nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2012‒10‒13
sixty-nine papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. Land Constraints in Kenya’s Densely Populated Rural Areas: Implications for Food Policy and Institutional Reform By Jayne, Thomas S.; Muyanga, Milu
  2. What would farmers’ strategies be in a no-CAP situation? An illustration to France By Latruffe, Laure; Dupuy, Aurelia; Desjeux, Yann
  3. The Scope for Increasing Biofuel Crop Production in Japan: An Analysis of Alternative Policies By Ai Leon; Roberto Leon
  4. On the Value of Agricultural Biodiversity By Di Falco, Salvatore
  5. AN INTEGRATED PERSPECTIVE ON AGRICULTURAL TRADE By Steinbach, Sandro; Rybak, Mariusz
  6. Integrating Rural Development and Regional Territorial/Landscape Planning. Tools for program implementation and monitoring By Agata Spaziante; Carlo Rega
  7. Does the EU environment benefits from agri-environmental measures? A spatial econometric analysis. By Stijn Reinhard; Vincetn Linderhof
  8. Agrarian Economy and Rural Development - realities and perspectives for Romania By Turek - Rahoveanu, Adrian; Andrei, Jean
  9. Linkages between the energy, biofuel and agricultural sectors By Patton, Myles; Binfield, Julian C.R.; Kim, In Seck; Zhang, Lichun; Davis, John
  10. Understanding UPAs development, a statistical analysis based on French recent data By Jean-Baptiste Traversac; André Torre
  11. Effects of interregional agri-food clusters under different competitions on regional economy: Usage of two-regional CGE model for Green Tea Cluster in Japan By Yuko Akune
  12. PRIVATE LABELS IN THE STRATEGY OF FOOD PRODUCERS AND RETAILERS By Stauder, Marta; Kurthy, Gyongyi Jankune; Juhasz, Aniko; Konig, Gabor; Nechay, Veronika Tunyogine
  13. An Outlook of World Food Prices and Macroeconomic Indicators in 2020 - A Sensitivity Analysis of Different Baseline Scenarios Using GTAP By Yang, Fan; Brockmeier, Martina
  14. Estimating the Elasticity of Demand and the Production Response for Nitrogen Fertiliser on Irish Farms By Breen, James P.; Clancy, Daragh; Donnellan, Trevor; Hanrahan, Kevin F.
  15. Governing Agrarian Risks By Bachev, Hrabrin
  16. Food Quality Verifications and Consumer Trust By Hobbs, Jill E.; Innes, Brian G.; Uzea, Adrian D.; Zhang, Jing
  17. IMPACT OF LIBERALIZING PRODUCTION AND TRADE ON THE FUTURE OF THE DAIRY INDUSTRY IN ISRAEL By Flaig, Dorothee; Rubin, Ofir D.; Siddig, Khalid H.A.
  18. DO DOMESTIC FOOD PRODUCERS IN FOOD DEFICIT COUNTRIES BENEFIT FROM INTERNATIONAL TRADE? EVIDENCE FROM RICE MARKETS IN FIVE WEST AFRICAN COUNTRIES By Akande, Olaide Rufai
  19. AN ECONOMETRIC STUDY OF DEFORESTATION IN THE BRAZIL’S AMAZONIAN MUNICIPALITIES By Rodolfo Prates; Carlos Bacha
  20. Land fragmentation, market integration and farm efficiency: empirical evidence from Kosovo By Sauer, Johannes; Davidova, Sophia; Gorton, Matthew
  21. Determinants of Food Security in Kenya, a Gender Perspective By Kassie, Menale; Ndiritu, Simon Wagura; Shiferaw, Bekele A.
  22. Global commodity price peaks and governmental interventions: The case of the wheat-to-bread supply chain in Serbia – Did consumers really benefit? By Djuric, Ivan; Gotz, Linde; Glauben, Thomas
  23. Harmonizing data from the UK expenditure and food survey and the National food survey: an application to fruit and vegetable demand By Sara Capacci
  24. DIFFERENCES OF IMPORT REQUIREMENTS IN AGRI-FOOD TRADE – AN EXPLORATIVE ANALYSIS OF NEW DATA By Rau, Marie-Luise; Shutes, Karl
  25. Sugar and Spice and all things nice? Assessing the Impact of the 2006 EU sugar regime reforms By Renwick, Alan W.; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Philippidis, George; Bourne, Michael; Reader, Mark A.; Lang, Ben
  26. Competitiveness of Bulgarian Farms in Conditions of EU CAP Implementation By Bachev, Hrabrin
  27. The regional price of junk foods relative to healthy foods in the UK: indirect estimation of a time series, 1997-2009 By Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Shankar, Bhavani
  28. Assessing the economic costs of an outbreak of Foot and Mouth Disease on Brittany: A dynamic computable general equilibrium By Gohin, Alexandre; Rault, Arnaud
  29. Sustainability dimensions of agricultural development in Almería (Spain): The experience of 50 years By Emilio Galdeano-Gómez; José A. Aznar-Sánchez; Juan C. Pérez-Mesa
  30. PITFALLS OF PROJECTS-DRIVEN INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: THE CASE OF PRIVATISATION OF AGRICULTURAL SERVICES IN BENIN By Moumouni, Ismail; Tovignan, Silvere D.; Baco, Mohamed N.; Nouatin, Guy
  31. Design of optimum private insurance schemes as a means to reduce water overexploitation during drought events. A case study in Campo de Cartagena (Segura River Basin, Spain) By Perez Blanco, Carlos Dionisio; Gomez Gomez, Carlos Mario
  32. The EU-Canada Free Trade Agreement: What is on the Table for Agriculture? By Kerr, William A.
  33. SUPPLY OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES BY NATURA-2000 PAYMENTS ANALYSIS OF THE INSTRUMENT AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION By Reiter, Karin; Sander, Achim
  34. Managing Environmental Risk in Presence of Climate Change: The Role of Adaptation in the Nile basin of Ethiopia By Di Falco, Salvatore; Veronesi, Marcella
  35. What multipliers don’t tell you: A spatial analysis of farm household linkages By Pangbourne, Kate; Roberts, Deborah
  36. FORCED SALES AND FARMLAND PRICES By Huttel, Silke; Jetzinger, Simon; Odening, Martin
  37. Applying the concept of sustainable intensification to Scottish Agriculture By Barnes, Andrew P.; Poole, C.E.Z.
  38. Building a simple general model of municipal water conservation policy for communities overlying the Ogallala Aquifer By Edwards, Jeffrey A.; Pumphrey, R. Gary; Barbato, Lucia; Kurkalova, Lyubov A.; Burkey, Mark L.
  39. ANALYZING THE EFFECT OF AGRI-ENVIRONMENT MEASURES ON NITRATE CONCENTRATION IN GROUNDWATER FOR AUSTRIA By Heumesser, Christine; Morawetz, Ulrich B.
  40. MODEL FOR IDENTIFICATION OF MANAGEMENT DEGREE IN BRAZILIAN COFFEE PRODUCTION By ANTONIO BLISKA; ANTONIO FERRAZ; PAULO LEAL; FLAVIA BLISKA
  41. Estimating technical efficiency under technological heterogeneity in Hungarian crop sector By Barath, Lajos; Ferto, Imre
  42. What causes asymmetric price transmission in agro-food sector? Meta-analysis perspective By Bakucs, Lajos Zoltan; Falkowski, Jan; Ferto, Imre
  43. TRANSBOUNDARY WATER RESOURCES ALLOCATION UNDER VARIOUS PARAMETRIC CONDITIONS: THE CASE OF THE EUPHRATES & TIGRIS RIVER BASIN By Mehmet Kucukmehmetoglu; Abdurrahman Geymen
  44. SPS measures and possible market access implications for agricultural trade in the Doha Round: An analysis of systemic issues By Murali Kallummal
  45. Regional Party Politics and the Right to Food in India By Shareen Hertel; Corinne Tagliarina
  46. MITIGATING WATER SCARCITY IN ISRAEL – A COMPUTABLE GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS By Luckmann, Jonas; Siddig, Khalid H.A.; Flaig, Dorothee; Grethe, Harald
  47. The Link between Italian Agri-food Districts and PDO, PGI and TSG products. By Cristina Brasili; Aldo Marchese; Matteo Masotti
  48. Transaction costs, information technologies, and the choice of marketplace amongst farmers in northern Ghana By Zanello, Giacomo; Shankar, Bhavani; Srinivasan, Chittur S.
  49. Farmland Rental Rate and Marginal Return to Land: A French FADN Perspective By Dupraz, Pierre; Temesgen, Chalachew
  50. DYNAMIC EFFICIENCY UNDER UNCERTAINTY: AN APPLICATION TO GERMAN DAIRY FARMS By Wagner, Christina; Huttel, Silke; Odening, Martin
  51. The comparison of investment behaviors of Kazakhstani and German farmers: An experimental approach By Tubetov, Dulat; Maart, Syster Christin; Musshoff, Oliver
  52. Kyoto and the EU CEP 2020: A Dynamic Study of the impacts on the Agricultural Sector in Spain By Childs, Jack
  53. The measurement of energy performance By Blancard, Stephane; Martin, Elsa
  54. Mandatory labels, taxes and market forces: An empirical evaluation of fat policies By Olivier Allais; Fabrice Etilé; Sébastien Lecocq
  55. Regulatory impact assessment of food safety policies: A preliminary study on alternative EU interventions on dioxins By Ragona, Maddalena; Mazzocchi, Mario; Rose, Martin
  56. Do Preferential Trade Agreements Increase Members’ Agri-food Trade? By Ul Haq, Zahoor; Meilke, Karl D.; Orden, David
  57. Negative Economic Shocks and Child Schooling: Evidence from Rural Malawi By Asma Hyder; Jere R. Behrman; Hans-Peter Kohler
  58. Comprehensive Evaluation of Environmental Policy for Water Pollutants Reduction in Jiaxing City, China By Feng Xu; Nan Xiang; Yoshiro Higano
  59. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMS FOR ASSESSING REGIONAL IMPACTS OF INNOVATIONS APPLIED TO COFFEE PRODUCTION By FLAVIA BLISKA; CELSO VEGRO; THOMAZ FRONZAGLIA; JAMILSEN SANTOS
  60. IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON CEREAL MARKET AND FOOD SECURITY IN SUDAN: STOCHASTIC APPROACH AND CGE MODEL By Sassi, Maria; Cardaci, Alberto
  61. Spatial Variations in Childhood Obesity: the school and neighbourhood geographies By Michelle Almond
  62. Agriculture and Regional Development in Greece By DIMITRIOS KYRKILIS; SIMEON SEMASIS
  63. Survival Analysis of Cereal Crop Variety Innovations in the UK By Srinivasan, Chittur S.; Matchaya, Greenwell C.
  64. The Contribution of Agricultural Economics to Price transmission Analysis and Market Policy in Sub-Sahara Africa: What Does the Literature Say? By Amikuzuno, Joseph; Ogundari, Kolawole
  65. How to Fix the Inefficiency of Global Cap and Trade By Peter Cramton; Steven Stoft
  66. Behavioural Change through Agri-Environmental Policies ? – A Distance Function based Matching Approach By Sauer, Johannes; Walsh, John; Zilberman, David
  67. MOVING TO THE LAND OF FROSTED CAKES AND FRIED FOOD: IMMIGRANT OBESITY IN THE U.S. By Jing Liu; Brigitte Waldorf
  68. Social capital as a measure of innovation for rural clusters: the case of France and US By Ion Lucian Ceapraz
  69. Do rural development program measures for the encouragement of rural tourism work? A spatial econometric analysis By Vincent Linderhof; Stijn Reinhard

  1. By: Jayne, Thomas S.; Muyanga, Milu
    Abstract: This study analyzes the impact of increasing population density in Kenya’s rural areas on smallholder behavior and welfare indicators. We first present evidence to explain how land constraints can be emerging within an overall context of apparent land under-utilization. Using data from five panel surveys on 1,146 small-scale farms over the 1997-2010 period, we use econometric techniques to determine how increasing rural population density is affecting farm household behavior and livelihoods. We find that farm productivity and incomes tend to rise with population density up to 600-650 persons per km2; beyond this threshold, rising population density is associated with sharp declines in farm productivity, total household income, and asset wealth. Currently 14% of Kenya’s rural population resides in areas exceeding this population density. The study concludes by exploring the nature of institutional and policy reforms needed to address these development problems.
