nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2012‒06‒05
63 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. New institutional arrangements and standard adoption: Evidence from small-scale fruit and vegetable farmers in Thailand By Sarah, Kersting; Meike, Wollni
  2. Agriculture-nutrition linkages and policies in India: By Dev, Mahendra S.
  3. Factors Affecting Producer Participation in State-Sponsored Marketing Programs By Fruit and Vegetable Growers in Tennessee By Davis, James A.; Velandia, Margarita; Clark, Christopher D.; Lambert, Dayton M.; Jensen, Kimberly; Wilcox, Michael D.; Wszelaki, Annette
  4. Disrupting Demand for Commercial Seed: Input Subsidies in Malawi and Zambia By Mason, Nicole M.; Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob
  5. The Impact of Proposed Federal Tax Reform on Farm Businesses By Williamson, James M.; Durst, Ron L.
  6. Time to Eat? The Relationship Between Household Proxies of Time Resources and Food Spending Patterns. By Llobrera, Joseph
  7. Biofuel do Brasil? - Impact of Multinational Biofuel Mandates on Agri-food Trade By Banse, Martin; Junker, Franziska; Prins, Anne Gerdien; Stehfest, Elke; Tabeau, Andrzej A.; Woltjer, Geert B.; van Meijl, Hans
  8. Agricultural productivity and public expenditures in sub-saharan africa: By Allen, Summer L.; Qaim, Matin
  9. Mining, Pollution and Agricultural Productivity: Evidence from Ghana By Fernando Aragon; Juan Pablo Rud
  10. Exploring agricultural levers for mitigating the overnutrition burden in India: By Sachdev, H.P.S.
  11. Innovation and research by private agribusiness in India: By Pray, Carl E.; Nagarajan, Latha
  12. Macro-Micro Linkages and Rural Livelihood Improvements in Africa By Mapila, Mariam A.T.J.; Kirsten, Johann F.; Meyer, Ferdinand H.
  13. Discrete Choice Modeling of Consumer Preferences for Sustainably Produced Steak and Apples By Sackett, Hillary M.; Shupp, Robert S.; Tonsor, Glynn T.
  14. The Beauty of the Commons? Consumers’ participation in Food Community Networks By Cembalo, Luigi; Lombardi, Alessia; Pascucci, Stefano; Dentoni, Domenico; Migliore, Giuseppina; Verneau, Fabio; Schifani, Giorgio
  15. Impact of Trade Liberalization and World Price Changes in Bangladesh: A Computable General Equilibrium Analysis By Alam, Mohammad Jahangir; Buysse, Jeroen; Begum, Ismat Ara; Nolte, Stephan; Wailes, Eric J.; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido
  16. Demand for Maize Hybrids, Seed Subsidies, and Seed Decisionmakers in Zambia. By Smale, Melinda; Mason, Nicole M.
  17. A Censored Demand System Analysis of Fruits and Vegetables by Different Income Groups Using Micro Data By Niu, Luyuan; Wohlgenant, Michael
  18. Agricultural trade for food security in Africa: A Ricardian model approach By Diagne, Mandiaye; Abele, Steffen; Diagne, Aliou; Seck, Papa A.
  19. Land institutions, investments, and income diversification : Pathways to economic development for Brazil's quilombo communities By Bowser, William; Nelson, Carl H.
  20. The relevance of content in ICT initiatives in Indian agriculture : By Glendenning, Claire J.; Ficarelli, Pier Paolo
  21. Agricultural Trade and Freshwater Resources By Reimer, Jeffrey J.
  22. Can local be the new organic? Food choice motives and willingness to pay By Roosen, Jutta; Kottl, Barbara; Hasselbach, Johanna
  23. Smallholder compliance with private standard certification: the case of GlobalGAP adoption by mango producers in Peru By Lemeilleur, Sylvaine
  24. The Structure and Profitability of Organic Field Crop Production: The Case of Wheat By McBride, William D.; Greene, Catherine R.; Ali, Mir B.; Foreman, Linda F.
  25. The dynamics of insurance demand under liquidity constraints and insurer default risk: By Liu, Yanyan; Myers, Robert J.
  26. Reforming the public administration for food security and agricultural development : Insights from an empirical study in Karnataka By Birner, Regina; Sekher, Madhushree; Raabe, Katharina
  27. Aggregate Technical Efficiency and Water Use in U.S. Agriculture By Zaeske, Andrew
  28. The Impact of Child Obesity ews on Household Food Expenditure in the United Kingdom By Silva, Andres; Garcia, Marian; Bailey, Alastair
  29. Pluralistic extension system in Malawi: By Masangano, Charles; Mthinda, Catherine
  30. Government expenditures, social outcomes, and marginal productivity of agricultural inputs: a case study for Tanzania By Allen, Summer L.; Badiane, Ousmane; Ulimwengu, John M.
  31. Promoting Healthful Foods: Could Water be the Answer? By Cornwell, T. Bettina; McAlister, Anna R.
  32. Improved Legume Seed Demand Systems in Central Malawi: What Do Farmers' Seed Expenditures Say about Their Preferences? By Kankwamba, Henry; Mangisoni, Julius; Simtowe, Franklin; Mausch, Kai; Siambi, Moses
  33. Tracing the Poverty Impact of Market Reforms in Bangladesh By Alam, Mohammad Jahangir; Bhuiyan, Nazmul; Begum, Ismat Ara; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido
  34. Supply Response of Export Crops in Zambia: The Case of Coffee By Mofya-Mukuka, Rhoda; Abdulai, Awudu
  35. Grocery Purchases of WIC and SNAP Recipients: Quantifying the Effect of a Prescriptive Program Design By Tripp, Amanda S.; Henderson, Kathryn E.; Andreyeva, Tatiana
  36. Demand for maize hybrids, seed subsidies, and seed decisionmakers in Zambia By Smale, Melinda; Mason, Nicole
  37. Did the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Increase in SNAP Benefits Reduce the Impact of Food Deserts? By Andrews, Margaret S.; Bhatta, Rhea; Ver Ploeg, Michele
  38. The potential impact of the Health Check™ on diet quality of food away from home purchases By Goddard, Ellen W.; Drescher, Larissa S.; Fernando, Jeewani
  39. Environmental Provisions in Free Trade Agreements By Colyer, Dale
  40. Small is Beautiful? Firm's Size, Prevention & Food Safety. By Rouviere, Elodie; Soubeyran, Raphael
  41. An Empirical Investigation into the Determinants of Trade Policy Bias By Hink, Matthew J.; Cardwell, Ryan T.; Lawley, Chad
  42. Measuring the contribution of Bt cotton adoption to India's cotton yields leap: By Gruere, Guillaume P.; Sun, Yan
  43. Local identity and food and wine communication as a lever for place marketing By Paolo Enria
  44. A Heuristic Optimization Model for Vegetable Production and Marketing Decisions By Dillon, Carl; Vassalos, Michael
  45. All eggs in one basket : A reflection on Malawi's dependence on agricultural growth strategy By Droppelmann, Klaus; Makuwira, Jonathan; Kumwenda, Ian
  46. IMPACT OF FOOD CONTAMINATION ON BRANDS: A DEMAND SYSTEMS ESTIMATION OF PEANUT BUTTER By Bakhtavoryan, Rafael; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Salin, Victoria
  47. The Value and Cost of Restaurant Calorie Labels: Results from a Field Experiment By Ellison, Brenna D.; Lusk, Jayson L.; Davis, David W.
  48. Do consumers’ preferences change when on vacation? A willingness to pay study on apples and honey By Morkbak, Morten Raun; Jensen, Jorgen Dejgaard
  49. Reformulation for healthier food: a qualitative assessment of alternative approaches By Traill, W. Bruce; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Gennaro, Laura; Koziol‐Kozakowska, Agnieszka; Kuhn, Sofia; Wills, Jo
  50. Credit Constraint and Non-separable Behavior of Rural Households — Evidence from China By Zhao, Jianmei; Zhang, Jun
  51. Food Authenticity, Technology and Consumer Acceptance By Hobbs, Jill E.; McDonald, Jill; Zhang, Jing
  52. Relating Behavioral Elements of Household Food Negotiation to Childhood Overweight and Obesity By Ehmke, Mariah D.; Schroeter, Christiane; Morgan, Kari; Larson-Meyer, Enette; Ballenger, Nicole
  53. The Carrot or the Stick: Water Allocation Strategies for Uzbekistan By Andrey Zaikin; Ana Espinola-Arredondo
  54. Global Fair Trade Innovations: Trends 1999-2011 By Marconi, Nicholas G.; DiMarcello, Nicholas, III; Hooker, Neal H.
  55. Effects of Market and Policy Shocks on the Canadian and U.S. Cattle and Beef Industries By Twine, Edgar; Rude, James
  56. Opportunity entrepreneurs - potential drivers of non-farm growth in rural Vietnam? By Jürgen Brünjes; Javier Revilla Diez
  57. Statistical evidence about human influence on the climate system By Pierre Perron; Francisco Estrada; Benjamín Martínez-López
  58. Seasonal Effects of Water Quality on Infant and Child Health in India By Brainerd, Elizabeth; Menon, Nidhiya
  59. Individual social capital and access to formal credit in Thailand By Dufhues, Thomas; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Munkung, Nuchanata
  60. Trading off dietary choices, physical exercise and cardiovascular disease risks By Grisolia, Jose M.; Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, George; Kee, Frank
  61. Children’s Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables: Do School Environment and Policies Affect Choice in School Meals? By Ishdorj, Ariun; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Jensen, Helen H.
