEF program, identified and analyzed the fund management and other pressing problems and issues it is facing, and provided options as well as specific recommendations for effectively addressing them. The study concluded that since ACEF is a big public expenditure item, it is imperative for the national government to immediately act on its numerous problems by implementing positive changes. It argued that without meaningful reforms, ACEF may just go down as one of the greatest national program failures in recent memory.
    Keywords: small and medium enterprises, Philippines, agriculture, zero-based budgeting, Agricultural Competitiveness and Enhancement Fund (ACEF), fisheries,low loan repayment rates, internationally competitive products
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:phd:dpaper:dp_2012-14&r=agr
  28. By: Adenaeuer, Lucie
    Abstract: In the light of recent strong global increases of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI), Ethiopia is one of the developing countries having received high FDI inflows in its agribusiness sector especially since 2006. As the agribusiness sector is the base of the Ethiopian economy these increases may considerably influence the total economy. This study aims at giving a first insight of possible midterm impacts of the FDI inflows on the sustainable development of Ethiopia. By analysing former empirical studies, likely future trends of development are derived. It is estimated that the high FDI inflows currently have and in the future continue to have a positive impact on the economic growth and poverty reduction. However, scarcity of agricultural land and water and corresponding environmental problems are bound to increase if no new production technologies and sufficiently strong regulatory frameworks are implemented.
    Keywords: Foreign direct investment, Ethiopia, sustainable development, Agribusiness sector, Agribusiness, International Development,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:137162&r=agr
  29. By: Llanto, Gilberto M.; Quimba, Francis Mark A.; Sombilla, Mercedita A.
    Abstract: <p>The study focuses on the transport of vegetable and fruit produce from Mindanao, a major food producing area, to particular regions in Luzon and Visayas to meet increasing market demands. The estimated gravity model showed the key determinants of interregional trade. Economic growth in both sending and recipient regions is necessary for interregional trade to flourish. Economic growth and interregional trade are anchored on access to markets by various economic agents, which is facilitated by the presence of hard and soft infrastructure that make interregional exchange possible.</p><p>Because distance drives up transport and marketing costs, the necessity of a good network of roads and ports that links production areas to consumer markets cannot be underestimated. The lack of an efficient transport and distribution system increases the cost of transporting agricultural produce, reduces the quality and quantity of those goods, and diminishes the profitability of actors involved in the supply chain. Inadequacy of infrastructure has been a major reason for the country`s lack of competitiveness and attraction as a viable and profitable business destination.</p><p>There is a scope for government intervention at two levels. At the macro level, government has a critical role to play in increasing investments in roads and ports, portside facilities, and related investments; in improving monitoring and coordination of markets; and in ensuring effective regulation at the national and local level.</p>
    Keywords: interregional trade, Philippines, supply chain, logistics, transport, gravity model, shipping
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:phd:dpaper:dp_2012-08&r=agr
  30. By: Pangaribowo, Evita Hanie
    Abstract: This study evaluates the impact of food security program – an almost universal program of Indonesian Social Safety Net Program in the time of economic crisis. Food security program aimed to protect poor households from the negative effects of economic crisis by means of highly subsidized rice. To assess the impact of the program, this study utilizes matching estimator approach combined with difference in difference method. The rich longitudinal dataset used in this study enables matching estimator and difference in difference approach to provide accurate estimate of the program’s impact on its beneficiaries. Results indicate the positive impact of the food security program on the expenditures of richer nutrient food which include meat, fish and dairy products. The program has also substantial impact on health expenditure. In addition, this study finds fly-paper effects where food security program has increased rice and staple food expenditures in the short period. Aid-fungibility is also evident since the program has positive effect on adult goods expenditure. The implication is that improved targeting or applying conditionality might mitigate the unintended effects resulting from the program.
    Keywords: Impact evaluation, food security, Indonesia, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:137139&r=agr
  31. By: Rivas Palma, Rosa Maria; Manley, Bruce; Kerr, Geoffrey N.
    Abstract: There is a need for better understanding and estimating forests non-market values. This study aimed to investigate the environmental and social values of plantation forests in New Zealand focusing in Hawke’s Bay. Identified stakeholder groups considered Erosion control, Water quality and quantity, Employment, Increased living standard, and Recreation as the most relevant values. These became the focus of the study. The environmental value of plantation forests was estimated through choice modelling. The results indicated that respondents with higher education levels and positive attitude towards community values were more willing to pay for improved levels of land stabilisation and water quality.