    Keywords: Land, population density, smallholder agriculture, food security, policy, Kenya, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty, Land Economics/Use, Q15, Q18, Q24,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134723&r=agr
  2. By: Latruffe, Laure; Dupuy, Aurelia; Desjeux, Yann
    Abstract: This article investigates how French farmers could react if the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) were fully suppressed, based on a survey of intentions of 295 farmers carried out in 2009. The farmers surveyed were beneficiaries of CAP subsidies in 2008, and were therefore mostly specialised in field cropping and grazing livestock. Respondents had to indicate their ten-year strategy in two CAP scenarios: firstly in a “CAP continuation scenario”, and secondly in a “No CAP scenario” where the CAP is fully removed from 2014 onwards. A cluster analysis allows the differentiated effects of the CAP removal on the French farmers to be highlighted. These effects are dependent on the farming systems. Although for the majority of respondents there would be no change in their intentions if the CAP were suppressed, about 19 percent would intend to stop their farming activity and would prefer to close their farm, while they would maintain the farm if the CAP were continued. A disappearance of the CAP would imply that off-farm employment would be more frequently sought after by farm households. Hired labour would not be the first choice to replace household labour on the farms but instead farmers would resort to outsourcing, which is a more flexible labour force. The results show the crucial role of the CAP in French farmers’ existence and highlight the importance of the CAP for the rural labour market.
    Keywords: Farmers’ Strategies, Agricultural Policy, Intentions Survey, France, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Q12, Q18,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134989&r=agr
  3. By: Ai Leon (National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences (NIAES)); Roberto Leon (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies)
    Abstract: In 2010, concerns regarding Japan’s excessive dependence on imports for food and energy caused the Japanese government to introduce subsidies to stimulate biofuel crop production. In this paper, we study the viability of price subsidies and certain other policies with respect to increasing the production of biofuel crops. First, we estimate the elasticity of the supply of Japanese agriculture with respect to price (inclusive of the subsidy for each unit of production). For this purpose, we use a longitudinal database of 1822 municipalities that covers all 47 prefectures of Japan. This database includes information about the production of 116 crops and their respective revenues, including subsidies. Using panel data regression techniques, we determine that although the long-run supply of certain crops is highly elastic, this supply is highly inelastic if the production of other crops is held constant. Therefore, an increase in the demand for biofuel crops will cause substantial price increases of agricultural products, largely crowding out the demand for food crops. We then discuss the viability of encouraging various agricultural practices, such as multiple cropping and the cultivation of recently abandoned land. Instead of using abandoned land, which produces a lower yield and requires abundant labor, we recommend a multiple cropping system that involves the rotation of rice and wheat. Although these measures will increase biofuel crop production to a certain extent in the short run, full-scale biofuel crop production can only take place after substantial reforms are implemented to increase the production capacity of the Japanese agricultural sector.
    Date: 2012–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ngi:dpaper:12-10&r=agr
  4. By: Di Falco, Salvatore
    Abstract: Crop biodiversity is very important for both the functioning of ecological systems and the generation of a vast array of ecosystem services. More agricultural biodiversity is associated with higher agriculture production and lower risk exposure. This article explores the recent contributions on the economics of agrobiodiversity. The focus is (mostly) on the empirical literature. Future issues are also highlighted.
    Keywords: agrobiodiversity, ecosystem services, food production, resilience, developing countries, Crop Production/Industries,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134734&r=agr
  5. By: Steinbach, Sandro; Rybak, Mariusz
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:133055&r=agr
  6. By: Agata Spaziante; Carlo Rega
    Abstract: In the EU, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and its second pillar devoted to Rural Development, increasingly stress the importance of agriculture as a driver to support the environmental and the socio economic development of rural areas. Agriculture is ever more envisaged as a multifunctional activity aimed not only at producing food commodities, but also at delivering environmental services. The key challenges for European agriculture towards 2020, as outlined by the European Commission, include guaranteeing food security, preserving natural assets and rural landscape, contrasting climate change and pursuing territorial cohesion and balance (EC, 2011). By responding to these challenges, the new CAP will also contribute to implement the EU 2020 Strategy in terms of smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. In particular it is foreseen that CAP contribute to environmental sustainability by ensuring sustainable land management, providing environmental public goods, addressing biodiversity loss (EC, 2010: 6). However, achieving these ambitious objectives calls for a deeper integration between CAP and other regional territorial governance policies and instruments. Agricultural policies in fact have traditionally been designed and implemented with a sectoral approach, despite the deep interplay between agriculture, spatial development and environmental conservation policies. On the other hand, spatial planning at different scale has also traditionally paid low attention to agricultural areas, often considered as 'white areas', at most to be preserved from future urbanization, rather than considered as important drivers of socio-economic and environmental developments. In this paper we maintain that to enhance the effectiveness of agricultural policies in delivering environmental benefits, a deeper integration with Territorial and Landscape Plan must be pursued, both in the their design and during monitoring. We present the case study of Piedmont Region (north-west Italy) where new territorial planning instruments have been recently approved, to investigate the current degree of integration between Rural Development programs and the Regional Territorial and Landscape Plan. Results indicate that integration between these two instruments is still poor, and that this is hampering their effectiveness in delivering the environmental objectives outlined by both instruments. We discuss some critical points and put forward some suggestion to foster a deeper integration. In particular we show how the monitoring schemes of these instruments may be integrated to cover the full array of environmental aspects (including landscape), and identify which environmental performance indicators included in their monitoring frame may be sensitive to synergic effects deriving by their concurrent implementation. Keywords: Common agricultural policy, Rural development, Spatial Planning, Landscape Planning, monitoring JEL codes: Q15, Q18, R52
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p1001&r=agr
  7. By: Stijn Reinhard; Vincetn Linderhof
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of agri-environmental measures (AEM), the most important measure of the EU Rural Development Program (RDP) measures. Of the total public RDP budget, almost a quarter is allocated to this measure (35 billion euro including EU and national contribution). The measure is offered in all 27 EU Member States. Highest farmer uptake is found in extensive agricultural regions (mountainous areas, grassland areas), whereas low implementation occurs in prime agricultural regions. AEM are contracts between farmers and the governing authority, in which farmers commit themselves to adopt environmentally friendly farming practices that go beyond usual good agricultural practice. EU-wide environmental impact indicators are not readily available therefore we constructed two indicators (i) High Natural Value (HNV) farmland indicator at NUTS2 level, (capturing agricultural biodiversity change) and (ii) nitrogen balance (capturing change in water quality). These indicators are used in a joint production function that resembles the joint production of agricultural produce and biodiversity/landscape, incorporating the environmentally detrimental emissions of nutrients. Data were collected from Eurostat and other sources. The spending on the agri-environmental measures is not uniformly distributed over the NUTS 2 regions in the EU. The spatial analyses of nitrogen surplus and HNV-farmland showed the presence of spatial dependencies. Based on the spatial dependency tests of the classical regression model, a spatial error model is estimated. In the current version we relate the entire array of AEM to one impact indicators. Data on spending disaggregated to the various activities would improve the econometric estimation. JEL codes: C21, L83, O18 Keywords: Rural Development Program, spatial data analyses, spatial econometrics, environmental economics, agriculture
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p1136&r=agr
  8. By: Turek - Rahoveanu, Adrian; Andrei, Jean
    Abstract: The volume contains the papers accepted and published in the proceedings of the 3rd International symposium entitled: ‘Agrarian Economy and Rural Development - realities and perspectives for Romania’, organized by the Institute of Research for Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Bucharest in cooperation with, Institute of Agricultural Economics, Belgrade – Serbia, Institute for Economy, Finance and Statistics, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova, Academy of Economic Studies - The Faculty Of Agro-Food And Environment Economy, Bucharest, Romania, University of Agrarian Sciences and Veterinary Medicine – The Faculty Of Management, Economic Engineering in Agriculture and Rural Development, Bucharest, Romania, Petroleum and Gas University of Ploiesti - Faculty of Economic Sciences, Romania, University “Dunarea De Jos”- Faculty of Economy and Business Administration Galati, Romania, under the high scientific patronage of Academy of Agriculture and Forest Sciences "Gheorghe Ionescu Sisesti" and The Balkan Scientific Association of Agrarian Economists, held in Bucharest, Romania, October, 11- 13, 2012 The proceedings are structured in accordance with the sessions of the conference and it includes papers and relevant contributions on plenary speakers, Economy, management and agricultural marketing and Rural development and agricultural policies. Publishing this volume represents a term of the interest expressed by the highest academic and research groups in Romania and EU with interests in the agricultural sector. In the symposium proceedings are shared knowledge, experience and the newest results of your research in the agrarian economy and rural development domain related to the food quality and security, innovation and struggle against climate changes, biodiversity conservation, enhanced competitiveness and efficiency in agriculture and rural development, etc.
    Keywords: agriculture; rural development; rural economy; CAP
    JEL: N50 Q0 O13 Q10
    Date: 2012–10–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:41661&r=agr
  9. By: Patton, Myles; Binfield, Julian C.R.; Kim, In Seck; Zhang, Lichun; Davis, John
    Abstract: The expansion of the EU biofuel sector in recent years has led to speculation that the linkages between the oil and agricultural markets has strengthened and resulted in increased transmission of price volatility. This study uses the FAPRI European modelling system, which includes a UK model, to explore the energy-biofuel-agricultural market linkages in the EU. The complete modelling system is a dynamic, partial equilibrium, multi-commodity model of the EU agriculture and liquid biofuel for transportation sectors. A stochastic approach is used in which the modelling system is simulated 500 times under different paths of oil prices and world commodity prices. This stochastic approach provides a means to analyse the impact of alternative crude oil prices on the biofuel and agricultural sectors. The model simulations demonstrate the complex interactions between the different sectors.