  62. Facilitating access to rural services in Vietnam: The invisible social capital link By Quoc, Hoang Dinh; Dufhues, Thomas; Buchenrieder, Gertrud
  63. The Fair Trade movement: an economic perspective By Kadow, Alexander

  1. By: Sarah, Kersting; Meike, Wollni
    Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of GlobalGAP adoption by small-scale fruit and vegetable farmers in Thailand focusing on GlobalGAP group certification, the costs and perceived benefits of GlobalGAP adoption, and the factors influencing standard adoption. GlobalGAP is the most important private standard for producers in the Thai horticultural sector concerning access to high-value markets, especially to Europe. We find that support by donors, exporters and public-private partnerships is vital to enable small-scale farmers to adopt the standard. GlobalGAP group certification encourages the formation of new institutional arrangements between farmers, exporters and donors. In our sample only participants from a development program were successful in adopting GlobalGAP and within the program farmers were either organized in certification groups where the Quality Management System (QMS) was run by farmers themselves, by an exporter or by a donor. The results of the adoption analysis suggest that household characteristics (age, education, wealth, availability of family labor), farm characteristics (farm size, intensity of irrigation use), the number of agricultural trainings subjects attended, prior involvement in high-value supply chains, as well as exporter and donor support in terms of costs of compliance, technical advice and management of the QMS influence GlobalGAP adoption.
    Keywords: Private standards, food safety, GlobalGAP adoption, new institutional arrangements, small-scale farmers, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Farm Management, International Development, Marketing,
    Date: 2012–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae12:123537&r=agr
  2. By: Dev, Mahendra S.
    Abstract: By now it is well recognized that agricultural development is important for enhancing nutrition. Agriculture-nutrition linkage has become an emerging area for research and policy in developing countries like India. Earlier studies have shown that there has been a disconnect between agriculture and nutrition particularly regarding policies. In this context, this paper looks at some key entry points for agriculture to influence nutrition and suggests policies for nutrition-sensitive agricultural development, within the current policy framework. In addition, it reviews three key agriculture-food programs for their nutrition sensitivity at the policy level, using a convergence framework. The three key entry points for agriculture-nutrition linkages are inclusive agriculture growth, food prices, and women in agriculture. It provides policy options for strengthening the linkages between agriculture and nutrition. This paper contributes towards an improved policy making in effecting a reduction in malnutrition in India.
    Keywords: Agricultural growth, Nutrition, women empowerment, Food prices, Convergence,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1184&r=agr
  3. By: Davis, James A.; Velandia, Margarita; Clark, Christopher D.; Lambert, Dayton M.; Jensen, Kimberly; Wilcox, Michael D.; Wszelaki, Annette
    Abstract: State programs promoting agricultural products have proliferated in response to increased consumer interest in locally grown foods. Tennessee, for example, currently has two state-sponsored programs promoting Tennessee agricultural products. This study examines the factors associated with fruit and vegetable farmer participation in these programs using mean comparisons and bivariate probit regression. Results suggest that farmer participation in these programs was associated with operation size, percentage of income from farming, percentage of annual sales from fresh produce, and attendance to University Extension educational events. These results should interest individuals attempting to increase producer participation in these types of programs.
    Keywords: State-sponsored marketing program, fruit and vegetable marketing, Tennessee producer participation, bivariate probit regression.JEL: Q13, Q18., Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Marketing, Q13, Q18.,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea12:123923&r=agr
  4. By: Mason, Nicole M.; Ricker-Gilbert, Jacob
    Abstract: Input subsidy programs that provide inorganic fertilizer and improved maize seed to small farmers below market rates are currently receiving a great deal of support as a sustainable strategy to foster an African Green Revolution. In recent years numerous countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) including Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Senegal, Tanzania, and Zambia have implemented such programs at substantial cost to government and donor budgets. For example, in 2008 Malawi spent roughly 70% of the Ministry of Agriculture’s budget or just over 16% of the government’s total budget subsidizing fertilizer and seed. In Zambia between 2004 and 2011, an average of 40% of the government’s agricultural sector budget was devoted to fertilizer and maize seed subsidies each year.
    Keywords: Malawi, Zambia, seed, input subsidies, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2012–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:midcwp:123554&r=agr
  5. By: Williamson, James M.; Durst, Ron L.
    Keywords: Federal Tax Reform, Agriculture, Farm Business, Agricultural Finance, H20, Q14,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea12:123753&r=agr
  6. By: Llobrera, Joseph
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123528&r=agr
  7. By: Banse, Martin; Junker, Franziska; Prins, Anne Gerdien; Stehfest, Elke; Tabeau, Andrzej A.; Woltjer, Geert B.; van Meijl, Hans
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the consequences of enhanced biofuel production in regions and countries of the world that have announced plans to implement or expand on biofuel policies. The analysis considers not only mandatory blending targets for transportation fuels, but also voluntary ones. The chosen quantitative modeling approach is two-fold: it combines a multi-sectoral economic model (LEITAP) with a spatial bio-physical land use model (IMAGE). This paper adds to existing research by considering biofuel policies in the EU, the US and various other countries with considerable agricultural production and trade, such as Brazil, India and China. Moreover, the combination of the two modeling systems allows for the observation of changes in both economic and bio-physical indicators. The results show that some indicators with high political relevance, such as agricultural prices and greenhouse gas emissions from land use, do not necessarily react proportionally to increasing demand for agricultural products from the biofuel sector. This finding should be considered when designing biofuel policies because these indicators are directly relevant for food security and climate change.
    Keywords: Biofuel mandates, Land use changes, Greenhouse gas emissions, International Relations/Trade, Land Economics/Use, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae12:123838&r=agr
  8. By: Allen, Summer L.; Qaim, Matin
    Abstract: National governments, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, have limited budgets and are forced to make difficult funding decisions regarding the provision of social services and the support of agricultural programs. These provisions can play a critical role in rural incomes and agricultural production but due to data constraints, the effects of different types of social services on agricultural productivity in this region have not been analyzed in detail. This research provides indication that certain types of social services can influence agricultural production efficiency using the currently available data and multiple empirical methods. Specifically, it estimates the role of social services in the efficiency of input use for agricultural production, using both Stochastic Frontier Analysis and a Structural Equation Model. Ultimately, our conclusions are substantially limited by data constraints, but provide some indication that certain types of social services can influence agricultural production efficiency for a select set of African countries
    Keywords: Cross-country studies, Stochastic, efficiency analysis, public expenditure,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1173&r=agr
  9. By: Fernando Aragon (Simon Fraser University); Juan Pablo Rud (Royal Holloway University of London)
    Abstract: Most modern mines in the developing world are located in rural areas, where agriculture is the main source of livelihood. This creates the potential of negative spillovers to farmers through competition for key inputs (such as land) and environmental pollution. To explore this issue, we examine the case of gold mining in Ghana. Through the estimation of an agricultural production function using household level data, we find that mining has reduced agricultural productivity by almost 40%. This result is driven by polluting mines, not by input availability. Because of its crowding out effects on agriculture, we find that the mining activity is associated with an increase in poverty, child malnutrition and respiratory diseases. A simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the fiscal contribution of mining would not have been enough to compensate affected populations.