    Keywords: plantation forests, non-market values, stakeholders, choice modelling, Crop Production/Industries, Demand and Price Analysis, Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2012–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nzar09:136074&r=agr
  32. By: R. Balasubramanian; K.N. Selvaraj
    Abstract: Irrigation tanks are one of the oldest and most important common property water resources in the resource-poor regions of South India. Tanks are also important from an ecological perspective because they serve as a geographically well-distributed mechanism for the conservation of soil, water and bio-diversity. Unfortunately, tank irrigation has undergone a process of rapid decline in the recent past, much of which can be attributed to the disintegration of traditional irrigation institutions. In response, people adopt various coping strategies such as migration, non-agricultural employment, and private tube-wells. Adoption of private coping mechanisms has serious implications for community coping mechanisms, i.e., for collective conservation efforts. Against this background, this study tries to understand the main causes of tank degradation and the complex interrelationships among poverty, private coping mechanisms and community coping mechanisms that affect tank performance. Primary and secondary data are used to estimate three regressions models: a macro model on tank degradation, a household-level model on collective action, and a production function incorporating collective action as an input. In general, poor people are more dependent on tanks for various livelihood needs and hence they contribute more towards tank management compared to non-poor households. The analysis of tank degradation shows that there has been a decline in the performance of tanks. Population pressure is found to have accelerated the process of tank degradation. Though the emergence of private tube-wells contributes towards mitigating tank degradation within a narrow range, a continuous increase in the number of wells beyond limits exacerbates the process of tank degradation. This result is further validated by the micro-level econometric model of collective action towards tank management, which indicates that the increase in the number of private wells has a strong negative effect on the participation of rural communities in tank management. The size of the user group has a negative impact on cooperation, while the existence of traditional governance structures, such as rules for water allocation, promotes collective action. Wealth inequality is found to have a U-shaped relationship with collective action. The production function analysis shows that collective action has a positive and significant impact on the rice yields. Therefore, collective action is important for higher productivity and income. The study proposes several policy measures to revive and sustain tanks so as to provide livelihood security to the poor, who are the most affected by resource degradation. 
    Keywords: Irrigation tanks, collective action, coping mechanisms, poverty, common pool resources, South India
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:snd:wpaper:69&r=agr
  33. By: Salzwedel, Arvid; Huttel, Silke; Odening, Martin
    Keywords: efficiency, static and dynamic DEA, quasi-fixed inputs, dairy farms, Livestock Production/Industries, Productivity Analysis, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:137166&r=agr
  34. By: Sylvie Démurger (Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69007, France ; CNRS, GATE Lyon St Etienne,F-69130 Ecully, France); Li Shi (School of Economics and Business Administration, Beijing Normal University, 19, Xinjiekouwai Dajie, Beijing 100875, China)
    Abstract: This paper explores the rural labor market impact of migration in China using crosssectional data on rural households for the year 2007. A switching probit model is used to estimate the impact of belonging to a migrant-sending household on the individual occupational choice categorized in four binary decisions : farm work, wage work, self-employment and housework. The paper then goes on to estimate how the impact of migration differs across different types of migrant households identified along two additional lines : remittances and migration history. Results show that individual occupational choice in rural China is responsive to migration, at both the individual and the family levels, but the impacts differ : individual migration experience favors subsequent local off-farm work, whereas at the family level, migration drives the left-behinds to farming rather than to off-farm activities. Our results also point to the interplay of various channels through which migration influences rural employment patterns.
    Keywords: labor migration, labor supply, remittances, temporary migration, left-behind, China
    JEL: O15 J22 R23 D13 O53
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:gat:wpaper:1230&r=agr
  35. By: Julia Martin-Ortega; Elena Ojea; Camille Roux
    Abstract: Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) schemes are attracting increasing interest as policy mechanisms to improve conservation and sustainable development outcomes. PES initiatives aim to reach mutually beneficial agreements between providers and users of ecosystem services. In Latin America, with Costa Rica as the frontrunner, there are now more than two decades of experience in the implementation of PES schemes, which potentially represent a valuable source of knowledge for the improvement of the efficacy of conservation programs. Reviews and special issues dedicated to the study of PES exist, but they remain to most of their extent descriptive and qualitative. This paper presents the first study that systematically analyses the PES experience on the basis of a descriptive analysis of existing programs. The objective is twofold: (i) understanding the key features of existing PES mechanisms based on reported evidence; and (ii) identifying information needs for evidence-based policy design and implementation. We focus on water-related services since this type of service is involved in the majority of schemes. A database was constructed with 287 observations from 39 studies, from 1984 to 2011 in 10 Latin American countries. We find evidence confirming some known facts, such as deforestation and forest management as the main drivers of PES establishment, and revealing new ones, such as that average income for sellers is 60% larger than average buyers’ payment for the service.