    Keywords: Policy modelling, partial equilibrium model, UK, agricultural policy, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries,
    Date: 2012–09–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134717&r=agr
  10. By: Jean-Baptiste Traversac; André Torre
    Abstract: Despite a growing interest for the development of urban and periurban agriculture (UPA), little is known on the characterization of these particular systems. On the one hand the urban spread around cities radically modifies the shape and the landscape of the territories under urban influence. On the other hand the citizens’ demands in terms of food procurement and agricultural amenities call for more relational proximities between urban consumers and vegetable or meat providers (Purple 2010; Terres en Ville, 2009). Based on recent data available for France regions concerning the localization of agricultural stakeholders (agricultural census and others), this paper aims to describe the types and the evolutions of the various forms of agricultural systems inside and around the city using a diachronic analysis of the farmers demography. For an understanding of the town incidences, we use the typology of the French National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE) to segment the French communes into areas under different gradients of urban influence (ZAUER 2010).
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p777&r=agr
  11. By: Yuko Akune
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to evaluate effects of interregional agri-food clusters under different competitions on regional economy by use of two-regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. Many foods are in production linkage between farmers who yield in agricultural products as low materials and processed food manufacture who produce final goods, like wine, dairy products and so on. Linkage between agriculture and related food industries service industries has been recognized as a key to economic development in rural area. Some foods are produced in same area, others are put into interregional production. In Japan, many agri-food clusters have been formed. The green tea cluster targeted in this study has constructed self-organized relationship between tea leaves farmers and tea manufacturing. In this study, I focus on two prefectures, Mie and Kyoto. Mie prefecture is the third largest tea leaves production and one of intermediate suppliers to green tea manufacture outside of Mie prefecture. Kyoto is one of regions where demand intermediate from other prefectures, produce higher quality green tea and have own strong brand. Recently, Mie prefecture has attempted to increase value-added inner area, for example it has defined own green tea brand. There are several literatures on these clusters, which are interested in mechanisms in each cluster. Although it is very important to indicate components, each function and network in clusters, I think that we also need to evaluate effects on agri-food clusters and regional economy. Akune (2011) indicated that effects due to increase TFP at both tea leaves production and green tea manufacture in Mie prefecture, as a simulation scenario, was much more than each TFP growth by two regional, Mie and Kyoto. It was especially prominent in effects on tea leaves production in Mie prefecture. However, Akune (2011) assumed both clusters under perfect competition. Although green tea made in Kyoto is treated differentiated product, one in Mie is not differentiated in markets. It shows tea manufacture in Kyoto are under imperfect competition and it in Mie are under perfect competition. Therefore, I indicate effects of interregional agri-food clusters under different competitions on each regional economy by use of two-regional CGE model.
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p1049&r=agr
  12. By: Stauder, Marta; Kurthy, Gyongyi Jankune; Juhasz, Aniko; Konig, Gabor; Nechay, Veronika Tunyogine
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural Finance, Marketing,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:133054&r=agr
  13. By: Yang, Fan; Brockmeier, Martina
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:133056&r=agr
  14. By: Breen, James P.; Clancy, Daragh; Donnellan, Trevor; Hanrahan, Kevin F.
    Abstract: The application of artificial fertiliser continues to be a vital component of the production system on the bulk of Irish farms, accounting for approximately nine percent of total costs on dairy and cattle farms (Hennessy et al. 2011). However, the average application of artificial nitrogen fertiliser per hectare of grassland has been in decline recently. This reduction in use is likely due to a number of factors including better on-farm grassland management, as well as better management and utilisation of organic manures, the introduction of the Rural Environmental Protection Scheme, the Nitrates Directive, and more recently higher fertiliser prices. Changes in the level of artificial nitrogen usage are likely to have significant implications for agricultural productivity and the environment, both in terms of nitrate emissions and greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, a better understanding of the factors affecting fertiliser demand, as well as the relationship between fertiliser use and agricultural production levels is required. In this study an unbalanced panel dataset was constructed using data for the period 2000 to 2010 from the Irish National Farm Survey (NFS) and used to estimate two fixed effects models. The first model estimated the elasticity of demand for artificial nitrogen fertiliser applied on grassland. A second fixed effects model was developed to estimate the relationship between stocking rate and the level of artificial nitrogen applied on grassland.
    Keywords: Fixed Effects Model, Fertiliser, Elasticity of Demand, Agribusiness, Q12,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134965&r=agr
  15. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: Risks management studies in the agri-food sector predominately focus on the technical methods and the capability to perceive, prevent, mitigate, and recover from diverse risks. In most economic publications the risks are usually studied as other commodity regulated by the market supply and demand, and the farmers “willingness to pay” for an insurance contract modeled. At the same time, the risk management analysis largely ignore a significant “human nature” based (bounded rationality, opportunism) risk, critical factors for the managerial choice such as the institutional environment and the transaction costs, and diversity of alternative (market, private, collective, public, hybrid) modes of risk management. This paper incorporates the interdisciplinary New Institutional Economics and presents a comprehensive framework for analyzing the risk management in the agri-food sector. First, it specifies the diverse (natural, technical, behavioral, economic, policy etc.) type of agri-food risks, and the (market, private, public and hybrid) modes of their management. Second, it defines the efficiency of risk management and identifies (personal, institutional, dimensional, technological, natural) factors of governance choice. Third, it presents stages in the analysis of risk management and for the improvement of public intervention in the risk governance. Forth, it identifies the contemporary opportunities and challenges for the risk governance in the agri-food chain. Finally, it identifies, and assesses the efficiency and prospects of major modes for risk governance in the Bulgarian dairy sector.
    Keywords: agri-food chain and risk management; market; private; and public governance; dairy risk management; Bulgaria
    JEL: L25 D81 Q12 Q18 L14 D23 Q52 O17 Q13 L22
    Date: 2012–05–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:41651&r=agr
  16. By: Hobbs, Jill E.; Innes, Brian G.; Uzea, Adrian D.; Zhang, Jing
    Abstract: Food markets are increasingly characterized by an array of quality assurances with respect to credence attributes, reflecting a growing interest in where food comes from and how it is produced. The provision and signalling of these credence quality attributes includes both public and private sector initiatives. How effective are quality signals in addressing the information asymmetry inherent in credence attributes? To what extent do consumers trust quality assurances from different sources, and does this trust differs across food products or across credence attributes? The paper presents a simple economic welfare analysis of the market for a credence attribute under different assumptions with respect to the strength of consumer preferences, the existence of voluntary versus mandatory standards, and the credibility of third party certification. This is followed by an empirical analysis drawing from two consumer surveys in Canada using discrete choice experiments. Food quality claims related to farm animal welfare in a meat product and to environmental sustainability in a bread product are examined. Latent Class models reveal significant heterogeneity in consumer preferences, both in terms of the value consumers place on farm animal welfare and environmentally sustainable quality assurances, and the extent to which it matters who is verifying these assurances.
    Keywords: credence attribute, animal welfare, environmental sustainability, quality verification, discrete choice experiment, Agricultural and Food Policy, Risk and Uncertainty, Q13, Q18,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:135069&r=agr
  17. By: Flaig, Dorothee; Rubin, Ofir D.; Siddig, Khalid H.A.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:133039&r=agr
  18. By: Akande, Olaide Rufai
    Abstract: Motivated by the negative impact of the 2006-2008 food crises on rice consumer prices and welfare, the impact of international trade on producer prices of rice in food deficit countries was examined using data collected from five randomly selected West African countries and analyzed with econometric GARCH estimation procedure. The finding shows that domestic rice producers in food deficit countries benefit from international prices in countries where market liberalization is not significantly associated with instability in domestic producer prices. Further evidence leads to the conclusion that: urbanization results into preference for imported rice and low producer prices in some areas; market information system, market access infrastructure and integration of domestic markets with regional and global types are poorly developed; official development assistance (ODA) is an important policy tool for development of rice sector in these areas; and that policy efforts in these countries at controlling producer price volatility during the 2006-2008 food crises were largely effective. The study suggests that in order to ensure a competitive domestic rice market, curb producer price volatility and benefit from international trade, a concomitant heavy public investment in agriculture, development of market access infrastructure, market information system as well as market integration are necessary policy actions in these countries.
    Keywords: Producer prices, market liberalization, price transmission, producer price volatility, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134725&r=agr
  19. By: Rodolfo Prates; Carlos Bacha
    Abstract: Brazil has been pointed out as the number one country chop downing tropical native forest. This process takes place especially in the Amazon River Basin Area, which holds the largest tropical forest area in the World and spread over nine different Brazilian states, compounded of 782 cities. However, these cities have different economic structure and different paces of deforestation. Using both analytical and econometric frameworks, this paper evaluates the causes of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazonian municipalities from 2000 to 2004. Starting with an analytical framework, the main causes that led farmers to cut down forests and convert the soil use to other activities are highlighted. Basing on the analytical framework, an equation is developed and estimated using a dynamic panel data model. Agricultural prices, rural credit and government expenditure on transport have played important roles as stimulators for deforestation as well as an inertial process of deforestation has taken place. The article ends by suggesting some policies to restrain deforestation without reducing the income of farmers and the accessibility of the local population.
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p651&r=agr
  20. By: Sauer, Johannes; Davidova, Sophia; Gorton, Matthew
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of land fragmentation on farm efficiency in Kosovo utilising agricultural household survey data. To recognise heterogeneity among agricultural production systems in Kosovo, we estimate the technology separately for different groups or “classes” of farms, identified using latent class modelling. This approach separates the data into multiple technological “classes” according to estimated probabilities of class membership based on multiple specified characteristics, relating in this case to land fragmentation and market integration. The latent class frontier method is linked to the estimation of a multi-output multi-input production function, namely a directional output distance function, and to the estimation of Morishima elasticities of substitution, based on shadow price changes indicating allocative efficiency changes. The analytical results confirm that the usual approach of using one homogenous function to estimate fragmentation effects is misleading and can lead to inappropriate policy recommendations. Three distinct classes of farm households are identified, which show different levels of efficiency and the proxies for land fragmentation and market integration show different signs over these classes.
    Keywords: land fragmentation, market integration, farm households, Kosovo, Farm Management, O13, Q12,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134968&r=agr
  21. By: Kassie, Menale; Ndiritu, Simon Wagura; Shiferaw, Bekele A.
    Abstract: The paper contributes to an understanding of the determinants of food security with a bias on the link between gender of household head and food security using detailed farm household and plot level survey data from 30 divisions in rural Kenya. Both parametric and non-parametric econometric techniques are used to ensure robustness of the results from the econometric analyses. Since the assumption of pooled regression is rejected, we run separate food security regressions at plot level both for Male Headed Households (MHHs) and Female Headed Households (FHHs). Both descriptive and econometrics results shows that FHHs in general are more likely to be food insecure compared to their male counterparts. The analysis further reveals that Female Headed Households‘ food security increases with quality of extension workers; land quality, farm size while distance to the market reduces the probability of food security. For the quality of extension staff, policy makers should focus on improving the skill of extension staff for efficient and effective dissemination of technologies and other important information that has impact on food security. Since area expansion is infeasible due to land scarcity in Kenya, policy makers focusing on land augmenting practices can help farm households to escape food insecurity.