    Keywords: Natural resources; Mining; Pollution
    JEL: O13 Q11 Q33
    Date: 2012–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sfu:sfudps:dp12-08&r=agr
  10. By: Sachdev, H.P.S.
    Abstract: The current concern n for and policy response to malnutrition in India is solely restricted to undernutrition diagnosed on the basis of body size (anthropometry). However, recent evidence indicates that the burden of overnutrition and related morbidities is rapidly escalating to alarming proportions. This research first examines the need to address overnutrition in India and subsequently explores the potential of the agricultural sector to mitigate the burden of over nutrition and related non-communicable diseases. The demographic, economic, and dietary transitions seen in India are causing rapid escalation in overnutrition and related morbidities, particularly in urban areas and higher-income groups but also among the poor, with faster escalation expected to occur among this group in the future. Evidence is provided that agricultural policies and production practices affect diet through their influence on food availability, price, and nutrient quality, which, in turn, affect the food choices available to consumers. Agricultural policies are amenable to intervention, but interventions should avoid two potential failings: (1) mitigation of one component of the dual burden (undernutrition and overnutrition) should not inadvertently escalate the other, and (2) socioeconomic equity should not worsen rather than improving. The author concludes that cost-effective strategies that may produce the largest health gains in the shortest timeframe include (1) fiscal measures that increase the price of unhealthy food content or reduce the cost of healthy foods and (2) regulatory measures that improve nutritional information or restrict the marketing of unhealthy foods, particularly to children. Possibilities meriting consideration, as prioritized by the author, include (1) increasing access to and consumption of pulses, vegetables and fruits, and coarse grains and (2) taxation and regulatory measures to curtail the consumption of unhealthy vegetable fats and oils, and processed foods with a high content of oils, fats, sugars, and salt.
    Keywords: Agriculture, overnutrition, undernutrition,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1183&r=agr
  11. By: Pray, Carl E.; Nagarajan, Latha
    Abstract: Agricultural research and innovation has been a major source of agricultural growth in developing countries. Unlike most research on agricultural research and innovation which concentrated on the role of government research institutes and the international agricultural research centers of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research, this paper focuses on private sector research and innovation. It measures private research and innovation in India where agribusiness is making major investments in research and producing innovations that are extremely important to farmers. It also reviews Indian policies that influence research and innovation. This new data and policy analysis can provide India policy makers with a basis for policies that can strengthen the direction and impact of agricultural research and innovation in the future. Agricultural innovations in India have rapidly increased since the 1980s. Government data and surveys of seed firms show that from about 1990 to 2010 the number of new seed cultivars available to farmers in maize, wheat, and rice roughly doubled, while the number of cotton cultivars at least tripled. Biotechnology innovations went from zero in the 1990s to 5 genetically modified (GM) traits in hundreds of GM cotton cultivars by 2008. Pesticide registrations went from 104 in the period 1980–1989 to 228 during the period 2000–2010. Similar growth in innovations also occurred in the agricultural machinery, veterinary medicine, and agricultural processing industries. These innovations have come from foreign technology transferred into India as well as from in-country public and—increasingly—private research. Based on interviews with firms and data from annual reports, we find that private investment in agricultural research grew from US$54 million in 1994/95 to US$250 million in 2008/09 (in 2005 dollars). Growth in private research and development (R&D) expenditure was particularly rapid in the seed and plant biotechnology industry, which grew by more than 10 times between the mid-1990s and 2009. Private innovations have contributed to agricultural productivity and incomes. Research and innovation by private industry led to the boom in cotton exports and to rapid increases in exports of generic pesticides and agricultural machinery. Private hybrids of cotton, rice, maize, pearl millet, and sorghum increased yields over public hybrids, varieties, and landraces. Small farmers in some of the poorest regions of India—the semiarid tropics of central India and the rainfed rice regions of eastern India—get higher productivity with private hybrids. The increases in innovation and R&D were led by expanding demand for agricultural products, which increased demand for land-, labor-, and water-saving inputs. A second major factor was the economic liberalization that allowed large Indian corporations, business houses, and foreign firms to invest in agriculture and agribusiness. Firms' decisions to conduct research in India were also encouraged by strong public-sector research, which provided firms with increased opportunities to develop new products with scientists, such as hybrid cultivars. Finally, research was stimulated by the availability of new tools of science, such as biotechnology, and by the recent strengthening of intellectual property rights.
    Keywords: Agricultural R&, D, Agricultural research, Agricultural development, Private sector, private sector research, Technology transfer, Innovation, Innovation Policy,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1181&r=agr
  12. By: Mapila, Mariam A.T.J.; Kirsten, Johann F.; Meyer, Ferdinand H.
    Abstract: This study develops a multi-equation partial equilibrium model of the Malawi maize market which is linked sequentially to a local maize economy to show that the skepticism surrounding the use of innovation systems in agricultural research in Africa is not unfounded. The results demonstrate that participating households have the potential to be negatively affected by greater linkages with the market given policy shocks. Therefore in order for the innovation systems perspective in agricultural research to be effective in sustaining robust livelihoods in Africa and to ensure sustainable utilization of natural resources; interventions must be implemented only after systematic analysis of the potential consequences of the resultant macro-micro linkages; thus ensuring harmony between policies and micro-level livelihood strategies.
    Keywords: Agricultural policy modeling, Agricultural Innovation Systems, Macro-micro approach, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae12:123641&r=agr
  13. By: Sackett, Hillary M.; Shupp, Robert S.; Tonsor, Glynn T.
    Abstract: "Sustainably produced" food labels have rapidly grown in popularity over the past decade (Batte 2011). Moreover, because there is no government agency overseeing certication of these production methods, consumers are generally confused about the production attributes that may or may not be present in a sustainable food system. This paper analyzes data from a hypothetical choice experiment to better understand consumer purchasing behavior when faced with competing food production attributes such as "organic" and "local". We seek to estimate preferences for "sustainably produced" food products and determine how they may be aected by varying degrees of information about sustainable agricultural systems. Additionally, the willingness to pay measurements estimated in this paper provide insight into the trade-os perceived between current eco-labeling schemes, and the potential for differentiating "sustainably produced" products from their "organic" and "local" counterparts.
    Keywords: Sustainably Produced Food, Choice Experiment, Consumer Preferences, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Q01, Q13, Q11,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123517&r=agr
  14. By: Cembalo, Luigi; Lombardi, Alessia; Pascucci, Stefano; Dentoni, Domenico; Migliore, Giuseppina; Verneau, Fabio; Schifani, Giorgio
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123531&r=agr
  15. By: Alam, Mohammad Jahangir; Buysse, Jeroen; Begum, Ismat Ara; Nolte, Stephan; Wailes, Eric J.; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido
    Abstract: The paper analyzes the impact of trade liberalization and changes in world prices of agricultural commodities in Bangladesh using single country CGE model. Since the agricultural sector is sensitive to overall employment, household welfare and food security, the analysis focuses on the changes in agricultural production, consumption, household income and welfare. The results show that trade liberalization increases the welfare of all household groups while world market price increases decrease welfare. It means that although trade liberalization generates a welfare increase for households but this is dependent on the relative level of world commodity prices. Our results are based on the analysis of aggregate household groups, so it may be of future research interest to extend the model with more detailed household groups using a CGE-micro simulation approach.
    Keywords: static, CGE, trade policy, world prices, agricultural commodities, Bangladesh, Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae12:123724&r=agr
  16. By: Smale, Melinda; Mason, Nicole M.
    Abstract: The successful development and diffusion of improved maize seed in Zambia during the 1970s–80s was a major achievement of African agriculture but was predicated on a government commitment to parastatal grain and seed marketing, the provision of services to maize growers, and a pan-territorial pricing scheme that was fiscally unsustainable. Declining maize output when this system was dismantled contributed to the reinstatement in 2002 of subsidies for maize seed and fertilizer through the Fertilizer and Farmer Input Support Programs (FISP). In the meantime, seed liberalization has led to an array of new, improved maize varieties, most of which are hybrids. This analysis explores the determinants of demand for first-generation (F1) hybrid maize seed in Zambia based on a survey of maize growers during the 2010/11 cropping season.
    Keywords: Zambia, Maize, seed subsidies, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2012–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:midcwp:123555&r=agr
  17. By: Niu, Luyuan; Wohlgenant, Michael
    Abstract: This study examines demand for fruits and vegetables segmented by income levels in a complete demand system framework using the Consumer Expenditure Survey (CEX) from 2002 to 2006. Results show that disparities are found between high-income households and low-income households. Seasonal effects and demographic variables, such as household heads’ race and gender, region, household size and household composition, play an important role in fruit and vegetable consumption for both categories of household. In contrast, urban status, household heads’ educational level and age are not found to have a statistically significant impact for lowincome households. Conditional price elasticities indicate that processed fruits and vegetables, fresh fruits and fresh vegetables are “gross complements” and “net substitutes”. Moreover, compared to high-income households, the low-income households are more responsive to own price changes for all three categories; these households are also more responsive to expenditure changes for processed fruits and vegetables.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea12:123938&r=agr
  18. By: Diagne, Mandiaye; Abele, Steffen; Diagne, Aliou; Seck, Papa A.
    Abstract: Regionalism and food security is a relatively neglected topic with very limited literature. We use a Ricardian trade model with multiple goods and countries which embeds a structure of gravity equation and yield variability. Our study shows that integration with African markets of staple foods is associated with higher growth, underpinning the need for growth strategies to emphasize scaling up and diversifying exports within Africa. Africa needs to unlock its high potential untapped land and fill up the yield gap. We found as well that enhanced competitiveness and reduced barriers to trade are the two critical areas of action.