    Keywords: PES, water ecosystem services, Latin America
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bcc:wpaper:2012-14&r=agr
  36. By: Epperson, James E.; Escalante, Cesar L.
    Abstract: From the beginning of 2011 to the middle of 2012 the U.S. stock market did not generally perform well. This subpar performance has been largely attributed by the business media to the Eurozone crisis. The purpose of this paper is to determine the extent to which the values of U.S. food companies are related to the Eurozone crisis. The stock prices of nine well-known U.S. food companies and the S&P index are regressed, using a system of equations approach, against a set of variables accounting for profitability and the economic wellbeing of the Eurozone and the United States. Based on the findings of this study it would seem that the U.S. stock market, including food companies, is primarily affected by the wellbeing of the U.S. economy as opposed to that of the EU.
    Keywords: SUR, agriculture, stock prices, crisis, Financial Economics, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:ugeofs:137096&r=agr
  37. By: Mario Porqueddu (Bank of Italy); Fabrizio Venditti (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the relationship between commodity prices and consumer food prices in the euro area and in its largest economies (Germany, France and Italy) and tests whether the latter respond asymmetrically to shocks to the former. The issue is of particular interest for those monetary authorities that target headline consumer price inflation, which has been heavily influenced by pronounced swings in international commodity prices in the past decade. The empirical analysis is based on two distinct but complementary approaches. First, we employ a structural model to identify a shock to commodity prices and verify using formal econometric tests whether the Impulse Response Functions of food consumer prices is invariant to the sign of the commodity price shock. Next, we employ predictive regressions and examine the relative forecasting ability of linear models compared with that of models that allow for sign-dependent nonlinearities. Overall, the empirical analysis uncovers very little evidence of asymmetries.
    Keywords: Food prices, Asymmetry, Inflation
    JEL: C32 C53 E31 Q17
    Date: 2012–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bdi:wptemi:td_878_12&r=agr
  38. By: Harrington, Winston; Morgenstern, Richard; Velez-Lopez. Daniel
    Abstract: This paper examines the processes used in the United States and Mexico to assess the economic costs and benefits of environmental improvement, the kinds of information obtained from these procedures, and the additional knowledge that is needed about both elements to improve understanding of the problems and prospects of advancing a green growth agenda. Because environmental and other development needs are large and resources are limited, it is important to choose the best projects, those with the highest returns on both public investments and private resources harnessed by regulation. The United States is well-established as a world leader in the use of quantitative methods to evaluate options for environmental regulation and policy. Mexico represents a case where a developing country has made clear advances in reforming its economy and in introducing transparency in its regulatory processes for environmental and other policy areas.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Regulatory Regimes,Public Sector Regulation,Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Climate Change Economics
    Date: 2012–10–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6242&r=agr
  39. By: Ben Groom (Senior Lecturer in Economics, Department of Economics, School of Oriental and African Studies, UK); Charles Palmer (Lecturer in Environment and Development, Department of Geography and Environment, London School of Economics, UK)
    Abstract: Eco-entrepreneurs in developing countries are often subject to market or institutional constraints, e.g. via credit rationing or missing markets. Conservation interventions which relax constraints may be both cost-effective and poverty reducing. A simulation using data from an intervention in Madagascar to relax the technological constraints of forest honey production investigates this possibility. Cost-effectively achieving dual environment-development goals is shown to depend on the severity of constraints, relative prices and, importantly, the nature of technology. Success is more likely for technologies exhibiting close to constant returns to scale or high input complementarity. Forest honey does not meet these requirements, whereas sustainable forest management may well do. Ultimately, where market or institutional constraints are present, knowledge of the recipient technology is required for more informed, efficient and perhaps, more politically-acceptable conservation policy.