    Keywords: food security, gender, parametric and non-parametric methods, Kenya, Food Security and Poverty, O13, Q18,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:135124&r=agr
  22. By: Djuric, Ivan; Gotz, Linde; Glauben, Thomas
    Abstract: We analyze how the governmental market interventions, during the commodity price peaks 2007/2008 and 2010/2011, have affected the transmission of price changes along the wheat-to-bread supply chain in Serbia. We aim to investigate if consumers benefitted from the wheat and flour export restrictions or if other members along the supply chain were able to gain advantage. Our analysis of price dynamics between wheat and flour prices within a Markov Switching Vector Error Correction Model suggests that the millers increased their margin and thus profits in the aftermath of the food crisis. The simulation of bread production costs makes evident that bakeries and even more retailers profited substantially from the crisis policy. Compared with laissez-faire policy case, the significant wheat, flour and bread price increase was dampened by the governmental market interventions only at the beginning of the crisis. Additional market interventions, mainly wheat purchases, caused significant price increase on the domestic market which pushed consumers into unfavorable position. Consumers’ expenditure for food was increasing followed by the increased governmental expenditures for market interventions. Overall market situation, characterized by ad-hoc policy interventions and uncertainty, was leading to the net welfare loss for the whole Serbian economy.
    Keywords: Markov-Switching Vector Error Correction Model, export ban, Serbia, vertical price transmission, wheat-to-bread supply chain, Markov-Switching Fehlerkorrekturmodell, Exportverbot, Serbien, Vertikale Preistransmission, Weizen-Bot Wertschöpfungskette, Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:133023&r=agr
  23. By: Sara Capacci (Università di Bologna)
    Abstract: Given the increasing obesity rates and incidence of diet-related ill health in western countries, unhealthy eating and food consumption have recently entered the policy agenda of most European governments and reliable information on food consumption patterns has become highly desirable for policy makers. The present work focuses on the UK which has experienced the most dramatic increase in obesity rates in Europe in the last 15 years. The papers illustrates the harmonization of two different sources of data on food consumption which has produced an unique multiple cross-sections dataset containing purchases information for more than 250 food items, recorded on about 6000 households each year, over 13 years (from 1997 to 2009). Potential helpfulness of the new dataset is here demonstrated through a preliminary analysis on fruit and vegetable consumption: a demand system for fruit and vegetables and price elasticities are estimated. The availability of this unique dataset clears the way to a large range of potential analysis which might result very informative for policy purposes.
    Keywords: Household budget survey, Expenditure and Food Survey, Nutrition and Food Survey, Fruit and vegetables, demand system, Almost Ideal Demand system. Indagine sui consume familiari, Expenditure and Food Survey, Nutrition and Food Survey, frutta e verdura, sistema di domanda, Almost Ideal Demand system
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bot:quadip:117&r=agr
  24. By: Rau, Marie-Luise; Shutes, Karl
    Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of requirements in international agri-food trade by applying new data collected in the EU project “NTM impact”. For the analysis, an index of regulatory heterogeneity in trade is developed so as to combine binary, ordered and quantitative information contents of different types of requirements. The results of the index analysis shed light on which requirements differ between pairs of trade partner countries and show which products are regulated more than others. In a second step, the results will be set into the context of trade indicators such as trade flows for example. The analysis of differences of requirements between countries can provide useful insights for policy-makers when deciding on convergence, harmonisation or equivalence of requirements or when solving market access issues due to regulatory heterogeneity.
    Keywords: International agri-food trade, import requirements, non-tariff measures, regulatory heterogeneity, index analysis, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:133050&r=agr
  25. By: Renwick, Alan W.; Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Philippidis, George; Bourne, Michael; Reader, Mark A.; Lang, Ben
    Abstract: This paper investigates the economic impacts of the reforms both on the EU sugar sector but also more globally and examines the intended and unintended consequences of the reforms. This provides insights into the likely impacts of the further reforms proposed for 2015 – namely the removal of sugar beet quotas within the EU. We find, in line with other studies that whilst the reforms have improved the economic efficiency of the EU sugar sector the nature of the reform process has meant that these gains have not been maximised. This is due to the fact that production was cut in some of the more efficient regions of Europe as well as the least efficient. Our modelling highlights that the reforms have led to alternative trade patterns emerging both internally within the EU as well as externally. Internally, cessation of production in a number of countries provides opportunities for those remaining in production. Externally the significant decline in EU sugar on the world market has provided opportunities for other countries. It would appear that Brazil and Thailand have been amongst the main beneficiaries of the disappearance of EU sugar from the world market.
    Keywords: GTAP model, Agricultural Policy, EU Sugar Regime, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134706&r=agr
  26. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: This paper suggests a holistic framework for assessing farm competitiveness, and analyses competitiveness of different type of Bulgarian farms during EU CAP implementation. First, it presents a new approach for assessing farm competitiveness defining farm competitiveness and its three criteria (efficiency, adaptability and sustainability), and identifying indicators for assessing the individual aspects and the overall competitiveness of farms. Next, it analyzes evolution and efficiency of farming organizations during post-communist transition and EU integration in Bulgaria, and assesses levels and factors of farms competitiveness in the conditions of CAP implementation. Third, it assesses the impact of EU CAP on income, efficiency, sustainability, and competitiveness of Bulgarian farms.
    Keywords: efficiency; adaptability; sustainability; and competitiveness of farms; transitional agriculture; EU integration; impacts of EU CAP; Bulgaria
    JEL: D21 L11 O13 Q12 D14 Q18 D23 L14 L16 Q17 O17 Q13 Q14
    Date: 2012–08–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:41657&r=agr
  27. By: Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Shankar, Bhavani
    Abstract: The paper aims at indirectly estimating a time series of food prices from household expenditure data, focusing on foods considered as ‘junk’ relative to healthy foods. The “big 6” among the HFSS (high in fats, sugar and salt) foods identified by the Food Standard Agency have been selected to compose a target ‘unhealthy’ basket, compared to a ‘healthy’ benchmark aggregate including fruit and vegetables. UK data from the National Food Surveys, the Household Expenditure Surveys and the Living Costs and Food Survey were harmonized and merged to compose a set of household level unit values from 1997 to 2009 for the healthy and unhealthy aggregates. Well-established techniques are then employed to estimate regional prices by disentangling the quality component from unit values. The analysis provides information on the geographical and time heterogeneity of estimated price of the unhealthy basket relative to fruit and vegetable prices.
    Keywords: Price, Unit value, Junk food, Fruit and vegetable, Demand, Elasticity, Healthy diet, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, D11, Q11,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134720&r=agr
  28. By: Gohin, Alexandre; Rault, Arnaud
    Abstract: Epizootic outbreaks such as Foot and Mouth Disease are of great concern for agriculture. In this paper, we quantify the potential dynamic impacts of such a disease on Brittany, a French region with a strong livestock sector. We develop a dynamic computable general equilibrium model with rational expectations that allows us to measure the impacts of culling infected animals and restraining movements of live animals on the livestock sectors and downstream food industries. Our results show that economic losses are spread over many periods even with a one-time shock. The impacts on the primary sectors and downstream food sectors do not move in parallel. The food industries suffer most in the first period while the negative impacts on agriculture are mostly observed thereafter. Credit and wage constraints result in an estimated aggregated loss multiplied by more than 700 per cent. These results challenge the concept of a simple management policy for this disease.
    Keywords: dynamics, CGE, animal disease, catastrophic event, Livestock Production/Industries, Q11, Q18,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134712&r=agr
  29. By: Emilio Galdeano-Gómez; José A. Aznar-Sánchez; Juan C. Pérez-Mesa
    Abstract: Sustainable management not only constitutes the main challenge for agricultural systems, it is also becoming a driver of development in many regions of the world. As well as guaranteeing the production of food and other basic products, agriculture can foment social progress and economic growth while maintaining environmental quality. On a global scale, sustainable development can currently be said to be one of the main objectives of communities and societies. However, it is subject to different connotations due to the heterogeneous nature of productive systems and of the natural environment. In addition, it becomes difficult to achieve a balance between the three dimensions of sustainability due to a series of problems, including periods of recession, turbulent markets and changes in management policies on both a general and a sectorial level. Analyses of this issue must therefore strive to establish their results in practice and on holistic approaches. Particular emphasis should be placed on the generation of synergies and on the appropriate balance of the essential components that make up sustainable development. Along these lines, different practical experiences on an international level have illustrated the potential of agriculture to fulfil the above-mentioned aims. At the same time this sector currently encounters a series of challenges, among which we should mention growing internationalisation of the agrifood trade, increasing control of the distribution chains and varying strategies of agrarian policy. Indeed, in the context of European rural policy there has been considerable debate in recent years concerning the role of the agricultural sector and how it should face up to the following challenges: productivity-competitiveness, environmental protection and socio-economic development. This paper analyses how this sector in the province of Almería (Spain), based on small-scale horticultural farms, has risen to the above issues over recent decades. This case study provides some insights into the different synergies between sustainability dimensions. It is particularly interesting to observe how a highly social agrarian system has evolved thanks to the combination of certain factors: the basic structure of family-run concerns, the creation of commercial and financial structures/entities and the generation of endogenous auxiliary industries. An additional point of interest resides in the system’s manifest capacity to adapt and innovate in practices and technologies that are environmentally respectful. Finally, the fact that this sector, essentially without outside support, provides the basis for economic sustainability of the whole province makes it a paradigm of competitiveness in the European context. The integration of sustainability components observed in the development of Almería’s horticultural sector may prove useful in helping other regions to adapt and improve their agricultural systems, especially in cases where small-scale farming predominates. Keywords: Sustainability, development, family farms, environment-respectful practices, socio-economic dimension, synergies, Almería JEL: Q01, Q12, Q13
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p256&r=agr
  30. By: Moumouni, Ismail; Tovignan, Silvere D.; Baco, Mohamed N.; Nouatin, Guy
    Abstract: Understanding how local stakeholders participate in designing and implementing development projects is important to improve their effectiveness. This study used three case studies of privatisation reform of agricultural research and extension in Benin, to analyse recent trends in the participation of farmers, public and private organisations in implementing and designing reforms. Thematic and comparative analyses were performed on qualitative data collected during direct observation and semi-structured interviews with different stakeholders. The finding indicated that although participation was generally considered as requirement for developing high quality services, its importance in designing appropriate service delivery and funding reforms was underestimated or ignored.
    Keywords: Agricultural research and extension, Benin, Development project, Privatisation, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Teaching/Communication/Extension/Profession,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:133046&r=agr
  31. By: Perez Blanco, Carlos Dionisio; Gomez Gomez, Carlos Mario
    Abstract: Water is a key input in the production of many goods and services and under certain conditions can become a critical limiting factor with significant impacts on regional development. This is the case of many agricultural European Mediterranean basins, where water deficit during drought events is partially covered by illegal abstractions, mostly from aquifers, which are tolerated by the authorities. Groundwater overexploitation for irrigation has created in these areas an unprecedented environmental catastrophe that threatens ecosystems sustainability, urban water supply and the current model of development. Commercial drought insurance systems have the potential to introduce the necessary incentives to reduce overexploitation during drought events and the high costs of the drought indemnity paid by the government. This paper develops a methodology to obtain this socially desirable basic risk premium based on concatenated stochastic models. The methodology is applied to the agricultural district of Campo de Cartagena (Segura River Basin, Spain). Results show that the basic premiums in a hypothetic commercial drought insurance market would be reasonable and the expected environmental outcomes significant.