    Keywords: Ricardian model, yield variability, agricultural trade, staple foods, Africa, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2012–05–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae12:123842&r=agr
  19. By: Bowser, William; Nelson, Carl H.
    Abstract: Efforts to distribute land titles to low-income rural Afro-Brazilian communities, known as quilombos, have been disappointing despite the provision of ample government resources. Until now, research on the implications of Brazil s land reform policies has not considered quilombo communities in an economic context. The unique case of the quilombo communities provides an interesting context to advance the understanding of the role of land titles in rural income generation. The impact of land tenure security in the cycle of assets, activities, and income is explored to identify the importance of institutions for land dependent agricultural enterprises. We find evidence of land titles contributing to desirable welfare outcomes through their impact on production and investment behavior. Income diversity from various production activities is found to positively contribute to higher income levels, particularly for producers earning more than the minimum wage, once conditioned on secure land rights and productive investments.
    Keywords: assets, Institutions, diversification, Land tenure, Property rights, Rural investment,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1179&r=agr
  20. By: Glendenning, Claire J.; Ficarelli, Pier Paolo
    Abstract: In the past decade, many information and communication technology (ICT) projects in Indian agriculture have emerged, either substituting or supporting extension services by providing farmers with access to agricultural information. ICTs have the potential to reach many farmers with timely and accessible content. But the content that the ICTs deliver has more relevance if it is localized and context specific, as this improves the value and actionability of the information, which can have important impacts on farm management. The localization of content is influenced by how the ICT projects access, assess, apply, and deliver content. This paper examines the content development and management processes occurring in six well-known ICT projects in Indian agriculture. There are important lessons to be learned from a case study of this process. Content management and development through ICTs is important to examine because public extension services may be able to increase their efficiency and effectiveness by using these tools to support their work with farmers. Though there are differences in scale and mechanisms of delivery and feedback, all of the case study projects use a network of experts in relevant fields to provide content, though the extent of localization varies. Despite the best efforts of these and many other e-agriculture initiatives in India, there is no easy way for their collective knowledge to be tapped, tracked, and put to use across the different platforms. In fact, there is a critical missing link to bridge the gaps between local or parochial access and serving public needs. To mainstream such ICT efforts and knowledge management in agriculture for rural livelihoods, it is necessary to put in place a centralized search engine, or harvester, to access the decentralized and dispersed digital agricultural information repositories and network of experts.
    Keywords: agricultural extension and advisory services, content management, information and communication technology,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1180&r=agr
  21. By: Reimer, Jeffrey J.
    Abstract: Approximately 75% of all water used by humans goes towards food production, much of which is traded internationally. This study formally models how this works in the case of crop agriculture, making use of recent advances in international trade theory and new data on the productivity by which countries use water for crop agriculture. The strength of the model lies in its ability to predict, when there is a shock to the system, how trade between pairs of specific countries changes for products that use water intensively. In one application of the model, international trade in final products is shown to be a means for countries to deal with short- and long-run shocks to water resources that are too big for one country to handle by itself in isolation. In a second application of the model, trade liberalization is shown to be a means for conserving water at the global level, as production shifts to regions where it is of greater abundance.
    Keywords: climate change, simulation, trade liberalization, water, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, International Development, International Relations/Trade, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, F11, F18, Q25, Q54,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea12:123944&r=agr
  22. By: Roosen, Jutta; Kottl, Barbara; Hasselbach, Johanna
    Abstract: Due to growth and changing distribution channels for organic food in Germany, there is some concern that organic food will lose against local food in the competition for conscious consumers. In this paper we will present the results of a survey in Bavaria searching for consumer motives and label recognition. A choice experiment using different prices, brands and labels is conducted for bread, beer and milk. Results show the importance of local production to the surveyed consumers, similarly for conventional as for organic products.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123512&r=agr
  23. By: Lemeilleur, Sylvaine
    Abstract: The prevalence of food quality standards in international trade is constantly increasing and has a growing influence on developing countries. A wide range of literature in development economics has focused on the debate of whether international standards exclude small-scale farmers from high-value food markets. In fact, the evidence is mixed. New debates arise on what conditions small farmers can really comply with, pointing out both threshold capital requirements, on the one hand, and industry structure and institutional environment, on the other hand. Drawing on a microeconomic approach, our paper is a contribution to the literature exploring the patterns and determinants of smallholders’ adoption of the food standard. We focus our case study on GlobalGAP adoption by small-scale fresh mango producers in Peru. Based on an analysis of primary data collected on the Peruvian mango sector, we show empirically that a few smallholders are engaged in GlobalGAP certification for a maximum of 3 years. They comply with the standard thanks to the support of exporting companies. Exporters offer the farmers contract farming, which includes technical advice and the annual certification cost. Nonetheless, farmers who are integrating into this high value-added supply chain seem to be selected on the basis of their proximity to the exporter plant (reducing transaction costs) and their ability to become reliable suppliers over the long term (experienced, specialized, and used to respecting contracts). These farms also must demonstrate their ability to deliver with short lead times (presence of mobile phone, distance to the plant). Finally, the paper underlines the key role of exporters in Peru as intermediaries and organizers in the way smallholders may participate in private standards in agrifood value chains.
    Keywords: GlobalGAP, standard adoption, development, small-scale farmer, mango, Peru, Agribusiness, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Development, Marketing, L22, O12, Q13,
    Date: 2012–08–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae12:123457&r=agr
  24. By: McBride, William D.; Greene, Catherine R.; Ali, Mir B.; Foreman, Linda F.
    Abstract: Results from long-term experimental trials suggest that similar yields and lower costs are possible from organic compared with conventional field crop production, but there is little information about the relative costs and returns on commercial farms. This study examines the structure and profitability of commercial wheat production using a nationwide survey of wheat producers for 2009 that includes a targeted sample of organic growers. Treatment-effect models were specified to isolate the impact of choosing the organic approach on various levels of wheat production costs. Average organic wheat yields were much lower than for conventional wheat, but per acre operating plus capital costs were also lower. Estimated operating costs per bushel for organic wheat were lower than for conventional wheat, but operating plus capital costs and total economic costs were about $2 to $4 per bushel higher. The average organic price premium in 2009 was $3.79 per bushel, enough to cover the difference in operating plus capital costs of organic versus conventional wheat production, but was short of the difference in total economic costs
    Keywords: wheat, organic, production costs, profitability, Crop Production/Industries, Farm Management, Production Economics,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea12:123835&r=agr
  25. By: Liu, Yanyan; Myers, Robert J.
    Abstract: Low demand for micro-insurance has been a prominent problem in developing countries. We study the dynamics of insurance demand by risk-averse farmers who can borrow and lend subject to a credit constraint and who also perceive a risk of insurer default. Credit constraints and the possibility of insurer default both reduce the demand for insurance. We then propose an alternative insurance design that allows farmers to enter an insurance contract while delaying payment of the premium until the end of the insured period. We show how this alternative design can increase insurance take-up by relaxing the liquidity constraint and assuaging farmers' concerns about insurer default. We also investigate the effects of the associated problem of farmers reneging on their delayed premium payment if the insured event does not occur.
    Keywords: Insurance, Agricultural, delayed premium payment, insurance demand, liquidity constraint, insurer default,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1174&r=agr
  26. By: Birner, Regina; Sekher, Madhushree; Raabe, Katharina
    Abstract: Strategies to reform rural service provision in India have focused on improving people's capacity to demand better services from government agencies. However, efforts to reform the public-sector agencies that provide essential rural services have been limited. Moreover, major knowledge gaps exist on how incentive problems and governance challenges vary across the agencies that provide the services and how they can be addressed. This paper aims to contribute to this knowledge gap. The empirical analysis is based on a survey of 206 field-level staff members of five government departments that provide rural services: Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, Food and Civil Supplies, Women and Child Development, and Rural Development and Panchayati Raj (local government). The paper also draws on a survey of 966 rural households that receive services from these departments. The analysis indicates that there are significant differences across departments regarding the incentives and constraints faced by their frontline service providers. Lack of staff was found to be a major constraint for agricultural and veterinary services, whereas frontline staff in charge of food distribution and civil works experienced political interference as a particularly serious constraint. Contrary to widely held assumptions, availability of funding and administrative procedures was not considered by frontline staff as a major constraint. The findings from the household survey indicate that access and satisfaction with services differ significantly according to caste and gender, even though these effects are not uniform across services. The paper compares the findings of the study with the recommendations of the country's Second Administrative Reform Commission and concludes that some constraints, such as political interference, require more attention to make service delivery responsive to the needs of the poor.