    Keywords: Payments for Environmental Services (PES), Market Constraints, Cost-Effectiveness, Efficiency
    JEL: H21 Q28
    Date: 2012–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fem:femwpa:2012.63&r=agr
  40. By: Lee Robinson; Alice Nicole Sindzingre
    Abstract: The spectacular growth of China has induced major changes for developing countries, in particular low-income Sub-Saharan African economies. Most of these economies heavily depend on primary commodities for their exports, and China’s demand for these commodities, especially oil and metals, has contributed to a long cycle of increase in commodity prices (the ‘supercycle’ of the 2000s), but also to increased price volatility. China has also become a significant trade partner of Sub-Saharan African economies, and invested significantly in Sub-Saharan Africa. A theoretical question is therefore whether these changes may generate structural transformation and trigger sustained growth paths in Sub-Saharan countries. The paper shows that the transmission channels of China’s impact on growth prospects in Sub-Saharan African economies are multiple, both direct and indirect, and underscores the ambivalence of these impacts: i) high commodity prices have the potential to improve fiscal space, creating opportunities to catalyse diversification and structural transformation. Moreover, Chinese investments occur not only in the commodity sectors but also in industrial sectors and infrastructure; ii) however, higher and more volatile commodity prices, driven by China, can result in negative effects (e.g., Dutch disease). Furthermore, China’s demand may lock African economies into their century-old pattern of dependence on primary commodities. Large Chinese investments (especially in infrastructures) may also have lock-in effects, as they are organised by original contracts that exchange investments for commodities; iii) it is particular commodity and industry factors that affect an individual country’s ability to harness opportunities created by high commodity prices, which is demonstrated via the case study of Zambia.
    Keywords: China; Sub-Saharan Africa; commodities; trade; foreign direct investment
    JEL: F14
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:drm:wpaper:2012-39&r=agr
  41. By: Shiyan, Chang; Lili, Zhao; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Xiliang, Zhang
    Abstract: China promulgated the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in 2007, which included targets of 2010 and 2020 for various renewable energy technologies including biofuels. The 2010 biofuel targets were met and even surpassed except for non-grain fuel ethanol; however, there is debate on whether and how the country will be able to meet the 2020 biofuels target. This paper provides a resource and technological assessment of biofuel feedstocks, compares biofuel production costs from various feddstocks and technologies, and evaluates policies introduced in the country for the development of biofuels. The paper also presents the projections on the production of biofuels under various policy scenarios. The study shows that China can potentially satisfy its non-grain fuel ethanol target by 2020 from the technology perspective. But it will probably fall far short of this target without additional fiscal incentives as production costs of non-grain feedstock based biofuels are expected to remain relatively high. By contrast, the 2020 target of biodiesel production has a high probability of being achieved because the target itself is relatively small. With additional support policies, it could develop even further.
    Keywords: Energy Production and Transportation,Renewable Energy,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Energy and Environment,Environment and Energy Efficiency
    Date: 2012–10–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6243&r=agr
  42. By: Aurbacher, Joachim; Reinmuth, Evelyn; Parker, Phillip; Calberto, German; Steinbach, Jennifer; Ingwersen, Joachim; Dabbert, Stephan
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Farm Management,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:137143&r=agr
  43. By: Giulia Fiorese (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and Dipartimento di Elettronica e Informazione, Politecnico di Milano); Michela Catenacci (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Elena Verdolini (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei); Valentina Bosetti (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici)
    Abstract: This paper illustrates the main results of an expert elicitation survey on advanced (second and third generation) biofuel technologies. The survey focuses on eliciting probabilistic information on the future costs of advanced biofuels and on the potential role of RD&D (Research, Development and Demonstration) efforts in reducing these costs and in supporting the deployment of biofuels in OECD and non-OECD countries. Fifteen leading experts from different EU member states provide insights on the future potential of advanced biofuel technologies both in terms of costs and diffusion. This information results in a number of policy recommendations with respect to public RD&D strategies and is an important contribution to the integrated assessment modelling community.
    Keywords: Expert Elicitation, Research, Development and Demonstration, Biofuels
    JEL: Q42 Q55
    Date: 2012–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fem:femwpa:2012.67&r=agr
  44. By: Freshwater, David; Trapasso, Raffaele
    Abstract: Between 2006 and 2009, the OECD undertook a series of reviews of national rural development policy. The reviews largely followed a consistent approach and used the OECD’s New Rural Paradigm (NRP) as a common metric for assessing various national approaches. Although the reviews cannot be considered a formal evaluation of these rural policies, they do provide: a fairly uniform description of the policies being followed, a critique of the policies, and recommendations on how policies might be modified to make them more consistent with the philosophy of the NRP. In the paper we describe the review process and provide a synthesis of the OECD findings for the nine rural reviews. In all cases there was some evidence that parts of the NRP were being followed, but that significant parts of it were not yet adopted. Because of the diversity of situations, it is not surprising that each nation continues to follow an individual path in developing its rural policy, even though all members of the OECD have formally accepted the NRP as a guide for rural policy.