    Keywords: Drought insurance, stochastic models, groundwater, agriculture, Drought Management Plan, Crop Production/Industries, Risk and Uncertainty, Q15, Q18, Q25, Q51, Q58,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:135090&r=agr
  32. By: Kerr, William A.
    Abstract: In October 2008 French President Nicholas Sarkozy and Canadian Prime Minister Stephen Harper announced that the EU and Canada would seek a free trade agreement and in May 2009 negotiations on a Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) commenced. There have been a number of negotiating sessions since then and good progress has been reported. One of the more difficult sectors was expected to be agriculture. This paper outlines the major opportunities for expanded agricultural trade between the EU and Canada as well as those areas where the negotiations are expected to be particularly difficult. Topics include, subsidies, sanitary and phytosanitary barriers to trade, tariffs, tariff line adjustments, regulatory harmonization, protection for geographical indications, barriers to trade in genetically modified products and TRQs in the Canadian dairy sector. A section on opportunities and concerns of particular interest to the agri-food sector of the UK is included. The paper concludes with a discussion of the expected outcome and degree of trade expansion that will follow a successful conclusion to the negotiations.
    Keywords: agriculture, Canada, international trade, negotiations, European Union, Agricultural and Food Policy, Q17,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:135067&r=agr
  33. By: Reiter, Karin; Sander, Achim
    Abstract: The paper presents the results of mid-term-evaluation of rural development plans of five German Federal States. It focuses on a comparative analysis of the implementation of Natura-2000-Payments (Code 213) and shows the relationship between voluntariness on one hand and administrative law in Natura-2000 areas and Cross Compliance Standards on the other hand.
    Keywords: European agri-environmental policy, Evaluation, Natura-2000 payment, dead weight effect, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:133131&r=agr
  34. By: Di Falco, Salvatore; Veronesi, Marcella
    Abstract: This study investigates the impact of climate change adaptation on farm households’ downside risk exposure in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. The analysis relies on a moment-based specification of the stochastic production function. We use an empirical strategy that accounts for the heterogeneity in the decision on whether to adapt or not, and for unobservable characteristics of farmers and their farm. We find that (i) past adaptation to climate change adaptation reduces current downside risk exposure, and so the risk of crop failure; (ii) climate change adaptation would have been more beneficial to the nonadapters if they adapted, in terms of reduction in downside risk exposure; and (iii) climate change adaptation is a successful risk management strategy that makes the adapters’ more resilient to climatic conditions.
    Keywords: adaptation, climate change, downside risk exposure, environmental risk, Ethiopia, Environmental Economics and Policy, D80, Q18, Q54,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134775&r=agr
  35. By: Pangbourne, Kate; Roberts, Deborah
    Abstract: Agricultural policy and farm lobby groups often stress the role of farm production in sustaining local economies. This paper considers the spatial pattern of the upstream and downstream agricultural transactions of farms in North East Scotland and, in particular, the extent to which they take place within the locality of the farm holding. Three alternative definitions of “local” are considered: a distance based measure; a measure which takes into account the location of the farm in relation to the nearest town; and finally a measure which takes into account the location of input suppliers/output purchasers. The results are shown to vary qualitatively according to the definition of local adopted, highlighting the importance of allowing for context as well as demand-side factors when explaining purchasing and sales decisions. A highly complex pattern of production-related linkages in the region is revealed. Certain towns are found to dominate agriculture-related transactions in the region reflecting the spatial concentration of upstream and downstream agribusinesses. Probit analysis suggests that farm size, farm type and risk attitudes influence output sales patterns. The policy implications of the findings are considered.
    Keywords: local transactions, spatial tracking, farm households, agribusiness, Agribusiness, R12, Q12, Q13,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134718&r=agr
  36. By: Huttel, Silke; Jetzinger, Simon; Odening, Martin
    Abstract: In this paper we analyse agricultural land prices in the state Brandenburg. Our objective is to understand the price formation in foreclosures. Knowledge of the impact of foreclosures is desirable for the determination of mortgage lending values. The effect of foreclosures can be decomposed into two parts. First, the effect of a pressured sale, which will likely reduce the realized price compared with an unpressured sale and second, the effect of an auction, which may lead to a price premium. The empirical analysis is based on a rich data set of land prices in Brandenburg between 2000 and 2011 provided by the “Oberer Gutachterausschuss für Grundstückswerte”. The treatment effect of forced sales is derived by means of a statistical matching approach. Our results show that on average prices premia rather than price discounts are realized in forced sales of agricultural land. The price differential between forced and nonforced sales, however, is not constant but depends on the land market conditions.
    Keywords: Forced sales, land prices, treatment effect, Zwangsversteigerung, Landpreise, Treatmenteffekt, Agricultural and Food Policy, Financial Economics, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:133413&r=agr
  37. By: Barnes, Andrew P.; Poole, C.E.Z.
    Abstract: A number of influential policy circles have championed the concept of sustainable intensification (SI) as a technology to meet the challenge of a growing population. Various definitions exist for sustainable intensification, but the concept is driven by future constraints on land use. Most of the work directed at SI has been focused on developing countries, where the imperative for output increases are paramount. Fewer studies have applied the concept to developed economies. This paper examines this concept for Scotland, which is experiencing falls in productivity and has a complex policy arena based on quality rather than quantity improvements. We develop a schema for understanding the concept of sustainable intensification which we argue must develop beyond the provision of eco-systems services and encompass social as well as economic and ethical parameters. We apply these concepts and apply data from the Farm Account Survey for a balanced panel of 42 beef farms within Scotland over the period 2000-2010. A principal components analysis was applied to these data to provide a basis for understanding weighting structures within the various dimensions of sustainability and we find five main components, one of which strongly represents the intensivity but under-represents other sustainability factors. We recommend that regions adopt a definition of sustainable intensification that i) is specific to the production trajectories of that region, ii) provides adequate representation across actors within the food supply chain, and iii) offer clarity for measurement. The conceptualisation of sustainable intensification along these lines would, we recommend, allow key members of the food supply chain to develop specific solutions to divert from future projected problems in food production.
    Keywords: sustainable intensification, beef production, Scotland, Livestock Production/Industries, O33, Q16,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134710&r=agr
  38. By: Edwards, Jeffrey A.; Pumphrey, R. Gary; Barbato, Lucia; Kurkalova, Lyubov A.; Burkey, Mark L.
    Abstract: On the nation’s largest aquifer live 2.3 million people, most of whom depend on the Ogallala’s water for household consumption, as well as for agricultural and industrial use. As the Ogallala’s levels decline, policies need to be developed to encourage conservation of this resource that are a) efficient and effective and b) are politically feasible. Using results from a survey of nearly 3,000 residents, we reveal and elucidate community attitudes in the region regarding water use and various conservation policies. The results indicate an overall awareness of the problem and willingness to accept certain restrictions on water use and price changes, within limits.
    Keywords: water policy; water conservation
    JEL: L95 Q25 Q2
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:41750&r=agr
  39. By: Heumesser, Christine; Morawetz, Ulrich B.
    Abstract: The Austrian agri-environment program (ÖPUL) from 2000-2006 introduced several measures to reduce nitrate concentration in groundwater. We apply spatial econometric methods on a country-wide panel dataset to assess the partial effects of ÖPUL and other determining factors on nitrate concentration in groundwater. Preliminary results reveal that organic farming and refraining from using inputs on arable land have a measurable negative effect on nitrate concentration.
    Keywords: Nitrate concentration, Groundwater, Agri-Environment Measures, Spatial Regression, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:133044&r=agr
  40. By: ANTONIO BLISKA; ANTONIO FERRAZ; PAULO LEAL; FLAVIA BLISKA
    Abstract: In Brazil, coffee is one of the most important crops, particularly regarding job creation and foreign exchange. Since its introduction in the country in 1727, in the North region, the coffee cultivation is spread over much of the Brazilian territory. Over nearly 300 years, coffee production has developed with different costs and competitiveness, resulting mainly from soil and climatic conditions and different levels of technology, international competition and pricing, government incentives, investments in scientific and technological development, as well as different levels of entrepreneurship, which are reflected in the degree of agribusiness management and are extremely important to increase their competitiveness and survival. Cooperatives and the coffee industry consultants have developed systems to assist the farmer in company management, particularly with respect to the systematization of production costs and planning activities for the agricultural year. But the methods developed do not provide information about the level of company management, particularly regarding quality. To overcome this deficiency, this study aims to develop a simple, easy to use and inexpensive method to analyze the points to be improved regarding the management of the property, even if it is not exhaustive. Thus, farmers may adopt foundations, criteria and quality management practices that result in the organization of their companies and contribute to local and regional rural development. This study is centred on rural production, for reflections of the implementation of concepts and practices of agribusiness management, aiming at the obtaining of high quality products, permeate the sector as a whole. This method, named Method of Identification of Management Degree (MIMG), consists of a questionnaire, originally developed for application in cut flowers sector. Later it was used in the production of flowers in pots and hydroponics and after that, adapted to coffee production. A questionnaire was compiled using specific methodologies to collect primary and secondary data, plus the Delphi technique, which was employed to establish priorities and hierarchy of parameters of the management of an agricultural enterprise. This questionnaire was distributed to experts of the coffee sector to rank the parameters, which were transformed into objective questions used to construct a second questionnaire to be filled in by the organizations directly involved in the activity. This questionnaire, associated to a score table, indicates the managerial maturity degree of the organizations and points out the opportunities for process improvements.
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p548&r=agr
  41. By: Barath, Lajos; Ferto, Imre
    Abstract: Technological heterogeneity is an important issue in studies of agricultural production. We assume that this is much more serious in transition countries, since the agricultural sector in these countries is characterized by the presence of even more different technologies and structures. Previous studies address the issue of production heterogeneity in developed countries; however, there is a clear lack in the literature concerning the effect of different technologies in transition countries. There are two common approaches to estimate different technologies: the most common one is to split the sample into groups based on some a priori information; an alternative method is the latent class models. In the present paper both approaches are used to identify different technologies and to estimate technical efficiency. It seems to be that the LCM model identified better technological differences and separated better the effect of heterogeneity and technical efficiency.
    Keywords: Technical efficiency, Heterogeneity, Latent class model, Hungarian agriculture, Crop Production/Industries, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q12,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134961&r=agr
  42. By: Bakucs, Lajos Zoltan; Falkowski, Jan; Ferto, Imre
    Abstract: There now exists a large literature on price transmission in agro-food sectors. However, a great majority of empirical studies focus on the existence of asymmetry and, by and large, do not allow investigating the reason for its presence or absence. This is in sharp contrast to the theoretical literature that provides a number of explanations for why we should expect (a)symmetry. In response to this, this paper tries to uncover the reasons for price asymmetric transmission in the agro-food chain. To do so, we use meta-analysis drawing on the existing studies from this area. While there are some limitations to our data, we believe that this perspective could be very useful in advancing our understanding of price transmission mechanisms. Our findings suggest that asymmetric price transmission in farm-retail relationship is more likely to occur in sectors/countries with more fragmented farm structure and more restrictive regulations on price controls in retail sector. Instead, more restrictive regulations on entry barriers and operational conduct of retail trade tend to promote symmetric price transmission. The latter is also more likely in the presence of strong processing industry.