    Keywords: public-sector management reform, Rural service provision,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1175&r=agr
  27. By: Zaeske, Andrew (CERE, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics)
    Abstract: In the United States freshwater withdrawals for agriculture account for 80% of all out of stream water withdrawals from 1985 to 2005. To assess what drives water use in agriculture, we use the two error stochastic frontier analysis model of Battese and Coelli (1995) to estimate a translog production frontier for agriculture at the state level. The inclusion of non-negative technical inefficiency effects allows us to account for additional characteristics in our assessment of production inefficiency. The average marginal value of irrigation is $380, while we fi nd that on average $1 of intermediate inputs provides $0.96 of final output. These results are driven by a small subset of states with large negative values, indicating persistent misallocation of resources. The inefficiency effects regression finds that government subsidies increase in value of output of 0:083 per real dollar of subsidies and that that shifts from larger acreage farms to lower acreage ones will generally be efficiency increasing. This analysis highlights differences in water use and how they can have major implications for farm policy as a whole. Of particular note is the measured positive correlation between having a negative marginal product of intermediates and having a positive marginal product of irrigation, which suggests that shifts in inputs from intermediates to irrigation are a ripe target for efficiency gains in many states.
    Keywords: agriculture; water use
    JEL: Q25
    Date: 2012–05–25
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hhs:slucer:2012_011&r=agr
  28. By: Silva, Andres; Garcia, Marian; Bailey, Alastair
    Abstract: The United Kingdom (UK) has one of the highest obesity levels in the world (Mazzocchi et al., 2009). As indicated by the National Health Service (2010), 25% of adults and 17% of children are obese in the UK. This last statistic represents an increase of four points in comparison to 1995. The Government Office for Science (2010) estimated that by 2050, half of the UK population would be obese, with a consequent direct annual cost of £10 billion and an indirect annual cost of £50 billion at today’s prices. This research aims to contribute to the debate on how health-related information impacts household food expenditure and whether this impact varies across income groups and household composition. This study specifically measures the impact of child obesity news on household food expenditure in the UK. To this end, the study calculated a set of elasticities for different income groups (high vs. low) and family composition (families with and without children). This set of elasticities gives us a measure of responsiveness, to change in terms of price, income and news. The results indicate that child obesity news causes different impacts on households according to their income level and household composition. Low-income households without children are not significantly impacted by child obesity news. Low-income households with children change their food expenditure composition to a healthier diet without changing the overall food expenditure. High-income households without children decrease their overall food expenditure, mainly changing red meat for dairy products. Finally, high-income households with children increase their overall food expenditure and move on to a healthier diet. Therefore, in three out of four household cases, child obesity news causes a different and positive impact on diet. Low-income households with children in default-mode spend the smallest proportion of their income on fruit and vegetables; which is even less than low-income households without children. More importantly, low-income households with children influence the nutritional habits of their children. This research shows that low-income households with children respond to child obesity news and move on to a healthier diet without causing undesirable income redistribution.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123526&r=agr
  29. By: Masangano, Charles; Mthinda, Catherine
    Abstract: This descriptive study was undertaken in order to assess the status of extension services in Malawi 10 years after implementation of the pluralistic and demand-driven extension policy. The findings would help practitioners and policy makers in their efforts to strengthen the extension system and enable it to serve the smallholder farmers more effectively. A worldwide extension assessment mail-out questionnaire was administered to 37 agricultural extension service providers to collect quantitative data on primary organizational goals, functions, and resources, and the linkages of different extension organizations within an agricultural innovation systems framework. The findings indicate that there were many players in agricultural extension service delivery as a result of the pluralistic policy but the government extension service remained the largest in terms of staffing and spread. The primary focus for most organizations was to help smallholder farmers improve their livelihoods with special efforts to target women. Government extension service was characterized by limited resources, but many field staff with low qualifications. Most of the other extension organizations had limited staff concentrated at higher levels with no grassroots staff thereby depending on government extension staff to reach farmers. Strong institutional linkages existed at district levels and local agencies as well as with non-governmental organizations but there were weak linkages with education and research institutions. Among others, the study calls for more investments in the government extension system while strengthening coordination with the civil society organizations to effectively serve the needs of smallholder farmers in Malawi.
    Keywords: agricultural extension, extension organization, pluralistic extension policy, Smallholder farmers,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1171&r=agr
  30. By: Allen, Summer L.; Badiane, Ousmane; Ulimwengu, John M.
    Abstract: In an effort to inform strategic options to improve agricultural productivity, we examine the impact of social service expenditures on the marginal productivity of agricultural inputs. Increasing agricultural productivity is often advocated as a way to reduce poverty, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where many people still rely on agriculture as their main source of income. Unfortunately, limited national budgets are often focused on meeting short-term needs rather than on making longer-term, growth-enhancing investments in agriculture and rural areas. Using Tanzania as a case study, this research investigates the direct and indirect impacts of district-level health and education expenditures on marginal productivities of agricultural inputs through education and health outcomes. This approach uses recently-released data for Tanzania and health and education spending data as well as an innovative combination of approaches including a general covariance structure model and a mixed linear model to allow for district-level heterogeneity. Our results suggest a significant and nonlinear relationship between social outcomes and social expenditures and point to the importance of these outcomes in productivity. Marginal productivities of inputs are significant and confirm the validity of a heterogeneous technology approach. As expected, labor productivity, in particular, responds significantly to health and education outcomes. The findings also point to the importance of controlling for intra-country socioeconomic and agro-climatic heterogeneity.
    Keywords: marginal productivity, social expenditure, state variables,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1172&r=agr
  31. By: Cornwell, T. Bettina; McAlister, Anna R.
    Abstract: Food consumption choice rather than simply food consumption knowledge is now considered important in better understanding the unfolding obesity epidemic. In this paper, crossdisciplinary research examines food and drink combining. A survey-based pilot study examines the food and drink pairing preferences of young adults and shows strong preferences exist. A laboratory study with young children finds food consumption is not influenced by the child’s fussiness but is influenced by the drink accompaniment. Both palate preference and associative learning are explored as mechanisms driving the effects of drink context on food consumption.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123533&r=agr
  32. By: Kankwamba, Henry; Mangisoni, Julius; Simtowe, Franklin; Mausch, Kai; Siambi, Moses
    Abstract: The overall objective of this paper is to assess the demand for improved groundnut, bean, and soybean seed in central Malawi. Specifically, it examines how smallholder farmers respond to changes in market prices of improved legume seed. It also assesses factors that affect the decision to participate in improved seed technology transfer. Considering four commodities namely groundnuts, beans, soybeans and maize, a staple food, the paper estimates a multivariate probit and a linear approximate of the Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS) using cross section data collected by ICRISAT in 2010. Uncompensated price and expenditure elasticities are reported for the LA/AIDS model. The paper finds high own price elasticities in all four commodities considered. It also indicates that land, household size and education levels affect participation in improved technology. The results further reveal that improved groundnut seed has a substitutive relationship with soybeans. Groundnut and bean cross price elasticity showed an almost unitary relationship with groundnut but groundnut showed complementary relationship with maize seed. Beans showed a less than unitary substitutive relationship with soy and an elastic substitution with maize. Soybean had a substitutive relationship with all seed commodities in question. As pertain expenditure elasticities, farmers would increase expenditure on improved groundnut and beans if their incomes increased. The results also reveal that if farmers’ incomes increase they would reduce soybean’s expenditure share. The results generally show that farmers are very sensitive to changes in improved legume seed prices and incomes.
    Keywords: Legumes, Multivariate Probit, LA/AIDS, Malawi, Demand and Price Analysis,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae12:123945&r=agr
  33. By: Alam, Mohammad Jahangir; Bhuiyan, Nazmul; Begum, Ismat Ara; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido
    Abstract: The paper analyse the impact of market reforms on poverty in Bangladesh. To estimate the poverty impact at household level, a binary logit model has been estimated with two latest waves of household income and expenditure data from Bangladesh. The results show that a significant improvement has been made in reducing poverty in the recent decades. As a net importing country, liberalization might has direct impact on household’s real income through the changes of real rice prices. The results also show that net rice buyer households are poorer than net rice sellers. So, decreased rice prices in domestic markets induced by liberalization have benefited the net rice buyers in Bangladesh, hence poverty declines.