    Keywords: rural policy, OECD, New Rural Paradigm, economic development, policy transfer, International Development,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:ukyaer:136488&r=agr
  45. By: Halkos, George
    Abstract: Marine and coastal ecosystems are of high importance owing to the mankind dependence on the goods and services provided. As water quality is one perspective of healthy marine and coastal ecosystems, the aim of this study is to review as more as possible surveys conducted worldwide and in Greece. Due to the lack of an official market to valuate non-marketed goods and services, contingent valuation is applied intensively in order to provide the policy makers and the society generally with the specific values derived by a developed hypothetical market. In addition, this study reviews the crucial but debatable notion of value, the theoretical framework in accordance with the existing statistical models to estimate the welfare measures and the numerous disadvantages that have to be taken into account in order to implement a reliable contingent valuation survey.
    Keywords: Contingent valuation; willingness to pay; willingness to accept; marine and coastal ecosystems
    JEL: Q28 D12 Q51 Q25 C80 Q57
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:42183&r=agr
  46. By: Mireille Chiroleu-Assouline (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne - Paris School of Economics); Jean-Christophe Poudou (LAMETA - Université Montpellier 1); Sébastien Roussel (Université Montpellier 3 Paul Valéry & LAMETA - Université Montpellier 1)
    Abstract: In this paper we aim at theoretically grounding the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation + (REDD+) scheme as a contractual relationship between countries in the light of the theory of incentives. Considering incomplete information about reference levels of deforestation as well as exogenous implementation and transaction costs, we compare two types of contracts : a deforestation performance-based contract and a conditional avoided deforestation-based contract. Because of the implementation and transaction costs, each kind of REDD+ contract implies a dramatically different information rent / efficiency trade-off. If the contract is performance-based (resp. conditionality-based), information rents are awarded to countries with the ex ante lowest (resp. highest) deforestation. In a simple quadratic setting, there is a reference level threshold in terms of efficiency towards less deforestation. In terms of expected welfare, conditional avoided deforestation-based schemes are preferred.
    Keywords: Conditionality, contract, deforestation, hidden information, incentives, performance, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation+ (REDD+).
    JEL: D82 O13 Q23 Q54
    Date: 2012–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:mse:cesdoc:12059&r=agr
  47. By: Karp, Larry; Stevenson, Megan
    Abstract: This paper studies the reality and the potential for green industrial policy. It provides a summary of the green industrial policies, broadly understood, for five countries. It then considers the relation between green industrial policies and trade disputes, emphasizing the Brazil-United States dispute involving ethanol and the broader United States-China dispute. The theory of public policy provides many lessons for green industrial policy. The authors highlight four of these lessons, involving the Green Paradox, the choice of quantities versus prices with endogenous investment, the coordination issues arising from emissions control, and the ability of green industrial policies to promote cooperation in reducing a global public bad like carbon emissions.
    Keywords: Climate Change Economics,Environmental Economics&Policies,Climate Change Mitigation and Green House Gases,Energy Production and Transportation,Economic Theory&Research
    Date: 2012–10–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6238&r=agr
  48. By: Leonardo Becchetti (Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy); Stefano Castriota (Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Italy); Melania Michetti (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei and Centro-Euro Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, Italy)
    Abstract: We evaluate the impact of fair trade (FT) affiliation on child schooling within a sample of Chilean honey producers with a retrospective panel data approach. From a theoretical point of view we argue that FT should have a positive effect on child schooling since it generates a short run pure income effect together with a medium run productivity effect on both adult and child wages. On the other hand, because of the higher productivity generated by the medium run effect, the opportunity cost of child education increases if they work with their parents. The direction of the impact of FT affiliation on child schooling is therefore uncertain and requires empirical testing. Our econometric findings document a positive and significant impact of affiliation years on child schooling after controlling for endogeneity and heterogeneity between the treatment and control sample.
    Keywords: Fair Trade, Child Schooling, Impact Study
    JEL: O19 O22 D64 J22
    Date: 2012–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fem:femwpa:2012.56&r=agr

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