    Keywords: Price transmission, meta-regression analysis, Financial Economics, Q11,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134765&r=agr
  43. By: Mehmet Kucukmehmetoglu; Abdurrahman Geymen
    Abstract: The literature on transboundary water resources allocation modeling is still short in encompassing and analyzing complex geographic multiparty nature of basins. This study elaborates Inter Temporal Euphrates and Tigris River Basin Model (ITETRBM)*, which is a linear programming based transboundary water resources allocation model maximizing net economic benefit from allocation of scarce water resources to energy generation, urban, and agricultural uses. The elaborations can be categorized in two dimensions: First, agricultural and urban demand nodes are spatially identified with their relative elevations and distances to water resources supplies (reservoirs). Digital elevation model (DEM) database are intensely processed in geographic information systems (GIS) environment. Second, the agricultural irrigable lands are restructured into a pixel based decision making units (DMUs) in order to be able to see the spatial extent of optimally irrigated land, and then optimization program is converted from linear programming (LP) to a mixed integer programming (MIP). The model applications are designed to cover a series of sensitivity analyses encompassing the various transboundary management, energy and agricultural use values, and transportation cost scenarios over the optimal uses of the Euphrates and Tigris Basin (ETRB) resources. The model results are visually presented via GIS in order to show the transboundary upstream and downstream spatial impacts of these selected parameters. The findings are i) system parameters significantly alter the spatial extent of water resources allocation in the ETRB, and ii) the magnitudes of the parameters also explains the tradeoffs between agriculture and energy sectors as much as upstream and downstream water uses of countries. * Kucukmehmetoglu, M. (2009). A game theoretic approach to assess the impacts of major investments on transboundary water resources: The case of the Euphrates and Tigris. Water Resources Management, 23(15): 3069-3099.
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p613&r=agr
  44. By: Murali Kallummal (Centre for WTO Studies, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade, New Delhi)
    Abstract: This paper discusses an analysis of the SPS notifications made by WTO Member countries from 1995 to July 2010.
    Keywords: Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures, transparency, non-tariff measures, ad-valorem equivalents, technological gap, harmonization, WTO
    JEL: F13 F14 O19
    Date: 2012–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:esc:wpaper:11612&r=agr
  45. By: Shareen Hertel (University of Connecticut); Corinne Tagliarina (University of Connecticut)
    Abstract: This paper explores the complex relationship between social movements, courts, and political parties in the recognition and fulfillment of human rights. We analyze social mobilization around the right to food in India since 2001, on the recent emergence of political parties' attention to the issue of contemporary food security. Drawing on original datasets (i.e., of media coverage and PILs over multiple decades), original interviews conducted in India in 2012, and analysis of multiple Indian political party platforms, we argue that the attention contemporary political parties are giving to food security did not emerge in a vacuum but that the "Right to Food" social movement has influenced the evolution of contemporary Indian party politics. Translating that influence into concrete policy reform nationally, however, remains an incomplete process.
    Keywords: Right to food, India, rights-based development
    JEL: K0 O1
    Date: 2012–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:uct:ecriwp:21&r=agr
  46. By: Luckmann, Jonas; Siddig, Khalid H.A.; Flaig, Dorothee; Grethe, Harald
    Abstract: Water is a scarce resource in Israel. With fluctuating supplies and an increasing demand, the need for using alternative water sources such as reclaimed wastewater, brackish groundwater and desalinated seawater increases. This paper investigates the economy-wide effects of a de-clining supply of natural fresh water (ground and surface water) and the increasing utilization of alternative water sources (recycled wastewater, brackish water, desalinated seawater). To ac-count for different production structures and usage options, a single country Computable Gen-eral Equilibrium (CGE) model is used, in which several water activities produce differentiated water commodities. These water commodities are used as intermediate inputs in other produc-tion activities or are consumed by households. Results suggest that especially the agricultural sector would be affected by a reduction of natu-ral fresh water availability, as it is the largest water user. However, the effect can be mitigated if substitution possibilities with alternative water sources are increased, especially the desalination of seawater can contribute to this. The rest of the economy is affected to a lesser extent, as water is only a minor input in other sectors and the water sector itself is small compared to the whole Israeli economy.
    Keywords: CGE, water, wastewater reclamation, desalination, CES nesting structure, Israel, Wasser, Abwasseraufbereitung, Abwasserrückgewinnung, Entsalzung, CES, Israel, Agricultural and Food Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:133942&r=agr
  47. By: Cristina Brasili; Aldo Marchese; Matteo Masotti
    Abstract: Agri-food districts and PDO (protected designation of origin), PGI (protected geographical indication) and TSG (traditional specialty guaranteed) products are peculiarities of the Italian social and economic system. In fact, industrial districts are an Italian typical form of industrialization, which has been deeply studied by Italian scholars (e.g. G. Becattini, F. Sforzi, F. Signorini, S. Brusco). Moreover, Italy, with 235 brand products (88 PGI, 145 PDO and 2 TSG), is the European leader in terms of certified productions (23%), followed by France with 187 and Spain with 154 branded products. The linkage of these two Italian peculiarities brings to the agri-food districts reality. The growing number of analysis in this field (Qualivita 2011, Istat 2011) show the increasing interest in local quality products linked to the territory. Despite the recent economic crisis, those productions showed positive economic performances, with better results than low-quality food productions, especially with regards to the exportation (Edison foundation 2010, Ismea 2010, Istat 2011). The national Law 57 in 2001 instituted the “Quality Agri-food Districtsâ€. The aim of this paper is to identify of those important realities, using the specialization indexes of each district and the localization of geographical identified products. The first level of analysis identified only provinces that contain quality agri-food districts (QAD) with a share of employment greater than 10% of the area of reference. The following step is to study the 55 quality agri-food districts identified by Tagliacarne Institute (2004), using the previous cited specialization indexes. Moreover the impact of the crisis is studied to stress the opportunities of development of this specific sector. The different strategies of reaction to these specific conditions are also investigated, in order to understand if the positive externalities that have been defined as 'the district effect' (Signorini 1994, Fabiani and Pellegrini 1998) still persist. The analysis show a link both the provincial and quality agri-food districts level.The results could lead to new economic policies aimed to the development of those important realities, which are typical of the Italian economic system.
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p1076&r=agr
  48. By: Zanello, Giacomo; Shankar, Bhavani; Srinivasan, Chittur S.
    Abstract: Relatively little evidence is available on the importance of information and the role of Information Communication Technologies (mobiles and radios) in the key aspects of marketing behaviours of developing country farmers. We included the concept of proportional and fixed transactions costs within a household framework to investigate market participation decisions of farm households with a marketable surplus of food crops. Differently to previous studies, we also modelled the behaviour of farm gale buyers. We use a novel dataset from Ghanaian farmers, which contains detailed information fro individual selling transaction that is seldom available in other household surveys. We found that larger transactions occur at the farmgale, where farmgale buyers are prepared to pay a premium price because of lower fixed transaction costs they incur. The knowledge of market information has a contrasting effect on the decision of the marketplace. In some cases, farmers use the information on prices in specific marketplaces to travel farther, in other cases they sell their commodity in closer market where they may strenghening their bargaining power. Finally we only found weak evidence on the impact of using mobile phones in reducing searching costs and attract farm gate buyers.
    Keywords: market behaviour, transaction costs, information technologies, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, D82, D83, D84, O12, 055,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134740&r=agr
  49. By: Dupraz, Pierre; Temesgen, Chalachew
    Abstract: The paper examines the relationship between the cash rent and the shadow value of farmland to understand the French farmland market. The empirical analysis is restricted to French main grain crops, namely wheat, oil crops and other grain crops. The sample is an unbalanced panel of 35,089 observations, that includes 6,089 crop farms which are observed about 5 years each, during the period 1990 -2007. The shadow values of all quasi-fixed assets have been derived from a restricted variable profit function. The profit function was successively estimated and tested by three estimation strategies: pooled OLS, one-way fixed effect and random panel model. However, concluding remarks are based on the results of the fixed effect model because of its statistical significance. The result indicates that the shadow prices of land and labour were persistently diverging from there observed price. The average shadow value of farmland was estimated about 550€/ha/year which is five times higher than the average rental price of 112€/ha/year over the studied period. Implication for the behaviours of French farmland market has been drawn from this analysis.
    Keywords: Shadow values, cash rent, farmland price, NPV, restricted profit, fixed effect, Land Economics/Use, Q12, Q15,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134954&r=agr
  50. By: Wagner, Christina; Huttel, Silke; Odening, Martin
    Keywords: Efficiency, shadow cost approach, uncertainty, dairy sector, Agribusiness, Farm Management, Livestock Production/Industries, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gewi12:133826&r=agr
  51. By: Tubetov, Dulat; Maart, Syster Christin; Musshoff, Oliver
    Abstract: Kazakhstan and Germany have different development levels of the agricultural sector. One of the explanations for this fact might be the different investment behavior of farmers in the two countries. In this study, we experimentally compare the investment behavior of farmers in the two countries in a farmland investment treatment and a coin tossing game investment treatment. In addition, farmers were confronted with the two treatments in a different order. Results demonstrate that German farmers are more reluctant to make investment than Kazakhstani farmers. Moreover, results are independent from the framing of a farmland investment and a coin tossing game investment treatment. Furthermore, the investment behaviors of farmers were contrasted with normative benchmark of the classical investment theory and the real options theory. Our results show that both theories cannot exactly explain the investment behavior of farmers. However, farmers learn from former investment behavior and consider the value of waiting over time.
    Keywords: Experimental Economics, Investment Timing, Real Options, Kazakhstan, Germany, Agricultural Finance, C91, D03, D81, D92,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134770&r=agr
  52. By: Childs, Jack
    Abstract: Employing a recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the Spanish economy, this study explicitly aims to characterise the potential impact of Kyoto and European Union environmental policy targets on specific agricultural activities up to 2020. The model code is modified to characterise the emissions trading scheme (ETS), emissions quotas and carbon taxes, whilst emissions reductions are applied to all six registered greenhouse gases (GHGs). Compared to a ‘business-as-usual’ baseline scenario, by 2020, GDP and employment fall 2.1% and 2.4%, respectively, whilst the retail price index rises 3.4%. In agriculture, the indices of output (4.3% fall), and supply price (7.7% rise) perform relatively worse, whilst there is a concomitant cumulative fall in aggregate farm incomes of €1,510m by 2020. The more notable impact in agriculture is attributed to its relatively higher emissions intensity. Consequently, we record an agricultural marginal abatement cost estimate of €86/tonne of CO2 equivalent by 2020, which is consistent with other estimates in the literature. In addition, we find that the optimal mix of emissions reductions across specific agricultural sectors is a function of the degree of substitutability of their emitting activities. In light of estimated income losses within the strategically important farm sector, a final simulation contemplates an ‘agricultural cost-neutral’ emissions reduction policy akin to a cross compliance payment between 2013 and 2020. This is found to reduce food price rises, whilst altering the optimum mix of agricultural emissions reductions across specific agricultural activities. Empleando un modelo dinámico recursivo de equilibrio general computable (EGC) de la economía española, este estudio analiza el impacto de las políticas medioambientales de Kioto y de la Unión Europea (el acuerdo ‘20/20/20’), sobre distintas actividades agrarias hasta 2020. La estructura del modelo se modifica para caracterizar el comercio de los derechos, las cuotas sobre las emisiones y las tarifas de CO2. Además, se aplica la reducción en las emisiones de los seis gases de efecto invernadero. En comparación con el escenario de referencia, se pronostican caídas en el PIB y el empleo de un 2.1% y 2.4%, respectivamente, en 2020, mientras que el índice de precios al consumo sube un 3.4%. En agricultura, el índice de producción (cae un 4,3%), el de empleo (cae un 1.7%) y el de precios (aumenta un 7.7%), empeoran y además los ingresos acumulados de los agricultores bajan 1.510 millones de euros en 2020. El impacto más acusado en el sector agrario se atribuye a la mayor intensidad de sus emisiones. En consecuencia, se estima un coste marginal de reducción de 86€ por tonelada de CO2 equivalente para 2020, lo cual es consistente con las estimaciones existentes en la bibliografía. Además se observa que la combinación óptima de reducción de emisiones en los diferentes sectores agrarios depende del grado de sustitución de las actividades emisoras. A la vista de las pérdidas de ingresos observadas en el sector agrario, se contempla un escenario de mitigación de coste-cero para los agricultores, semejante a un pago de condicionalidad, entre 2013 y 2020. Los resultados señalan una mitigación en el incremento de los precios de los alimentos y una redistribución en la combinación óptima de las emisiones en los sectores agrarios.