    Keywords: market reforms, poverty, Bangladesh, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2012–05–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae12:123758&r=agr
  34. By: Mofya-Mukuka, Rhoda; Abdulai, Awudu
    Abstract: 1) Export diversification has long been at the centre of Zambia’s economic diversification policies. This article focuses on the coffee sector as a potentially important source of export diversification and examines its supply response to changes in various incentives. 2) Zambian coffee exhibits asymmetric short-run supply adjustments to long-run equilibrium such that production rises significantly after prices rise while changing little after prices fall. 3) The fact that coffee in Zambia is mainly grown for export, the changes in real exchange have the most significant effect on supply in that a depreciation in the Zambian Kwacha leads to an increase in coffee supply.
    Keywords: Zambia, coffee, export, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Security and Poverty,
    Date: 2012–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:midcpb:123556&r=agr
  35. By: Tripp, Amanda S.; Henderson, Kathryn E.; Andreyeva, Tatiana
    Abstract: Background: Federal food assistance and nutrition programs share a mission of helping lowincome households achieve adequate nutrition, but benefit structures of the programs differ. The Women, Infants and Children program (WIC) offers a limited number of nutritious foods, while the Supplemental Nutrition and Assistance Program (SNAP) has few restrictions on benefit use. Purpose: Compare the composition of grocery purchases among WIC and SNAP households and assess the effect of a prescriptive benefit design on grocery purchases. Methods: Transaction data from a supermarket chain was used to assess store purchases of 22,464 low-income households in January-June 2011. Purchased products were classified into 44 categories. The proportion of grocery spending was compared for four groups of low-income households: former WIC, WIC, SNAP and WIC & SNAP. Generalized linear regression models controlling for program participation and store level socio-demographics were used to predict purchase behavior by food category. Results: WIC households spent a smaller percentage of grocery dollars within discretionary food categories, compared to the other three groups. The percent of purchases within WIC-targeted food categories exceeded the share of WIC spending in total groceries, indicating a spillover effect of WIC-category purchases into personal funds. Conversely, SNAP households spent a greater proportion of grocery dollars within discretionary food categories, crowding out spending on fruits, vegetables and dairy, compared to the other groups. Conclusions: The prescriptive benefit design of WIC appears to influence purchasing decisions, including those made with personal funds. Limiting SNAP purchases of discretionary foods could potentially shift spending towards recommended foods.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2012–03–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123514&r=agr
  36. By: Smale, Melinda; Mason, Nicole
    Abstract: The successful development and diffusion of improved maize seed in Zambia during the 1970s–80s was a major achievement of African agriculture but was predicated on a government commitment to parastatal grain and seed marketing, the provision of services to maize growers, and a pan-territorial pricing scheme that was fiscally unsustainable. Declining maize output when this system was dismantled contributed to the reinstatement in 2002 of subsidies for maize seed and fertilizer through the Fertilizer and Farmer Input Support Programs (FISP). In the meantime, seed liberalization has led to an array of new, improved maize varieties, most of which are hybrids. This analysis explores the determinants of demand for first-generation (F1) hybrid maize seed in Zambia based on a survey of maize growers during the 2010/11 cropping season. We estimate the determinants of demand with a control function approach to handle the potential endogeneity of the binary variable measuring subsidy receipt and compare determinants of demand between female and male seed decisionmakers. We find that hybrid seed use in Zambia is still very much an "affair of state" in that farmers' use of F1 hybrids is explained largely by inclusion in FISP. The quality (literacy) of the labor supply, the ratio of active labor to dependents in the household, sources of information, and length of residence in the village are predictors of maize seed subsidy receipt. Overall, we find that male and female seed decisionmakers may represent distinct demand segments. The fact that the percentage of seed decisionmakers who are women is much higher than the percentage of women who are de jure or de facto household heads has implications for the design of extension strategies and variety promotion.
    Keywords: maize, Zambia, Africa, Africa South of Sahara, seed, fertilizer, hybrid, seed price, farmers, East Africa
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:harvwp:8&r=agr
  37. By: Andrews, Margaret S.; Bhatta, Rhea; Ver Ploeg, Michele
    Abstract: Public policy discussion of the problem of food deserts has concentrated on proximity to retail food stores providing nutritious, affordable foods. Because they offer a wide array of healthful products at lower prices, physical access to a supermarket or supercenter has come to be the standard of adequacy. Less attention has been given to how economic incentives influence access to retail food stores in the wider food environment. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) enacted a sizable increase in SNAP benefits effective April 2009. Though the primary purpose of the increase was to stimulate the economy, we argue that it had a secondary effect of encouraging SNAP participants to redeem more of their benefits at larger, lower-priced retailers. To investigate the effect of this policy change, we use county-level, administrative data on SNAP redemptions at different types of authorized food stores from May 2007 to May 2010. Data from the Economic Research Service’s Food Desert Locator are used to classify counties according to the percent of their population residing in food deserts. Results show that the SNAP benefit increase is associated with a greater percentage of redemptions at superstores. Estimates are stable across a number of specifications that also control for gas prices and store-type density. Within our sample of counties, we show that an $80 maximum SNAP benefit increased the percentage of benefits redeemed at supermarkets by 1.4 percentage points. In order to achieve a similar increase in redemptions at superstores, store density would have to increase from one superstore every 24 square miles to 1 superstore every 15 square miles. Impacts of the benefit increase were positive, but somewhat smaller in areas with more of their population residing in food deserts.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123520&r=agr
  38. By: Goddard, Ellen W.; Drescher, Larissa S.; Fernando, Jeewani
    Abstract: Consumption of food away from home (FAFH) is widely believed to be a contributing factor to the current obesity crisis and other diet related problems in North America. Although FAFH expenditure represents a lower proportion of food expenditure in Canada than in the United States (24% versus 50%) it is still a significant part of Canadian diets. The Canadian Heart and Stroke Foundation has developed a third party accreditation program to identify healthy food items in grocery stores and more recently, restaurants, called the Health Check™ program. The program is not without controversy since some people feel that it is inappropriate to pay for the use of the label and it may be misleading that many processors and restaurants choose not to apply for their food products resulting, in some cases, that healthier foods without such a label may be next to other products with labels on shelves or on menus. For such a diet indicator to be helpful in enhancing public health the label must be used by people who have health problems and buy the food products labeled. The objective of this research is to examine the possible impact of the Health Check™ program for a particular group of Canadian FAFH consumers. Through the use of the NPD Group CREST® data over the period February 2007 to February 2009, actual restaurant purchases for a representative panel of Canadians were identified. In August 2009 a survey of 3319 of those same panelists was conducted. As part of the survey, respondents were asked for stated preferences for a turkey sandwich with various different nutrition labels and the Health Check™. The results suggest that there is on average a positive WTP for the provision of additional nutritional information associated with turkey sandwiches and for the Health Check™. The results highlight the importance of providing fat content information, in terms of attracting the attention of the survey respondents to the nutrient content. There is little link between survey respondents level of historical diet quality and their willingness to pay for the Health Check™ information in their sandwich purchases; unfortunately this suggests that the Health Check™ might not have its biggest impact on those that need it the most. For those with the highest historical diet quality the provision of nutrient information and/or the Health Check™ has little appeal, perhaps reflecting their higher existing nutritional engagement – do they actually need more information?
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123523&r=agr
  39. By: Colyer, Dale
    Abstract: Numbers of free trade ageements and those with environmental provisons have grownn rapidly. Enviomental measures include those to protect and enhance the environment, environmental cooperation and citizen particpation activties. Many appear to have made important contributions to environmental activities although often constrained by limited funds.
    Keywords: free trade, trade agreements, environment, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Relations/Trade, F13, F18,
    Date: 2012–05–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:wvucps:123723&r=agr
  40. By: Rouviere, Elodie; Soubeyran, Raphael
    Abstract: The European General Food Law of 2005 and the newly promulgated FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FFSMA) of 2010 ask all food operators to implement preventive efforts. In this article, we explore the link between firm’s size and preventive efforts. We show two main results. First, when there is no cross-contamination, small firms will provide higher preventive efforts than large firms. When there is crosscontamination, the effort-size curve may have a "inverted-U" shape. From our results we can argue that when implementing or enforcing food safety regulations, public authorities should consider both firms size and food safety hazard.