    Keywords: Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Agriculture, Spain, Computable General Equilibrium, Gases de efecto invernadero, Agricultura, Espana, Modelo de Equilibrio General Computable, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Development,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:135074&r=agr
  53. By: Blancard, Stephane; Martin, Elsa
    Abstract: ADEME (the French national environmental and energy agency) develops tools in order to measure farm energy performance. The actual measurement is based on the total amount of energy consumed by farmers. The main objective of this paper is to propose an alternative method that can be used in order to improve this measurement. The alternative method that we propose is based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) models. Following the procedure adopted in a cost framework by Farrell (1957) and developed by Färe et al. (1985), we propose to decompose an overall energy performance measurement into two components, namely technical and allocative performances. In order to do this, we replace prices by energy content of inputs. We show that this decomposition can considerably help policy makers to design accurate energy policies. The presence of uncertainty on data, and more particularly on energy content of inputs, leads us to recommend exploiting the methodology proposed by Camanho and Dyson (2005) in order to produce more robust results. Thus, this methodology allows deriving both upper and lower bounds for the performance measurements. A year 2007 database of French farms specialized in crops is used for empirical illustration.
    Keywords: Crop-farming, Data Envelopment Analysis, energy performance, uncertainty, Crop Production/Industries, Risk and Uncertainty, D24, O13, Q15, Q4,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:135123&r=agr
  54. By: Olivier Allais (ALISS - Alimentation et sciences sociales - INRA : UR1303); Fabrice Etilé (ALISS - Alimentation et sciences sociales - INRA : UR1303, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris, PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris - INRA); Sébastien Lecocq (ALISS - Alimentation et sciences sociales - INRA : UR1303)
    Abstract: The public-health community views the mandatory labelling and taxation of fat as promising tools to control the growth of food-related chronic disease. This paper is the first to propose an ex ante evaluation of these two policy options in an oligopolistic setting with differentiated products and heterogeneous demand. Using household scanner data on fromages blancs and dessert yogurts, we separately identify consumer preferences for fat and front-of-pack fat labels by exploiting an exogenous difference in legal labelling requirements between these two product categories. Demand estimates are then combined with a supply model to evaluate both policies. In the absence of any producer price response, making fat labels mandatory reduces the fat supplied to regular consumers in this market by 38%; an ad-valorem tax of 10% (5%) on the producer price of full-fat (half-skimmed) products has a similar impact. Allowing producer price reactions, however, yields much smaller effects: a 9% drop for the fat tax, and a fall of only 1:5% for mandatory labels. Producers thus neutralise up to 96% of the impact of mandatory labelling on demand, via large price cuts on products with large ex ante margins. This illustrates how market forces are largely able to defeat the intended effect of market-based public-health interventions.
    Keywords: Nutrition ; Labelling ; Price fat ; Informatic
    Date: 2012–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hal:psewpa:halshs-00736556&r=agr
  55. By: Ragona, Maddalena; Mazzocchi, Mario; Rose, Martin
    Abstract: Regulatory impact assessment (RIA) for food safety policy interventions faces major obstacles, like scarce data availability and quality, especially when estimating their future effects on consumer health. In this paper, we run a preliminary RIA exercise on alternative EU policy initiatives to address the problem of dioxins in food, through a fuzzy multi-criteria analysis (FMCA) approach. 5 policy options are considered: the status quo situation (non-harmonised and non-efficient application of EU mandatory maximum levels in food and feed across Member States), a regulation imposing stricter (halved) limits, a stricter enforcement of the current regulation, and a co-regulatory version of the fourth option (with industry undertaking their own testing, and public authorities provide auditing and controls in a harmonized effort across all EU countries). A structured qualitative assessment of the considered options is performed regarding 14 categories of potential impacts, with consideration of uncertainty in the assessment. Different weights are assigned to each impact category to reflect the importance of some impacts compared to others. Finally, policy options are compared on a pairwise basis and ranked through a FMCA, considering uncertainties in qualitative assessment and explicit weights assigned to impact categories. Our preliminary results show that, among the 5 policy options considered, the ‘co-regulation’ approach appears to be the preferable option.
    Keywords: Food safety regulations, Regulatory impact assessment, Multi-criteria analysis, Fuzzy logic, Dioxins, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, D81, Q18,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:135093&r=agr
  56. By: Ul Haq, Zahoor; Meilke, Karl D.; Orden, David
    Abstract: This study estimates the effect of a diverse group of 30 PTAs on members’ trade of 26 agri-food products categorized into eight commodity sectors for 1990, 1995, 2000 and 2000 using disaggregated trade data for 40 countries and the Heckman selection model. Results show that whether reported zero trade-flows are considered actual or potential affects the size of the estimated PTA impacts. However, irrespective of the true nature of the zero trade-flows, the effects of PTAs are found positive and statistically significant. OLS estimates fall between the Heckman-model-derived conditional and unconditional effects of PTAs.
    Keywords: Preferential Trade Agreements, agri-food trade, selection bias, Heckman, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, F130, C180,
    Date: 2012–09–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:135066&r=agr
  57. By: Asma Hyder (Karachi School for Business and Leadership, Pakistan); Jere R. Behrman (Population Studies Center, Sociology Department, University of Pennsylvania); Hans-Peter Kohler (Population Studies Center, Sociology Department, University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: This study investigates the impacts of negative economic shocks on child schooling in households of rural Malawi, one of the poorest countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Two waves of household panel data for years 2006 and 2008 from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) are used to examine the impact of negative shocks on child schooling. Both individually-reported and community-level shocks are investigated. A priori the impact of negative shocks on schooling may be negative (if income effects dominate) or positive (if price effects dominate). Also the effects may be larger for measures of idiosyncratic shocks (if there is considerable within-community variation in experiencing shocks) or for aggregate shocks (if community support networks buffer better idiosyncratic than aggregate shocks). Finally there may be gender differences in the relevance for child schooling of shocks reported by men versus those reported by women with, for example, the former having larger effects if resource constraints have strong effects on schooling and if because of gender roles men perceive better than women shocks that affect household resources. The study finds that negative economic shocks have significant negative impacts on child school enrollment and grade attainment, with the estimated effects of the community shocks larger and more pervasive than the estimated effects of idiosyncratic shocks and with the estimated effects of shocks reported by men as large or larger than the estimated effects of shocks reported by women.
    Keywords: Africa, Economic Shocks, Child Schooling
    JEL: N37 E30 I21
    Date: 2012–09–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pen:papers:12-039&r=agr
  58. By: Feng Xu; Nan Xiang; Yoshiro Higano
    Abstract: Recently, various environmental problems have been brought with the rapid economic development in China. Therefore, now it is important to enforce optimal environmental policies in order to achieve economic development as well as environmental improvement. In this study, we selected Jiaxing city as research area for its high water pollution problem combined with speedy economic growth, and we constructed integrated dynamic environmental-social economic system model to establish the optimization simulation. Through scenarios analysis, we can evaluate the efficiency of the environmental policies from the aspects of both environmental preservation and social economic development. This research will provide prediction on social-economic activities, such as production, finance and budget, endogenously in the social economic model, the water pollutants discharged from social economic activities in environmental system model in the region. The simulation results show a great improvement of the trade-off between environment improvement and economic development in Jianxing city, China.
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p606&r=agr
  59. By: FLAVIA BLISKA; CELSO VEGRO; THOMAZ FRONZAGLIA; JAMILSEN SANTOS
    Abstract: The importance of education, research and extension institutions, can be evaluated from the socio-economic impacts of their investments, capacity building and training of human resources, services rendered to the community and innovations resulting from their research. The knowledge and technologies generated in these institutions need to be transferred to the respective supply chains and increasingly used, to contribute in its development and environmental preservation. The dimensions of the regional impacts of these technologies is relevant to the strengthening of research institutions and to evaluate and update the guidelines of their programs. There are few studies in this area and most of them are linked to the analysis of the role of universities in the growth of the regions where they are located by calculating multipliers for employment, output and income. The evaluation of the environmental, social and economic impacts is even less significant, and emerged from the concept of sustainable development. In Brazil, progress in this area are derived primarily from studies of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa) and from the State University of Campinas (Unicamp), who developed the systems known respectively Ambitec and ESAC, which in this study on coffee production in Brazil, held by the Agronomic Institute (IAC), are compared mainly from their scope, complexity and cost of implementation. Both consist of the ex-post analysis of the impacts of a particular technology and are built based on criteria and indicators. The application of those two systems indicated that the ESAC system involves a more complex software, and quantitative aspects more sophisticated than the Ambitec, and its use requires more intensive training of staff than Ambitec. A major difficulty of the analysis of impact assessments is to isolate the individual effects of technologies, effects resulting from their interactions with technologies developed by other R & D institutions, or even imported. The ability of the researcher to apply the questionnaires may reduce this problem. But the system ESAC presents an important advantage over the Ambitec because it considers two very important aspects for the analysis of impacts: the impacts resulting from the interactions between different technologies and the time elapsed between the development of technology and its adoption by the productive sector. Keywords: Impacts of technologies; Sustainable development; Regional development.
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p525&r=agr
  60. By: Sassi, Maria; Cardaci, Alberto
    Abstract: The paper aims at analysing the impact of the likely change in rainfall on food availability and access to food in Sudan. The empirical investigation is based on an integrated approach consisting on a stochastic method and CGE model. The former provides the likely changes in sorghum, millet and wheat productivity and their probability of occurrence according to rainfall predictions based on historical data. These results are at the basis of the shocks simulated in a standard CGE model augmented with a stochastic component. Achievements underline the negative impact on the two dimensions of food security taken into consideration, mainly due to a reduction in cereal supply, a marked cereal inflation pressure and income contraction; the grater negative effect on the poorest households; and a deterioration of the economic performance of the country. In this context, the paper stresses a strong interconnection among climate change, poverty and food insecurity and thus the need for an integrated policy-making approach.