    Keywords: prevention effort, firm size, food safety, Agribusiness, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization, Risk and Uncertainty, Q18, L15, L5,
    Date: 2012–05–14
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea12:123410&r=agr
  41. By: Hink, Matthew J.; Cardwell, Ryan T.; Lawley, Chad
    Abstract: There exists an extensive literature that attempts to identify important factors that determine trade policies. An understanding of these important factors could be useful when negotiating trade agreements, especially in agriculture, which is a relatively heavily supported industry. Limao and Panagariya (L&P, 2007) modify Grossman and Helpman’s (G&H, 1994) lobbying model in an attempt to understand why anti-trade bias (as opposed to pro-trade bias, which is predicted by the G&H (1994) model) is the predominant pattern in observed trade policy. L&P (2007) propose that governments seek to reduce inequality between sectors by modifying trade policies in a way that reallocates income from the larger to the smaller sector. We use measures of trade bias calculated in the World Bank Distortions to Agricultural Incentives database (Anderson and Valenzuela, 2008) in an effort to explain trade bias in agriculture. We find little empirical evidence that governments pursue agricultural trade policies to reduce inequality within the agricultural sector. Lagged trade policies are significant determinants of current trade policy, suggesting the presence of policy persistence. We conclude that it is difficult to generalise determinants of trade policy across a wide and long panel of countries, and that specific knowledge of governments’ priorities are required to explain trade bias.
    Keywords: Agricultural Policy, Trade Policy, Political Economy, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Development, International Relations/Trade, Political Economy, Q17 Q18,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae12:123837&r=agr
  42. By: Gruere, Guillaume P.; Sun, Yan
    Abstract: While a number of empirical studies have demonstrated the role of Bt cotton adoption in increasing Indian cotton productivity at the farm level, there has been questioning around the overall contribution of Bt cotton to the average cotton yield increase observed these last ten years in India. This study examines the contribution of Bt cotton adoption to long- term average cotton yields in India using a panel data analysis of production variables in nine Indian cotton-producing states from 1975 to 2009. The results show that Bt cotton contributed 19 percent of total yield growth over time, or between 0.3 percent and 0.4 percent per percentage adoption every year since its introduction. Besides Bt cotton, the use of fertilizer and the increased adoption of hybrid seeds appear to have contributed to the yield increase over time. However, if official Bt cotton adoption contributed to increased yield after 2005, unofficial Bt cotton might also have been part of the observed increase of yields starting in 2002, the year of its official introduction in India.
    Keywords: Bt-cotton, Panel data, multiple imputation,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1170&r=agr
  43. By: Paolo Enria
    Abstract: Having defined place marketing and taken into consideration the public and private actors who contribute to the design of a strategic plan for the promotion of a local area, food and wine products are analyzed as an example of assets that can be emphasized in order to add value to the identity of a specific place and on which to build communication activities. The use of the concepts of “identity” and “spirit of a place” combined with the use of food and wine products as an example of typical local production can be a useful departure point around which to organize local development projects, especially if they are included in a coordinated promotion programme for the whole country. In fact, even while keeping the salient characteristics of each area distinct, it is necessary to plan combined promotion and communication policies, so as to promote local products as well as the historical, cultural and natural contexts in which they are produced, making the entire qualitative potential of our country more perceptible to the eyes of possible domestic and foreign investors and users.
    JEL: M31 M39 O18 O20
    Date: 2012–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:csc:cerisp:201208&r=agr
  44. By: Dillon, Carl; Vassalos, Michael
    Keywords: mathematical programming, decision making, vegetables, heuristics, Farm Management, Production Economics,
    Date: 2012–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea12:123854&r=agr
  45. By: Droppelmann, Klaus; Makuwira, Jonathan; Kumwenda, Ian
    Abstract: Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in the study of structural transformation. However, Africa has received little attention despite the fact that its rural areas seem to be very poor and unproductive relative to urban areas. This case study provides a reflection on challenges faced and development strategies adopted by successive governments in Malawi. Malawi is a country with a complex history of rural-urban transformation. On one hand, Malawi has long been, and still is, a predominantly agrarian economy that has seemingly undergone relatively little rural-urban transformation. Malawi is still predominantly rural, most migration is rural-to-rural, and its economic base is heavily dominated by the production of maize (largely for domestic consumption) and tobacco (largely for exports). In this paper we analyze the macroeconomic policy situation and document patterns and trends in Malawi's rural-urban transformation in a systematic manner. To that end, we focus on a number of dimensions of this transformation, including urban population growth, migration patterns, employment trends, and a spatial analysis of agglomerations and connectivity to major urban centers. We then turn to explain these patterns, largely in terms of colonial, post-independence, and more recent history of agricultural policies. We also examine migration patterns (both rural-urban and rural-rural), and constraints on the development of the nonfarm sector. In conclusion it becomes apparent that Malawi must diversify its economy to sustain poverty reduction and economic growth. However, it is not clear whether Malawi has an obvious comparative advantage in any sizeable nonfarm sector and how exactly the economic diversification process is to be achieved.
    Keywords: agglomeration, agricultural sector growth, Rural-urban transformation,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fpr:ifprid:1177&r=agr
  46. By: Bakhtavoryan, Rafael; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Salin, Victoria
    Abstract: A 2007 foodborne illness incident involving peanut butter is linked with structural change in consumer demand. Compensated and uncompensated own- and cross-price elasticities and expenditure elasticities were calculated for leading brands before and after the product recall using the Barten synthetic model and weekly time-series data from 2006 through 2008. Statistically significant differences in price elasticities for the affected brand, Peter Pan, were absent. After a period of 27 weeks, this brand essentially recovered from the food safety crisis. Significant differences in price elasticities were evident among non-affected brands. Hence, spillover effects and heightened competition are associated with the recall.
    Keywords: Food safety, 2007 Peter Pan recall, demand system models, scanner data., Agribusiness, Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, D12,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea12:123755&r=agr
  47. By: Ellison, Brenna D.; Lusk, Jayson L.; Davis, David W.
    Abstract: Using field experiment data, we estimate a structural model of consumer demand to determine the value of information for restaurant menu labels. Our experimental design allows us to compare the effectiveness of calorie labels to a “fat tax” at reducing caloric intake. Results show numeric labels did not influence demand, but symbolic traffic light labels reduced the marginal utility of caloric intake. Our model projects both labels would reduce intake more than high-calorie taxes or low-calorie subsidies. Ultimately, traffic light calorie labels led to the largest reduction in caloric intake but also one of the largest reductions in restaurant net returns.
    Keywords: menu labeling, full-service restaurant, calorie taxes/subsidies, restaurant net returns, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, I18, D04,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123529&r=agr
  48. By: Morkbak, Morten Raun; Jensen, Jorgen Dejgaard
    Abstract: Ways of increasing the market for local produce beyond the local residents within the local community, could include the following two potential solutions: 1) an expansion out to a more national/global market, which though would be costly in terms of transportation costs or 2) getting national/global consumers into the local market, e.g. as tourists. The objective of the present paper is to investigate the tourism's potential in the promotion of locally produced food products, within the perspective of context dependency and consumers' preferences for local produce. Firstly, people are asked to state their preferences for locally produced apples and honey, respectively. Secondly, we illustrate how preferences towards local produce depend on the situation, in which the consumers are placed. Applying a CE we find that for honey, the consumers' willingness to pay for local produce displays a considerable variation across respondents, suggesting that there could be a potential segmentation of respondents and their willingness to pay, which could imply the market to be highly niched. This is further investigated by applying a discrete mixture model. The findings from the DM model suggests that the market for the two characteristics local and Danish produce in both honey and apples and within both a daily and a holiday context is segmented into two groups - one group (2/3) who do not have particular high preferences towards neither Danish nor local produce and another group (1/3), who do have rather large preferences for both characteristics.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123525&r=agr
  49. By: Traill, W. Bruce; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Gennaro, Laura; Koziol‐Kozakowska, Agnieszka; Kuhn, Sofia; Wills, Jo
    Abstract: Many prepared and take‐away foods contain high levels of ‘unhealthy’ nutrients such as salt, trans and saturated fats and sugar. As diets have developed to include higher proportions of these products, consumers intakes have grown beyond World Health Organisation recommended maximum levels. Countries have responded by regulatory action (Denmark’s banning of trans fats) or collaborative (voluntary) measures with industry. This paper presents findings from case study research in Denmark, the UK, Italy and Poland and at the EU level to address the research questions: Have reformulation actions been effective and cost‐effective? Is collaborative action between government and industry more likely to be effective than industry acting alone? Are there circumstances under which legislation is preferable to voluntary action? Are there benefits to European as opposed to separate Member State action? What are the implications for competition? We find that voluntary reformulation has worked with respect to trans fats and salt. In the UK and at the EU level, firms have made commitments and these have been monitored and acted upon with substantial reductions in levels of salt and trans fats in their products. Manufacturers and retailers (in collaboration with their own‐label suppliers) have done this largely for reasons of corporate social responsibility—it is good for their image to be seen to be conforming and it means they can’t (so easily) be held up by NGOs and the media as behaving irresponsibly. However, despite an impressive rate at which firms have signed up to make commitments to salt reduction, in the UK average intake has fallen by only around 10% to 8.6g, still far in excess of the 6g target. Also not known is the extent to which the voluntary approach leaves high levels of harmful nutrients in foods produced by some companies, perhaps targeted to specific markets. Consumer groups have argued that high levels of trans fats are present in the UK in low quality foods targeted at poor consumers and In Poland it is claimed some foods have 10‐12% trans fats and population intake levels are among the highest in Europe. NGOs and some policy makers believe mandatory standards are the best way to make sure all food is ‘good’ food. Whether it is possible to devise a system that maintains the benefits of the voluntary system but creates a safety net to ensure against any foods containing too high levels of salt and trans fat and saturated fat deserves further exploration. If so, this would probably need to be undertaken at the European rather than Member State level to avoid contravening EU food law. SMEs may need assistance to meet the technological challenges of reformulation. They do this at present through links to research associations and retailers, but such linkages are not well developed for firms in all Member States.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123511&r=agr
  50. By: Zhao, Jianmei; Zhang, Jun
    Abstract: This article addresses the separability issue in the context of Chinese rural households. Deviating from previous research, our test on separability is embedded in the capital market imperfections and from the perspective of farm living consumption and their production inputs. Our theoretical framework incorporates the credit constraint and predicts both separability and non-separability behavior from rural households. Empirical estimation presents the evidence of non-separability behavior for credit constrained farm families, while independent decisions on farm living consumption and their production inputs exist among unconstrained households. Our overall results reject the separability for financially constraint farm households in China.