    Keywords: Climate change, Food Security, Stochastic approach, CGE, Sudan, Food Security and Poverty, C68, Q18, Q54,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134779&r=agr
  61. By: Michelle Almond
    Abstract: Spatial variations in Childhood Obesity: the school and neighbourhood geographies Michelle ALMOND ₁,*, Graham P CLARKE₂, Kimberley EDWARDS₃, Janet CADE₄ ₁ Research Student, School of Geography, University of Leeds, LEEDS, UK, Email: gyma@leeds.ac.uk ₂ Professor, School of Geography, University of Leeds, LEEDS, UK, Email: g.p.clarke@leeds.ac.uk ₃ Senior Lecturer, Department of Sports Medicine, University of Nottingham, Email: Kimberley.edwards@nottingham.ac.uk ₄ Professor, Nutritional Epidemiology Group, University of Leeds, LEEDS, UK, Email: j.e.cade@leeds.ac.uk ABSTRACT Childhood obesity has increased dramatically over the past few decades, even more so in the last few years. This increase has finally reached pandemic levels in the developed world and is ever increasing in the developing world with no sign of it decreasing in the foreseeable future (Connelly et al., 2007; Wang & Lobstein, 2006). Current records show that overweight and obesity and its related co morbidities are the fifth leading risk for mortality, globally. Obesity substantially increases the risk of Type II diabetes, heart disease and certain cancers (WHO, 2009). As a result obesity has become a main concern for public health officials at a global scale (Herrick, 2007). Whilst it is known that obesity in its simplest form is due to increased consumption of food and decreased amounts of physical activity, it has been proposed that it is further increased by environmental rather than genetic factors (Hill & Peters, 1998). The overall aim of this paper is to analyse cross sectional data obtained from the National Child Measurement Programme. This gives data for 4-5 year olds and 10-11 year olds at school since 2006. Obesity will be defined using both the British Reference dataset and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) to allow for international comparison. The case study area is Wigan, Lancashire in the UK. This will allow for small scale analysis of environmental factors in relation to other indicators that determine obesity levels. Firstly it will enable us to map changing obesity levels at the small area level and then identify any areas that seem to be conforming to or resisting the obesogenic environment they are in. Further analysis will allow identification of areas which are showing obesity rates that contradict the results the environment suggests they should have, low obesity rates in low income areas (or indeed high obesity in areas of affluence). KEYWORDS Childhood Obesity, Obesogenic Environments, NCMP
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p814&r=agr
  62. By: DIMITRIOS KYRKILIS; SIMEON SEMASIS
    Abstract: This paper attempts to explore the effects of post-war war economic development model followed in Greece. The model is characterized by both the neglect of Greek agriculture and the emphasis on industrialization, mainly around the two major cities, Athens and Thessaloniki. The model has to develop a strong industrial sector but to inflate services and it devastated agriculture. At the regional level the uneven growth path that has been adopted perpetuated between urban and tourist areas on the one hand and the rural regions on the other. KEYWORDS: Economic development model, Greek agriculture, industrialisation, urbanisation, income disparities, regional development, economic crisis.
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p804&r=agr
  63. By: Srinivasan, Chittur S.; Matchaya, Greenwell C.
    Abstract: This paper explores the changing survival patterns of cereal crop variety innovations in the UK since the introduction of plant breeders’ rights in the mid-1960s. Using non-parametric, semi-parametric and parametric approaches, we examine the determinants of the survival of wheat variety innovations, focusing on the impacts of changes to Plant Variety Protection (PVP) regime over the last four decades. We find that the period since the introduction of the PVP regime has been characterised by the accelerated development of new varieties and increased private sector participation in the breeding of cereal crop varieties. However, the increased flow of varieties has been accompanied by a sharp decline in the longevity of innovations. These trends may have contributed to a reduction in the returns appropriated by plant breeders from protected variety innovations and may explain the decline of conventional plant breeding in the UK. It may also explain the persistent demand from the seed industry for stronger protection. The strengthening of the PVP regime in conformity with the UPOV Convention of 1991, the introduction of EU-wide protection through the Community Plant Variety Office and the introduction of royalties on farm-saved seed have had a positive effect on the longevity of protected variety innovations, but have not been adequate to offset the long term decline in survival durations.
    Keywords: Survival Analysis, Plant Variety Protection, Intellectual Property Rights, Crop Production/Industries, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q12, Q16,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134728&r=agr
  64. By: Amikuzuno, Joseph; Ogundari, Kolawole
    Abstract: Price transmission studies have become increasingly important in Sub Sahara Africa over the last two decades because of their application in assessing the impact of the market reforms policies embarked upon by the region’s governments between the mid 1980s and early 1990s. In this study, a meta database obtained from 45 price transmission studies published between 1978 and 2011, is used to provide an overall assessment of the potential impact of selected, study-specific attributes on estimated price transmission coefficients and in identifying asymmetric price transmission. Despite the large dispersion of estimated price transmission coefficients 2.5% - 94.2%, the mean coefficient of 32.2% is an overall assessment that the extent of price transmission in SSA is comparatively low. The predicted impacts of the study-specific attributes on the price transmission coefficients, and on the likelihood of the primary studies to report asymmetric price transmission however differ consistently across the attributes, and provide in general evidence on the critical role such attributes play in determining price transmission results and their implications for policy formulation. Therefore, future research on price transmission should carefully account for the impact of study-specific attributes in their results.
    Keywords: meta-analysis, Price transmission, asymmetry, Sub-Saharan Africa, Agribusiness,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134754&r=agr
  65. By: Peter Cramton (Economics Department, University of Maryland); Steven Stoft
    Abstract: Global cap and trade equalizes the price of emissions and leads to efficient abatement across countries, but sets the abatement level inefficiently low. It is set too low, because the global cap is the sum of individual country targets set on the basis of self-interest. The efficiency of a single price does not overcome the inefficiency of the public-goods problem inherent in global cap and trade. Fortunately, other policies lead to more cooperative and, hence, more efficient outcomes. Replacing the national quantity targets of global cap and trade with a global price target improves outcomes. To improve outcomes further, the price target is combined with a Green Fund. As we demonstrate by example, the Green Fund can induce cooperation between rich countries that want a high global price and poor countries that are more concerned with Green-Fund payments.
    Keywords: global warming, climate change, climate treaty, cap and trade, carbon tax, carbon price, public goods
    JEL: Q54 Q56 Q58 H41 D78
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pcc:pccumd:12cshtf&r=agr
  66. By: Sauer, Johannes; Walsh, John; Zilberman, David
    Abstract: This empirical study investigates the effects of different agri-environmental schemes on individual producer behaviour. We consider the effects on production intensity, performance and structure for a sample of UK cereal farms for the period 2000 to 2009 and use the policy examples of the Environmental Stewardship Scheme (ESS) and the Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZ). The econometric methodology is based on a directional distance function framework as well as the application of propensity score analysis by the use of matching estimators. We find that both schemes are effectively influencing production behaviour at individual farm level. However, agri-environmental schemes show only very minor effects on the technical and allocative efficiency of farms, hence, we can conclude that farms enrolled in agri-environmental schemes are efficiently adjusting their production decisions given the constraints by the respective scheme. Farms affected by these schemes indeed tend to become less specialised and more diversified with respect to their production structure. A voluntary type agrienvironmental scheme seems to signficantly influence producer behaviour at a far higher scale than a non-voluntary agri-environmental scheme. The methodological novelty of this research lies in the use of a sound production theory based multi-output multi-input approach to disentangle measures for production performance and structure which are then used as indicators for the robust treatment effects’ analyses.
    Keywords: Agri-Environmental Policy, PES, Distance Function, Propensity Score Matching, Environmental Economics and Policy, Q15, Q18, Q57, C23,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aesc12:134783&r=agr
  67. By: Jing Liu; Brigitte Waldorf (Department of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, Purdue University, W. Lafayette, IN)
    Abstract: The paper focuses on body weight gain among immigrants in the US. The emphasis is on disentangling different time lines that are relevant in the context of immigration and acculturation, namely length of exposure to the high obesity culture, age at immigration, year of immigration and aging. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), we find that (1) acculturation is associated with higher BMIs for the 1st generation, but not the 1.5 generation; (2) immigration at an early age (before 12) facilitates acculturation progress and drives BMI convergence to natives; (3) the effect of sojourn length in the host country is unstable across model specifications; (4) BMI differences between Asian and Latino immigrants are partly due to effect size differences in the acculturation variables.
    Keywords: immigration, obesity, acculturation
    JEL: I10 J15
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pae:wpaper:12-1&r=agr
  68. By: Ion Lucian Ceapraz
    Abstract: The paper emphasizes the role of social capital in some particular rural clusters like the French “Poles d’Excellence Rurale†(PER) and the U.S. Rural Knowledge Clusters (RKC). The recent revival of the literature on social capital considers this resource as highly valuable when considering the development of rural clusters. The purpose of our paper is to investigate the various mechanisms of social capital that can release the economic development of these areas. Through bilateral comparisons we are interested in how differences and similarities in social structures between the PER and the RKC may affect rural growth and competitiveness. There is a growing literature on the correlation between social capital variables and important economic outcomes (Glaeser et al., 2002). We do not intend to investigate how is created the social capital in the rural areas but to underline the ongoing effects of social capital that made these PER and RKC such a successful story. In our opinion, their performance and outcomes are highly dependent on the type of social capital which is expected to contribute to the cooperation and innovation (Staber, 2007) of these rural clusters. According to Staber (2007) some recent OECD papers outline that “there is no one model of social capital and no one type of impact on cluster performance†(OECD, 2002). An increased interest from political institutions in developing specific tools in starting and maintaining the role of social capital as an important resource is unveiled in recent years in these rural areas. The development of this resource at the individual and community levels is the ultimate goal of sustainable rural development (Dwyer, Findeis, 2008). The tools employed by public and private institutions in Europe and US differ substantially regarding the role of institutions but are commonly similar to the output of rural growth. One important aspect affecting the type of social capital in these rural areas concerns the increasing importance of urbanization and the proximity of rural and urban areas. In this aspect as our paper reveals the French rural areas seem quite different concerning their “rurality†compared with the US counterparts. JEL-Classification: R10, R11, R12 Key words: “Poles d’Excellence Ruraleâ€, U.S. Rural Kowledge Clusters, Social Capital, Innovation.
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p1003&r=agr
  69. By: Vincent Linderhof; Stijn Reinhard
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of Rural Development Program (RDP) measures focusing on tourism have on the growth of tourism and on the economy in rural areas. We first explored tourism in NUT2 regions in the EU with a spatial data analyses and then we applied spatial econometric analyses on tourism where we take into account the RDP spending on the measures that encourage tourism. For the spatial regression analyses, we use the indicators of the CMEF framework. The data were collected from Eurostat. The spending on the RDP measure 313 encouragement of tourism is not uniformly distributed over the NUTS 2 regions in the EU. The spatial analyses of tourism measured by the number of nights spent by non-residents showed the presence of spatial dependencies in tourism. Based on the spatial dependency tests of the classical regression model, a spatial error model is estimated. The number of bed places positively affected the total number of night spent by non-residents. RDP spending on encouraging tourism did not have a significant impact on tourism. JEL codes: C21, L83, O18 Keywords: Rural Development Program, spatial data analyses, spatial econometrics, tourism
    Date: 2012–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa12p932&r=agr

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