    Keywords: credit constraint, non-separable behavior, switching regression, Agricultural Finance, Consumer/Household Economics, Q12, Q14, O18,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea12:123950&r=agr
  51. By: Hobbs, Jill E.; McDonald, Jill; Zhang, Jing
    Abstract: Traceability and authenticity issues have gained increasing prominence in food markets and create both opportunities and challenges for the food industry in providing credible information to consumers. Internal molecular tagging is an emerging technology with the potential to deliver traceability and authenticity assurances. A key question for the food industry in adopting new technologies is consumer acceptance. This paper explores consumer attitudes toward traceability and authenticity and the role of information in affecting consumer acceptance of new technologies, using molecular tagging as an example. Data were gathered from an online survey conducted in Canada in December 2010. To determine whether product-specific effects exist, two versions of the survey were used, focusing on salami and on apple juice. In a discrete choice experiment respondents were presented with choice sets describing an apple juice (salami) product containing different combinations of four attributes: traceability technology (molecular tag Vs RFID), price, brand, country of origin. Of particular interest was the effect of information on consumers’ choices. Therefore, respondents were randomly assigned to one of four information treatments: positive information on molecular tagging technology or further information on the issue of food authenticity and adulteration, or a combination of both. The control group was provided with neutral information on the technology and no additional information. Results from Conditional Logit and Random Parameter Logit models reveal that initial consumer acceptance of the technology is low, however, information matters. Highlighting the problems of adulteration reduces resistance more effectively than providing positive technology information, and the effects appear to be product specific across a juice product versus a processed meat product. Other proxy signals (country of origin, brand), resonate strongly with consumers and tended to have a larger impact on willingness-to-pay.
    Keywords: Traceability, authenticity, consumer acceptance, choice experiment, information treatment, Agribusiness, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q13,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea12:123881&r=agr
  52. By: Ehmke, Mariah D.; Schroeter, Christiane; Morgan, Kari; Larson-Meyer, Enette; Ballenger, Nicole
    Abstract: Researchers working in the fields of family studies and psychology show motherchild relationship dynamics affect the occurrence of childhood overweight and obesity. Many of the significant behaviors they identify relate to negotiation and generosity norms in the household. The primary objective of this study is to test the value of altruistic and collective models of household behavior using the dictator and ‘carrotstick’ laboratory experiments. We also test exploratory hypotheses relating mother’s generosity and child’s punitive behavior and mother-child weight and fitness outcomes using dictator and ‘carrot-stick’ games. The data were collected from 50 mother-child pairs in Laramie, Wyoming. The children were all eight to 10 years old. The mother’s completed a survey to measure family attitudes and beliefs around food and fitness. All of the mothers and children completed a fitness assessment and blood draw to measure their cholesterol, triglyceride, and hemoglobin levels in addition to the economic experiments. The data do not support altruistic models of familial utility maximization as suggested by Becker’s Rotten Kid Theorem. We do find children overwhelmingly influence mothers’ allocations to maximize child, not household, welfare or utility. Results also indicate there is a positive relationship between mother generosity for child junk food the child’s waist circumference. Children who demand punitive behavior in the ‘carrot-stick’ game were less fit and more likely to be overweight and obese. The results of this study offer insights into household allocation processes which effect both mother and child weight and health outcomes.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2012–03–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123516&r=agr
  53. By: Andrey Zaikin; Ana Espinola-Arredondo (School of Economic Sciences, Washington State University)
    Abstract: Irrigation water is a constrained common-pool resource in Uzbekistan that leads to an increasing competition over its allocation among farmers. We examine how the management of the commons in this region affects individual strategic behavior. We conduct an experiment with farmers from Uzbekistan in which two policies are analyzed, a penalty and a bonus. The paper studies a non-cooperative game and identifies the efficient use of water for irrigation. We compare our theoretical results with the experimental observations. Our findings suggest that the penalty and bonus mechanisms are effective in reducing individual water appropriation compared to the benchmark case in which these mechanisms are absent. Finally, we identify two different effects that drive subjects’ opportunistic behavior.
    Keywords: Common-pool resources; Experiment; Non-Cooperative Games; Uzbekistan; Water
    JEL: Q25 C72 C93 H41
    Date: 2012–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wsu:wpaper:espinola-12&r=agr
  54. By: Marconi, Nicholas G.; DiMarcello, Nicholas, III; Hooker, Neal H.
    Abstract: The global Fair Trade market has experienced substantial growth over the past 13 years, as measured by both share and number of innovations. This has developed into a new worldwide market segment, and has helped improve the lives of hundreds of thousands of people. This report compiles data from Mintel’s Global New Product Database (www.gnpd.com), which records food, beverage, health and beauty products launched throughout the world. The company archives extensive information about each product, permitting users to explore emerging marketing strategies. From 1999 through 2011, GNPD recorded 4,465 Fair Trade innovations. These products were sold in over 40 countries. This paper provides a descriptive and comparative statistical analysis of Fair Trade trends throughout the world. Explored topics include certifiers, claims, product categories, and trade blocs. The most common Fair Trade categories are hot beverages, chocolate confectionery, and skin care products. Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International affiliates certified nearly 60% of all Fair Trade products since 1999, making this umbrella organization the largest certifier. The USA and EU dominate Fair Trade product introductions.
    Keywords: Fair Trade, Third party certifiers, Organic, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, F13, F16, F18,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123530&r=agr
  55. By: Twine, Edgar; Rude, James
    Abstract: The paper examines the impact of four exogenous shocks – exchange rate appreciation, feed price escalation, mandatory country of origin labeling, and economic recession – on the Canadian and U.S. beef cattle industries using a multi-market partial equilibrium model. Impacts on the U.S. industry are found to be relatively small compared to those on the Canadian industry. Country of origin labeling, and feed price escalation account for the largest decline in the welfare of Canadian cattle producers.
    Keywords: Canadian and U.S. beef cattle industries, exogenous shocks, partial equilibrium model, Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade, Livestock Production/Industries, Marketing, Q11, Q13, Q17,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea12:123565&r=agr
  56. By: Jürgen Brünjes (Institute of Economic and Cultural Geography, Leibniz University Hanover); Javier Revilla Diez (Institute of Economic and Cultural Geography, Leibniz University Hanover)
    Abstract: In this paper we apply the concept of necessity and opportunity entrepreneurship to rural Vietnam. The aim is to evaluate whether opportunity entrepreneurs in rural areas in developing countries have a greater potential to stimulate endogenous nonâ€farm growth than necessity entrepreneurs. The results show that opportunity entrepreneurs are relatively frequent. They have an agricultural background less often and are better educated and skilled. In addition, they are more successful in terms of profits, even after controlling for general business and locational characteristics. However, even rural opportunity entrepreneurs are often not oriented towards employment growth and thus have a limited capacity to generate nonâ€farm employment for other households. It becomes clear that although the necessity/opportunity concept has so far been primarily applied to developed countries, distinguishing opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship is very suitable in a rural developing context if some contextua l specifics of the rural environmen t are taken into account.
    Keywords: Necessity entrepreneurship, opportunity entrepreneurship, developing countries, Vietnam
    JEL: L2 O18 R23
    Date: 2012–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pum:wpaper:2012-01&r=agr
  57. By: Pierre Perron (Department of Economics, Boston University); Francisco Estrada (Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México); Benjamín Martínez-López (Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México)
    Abstract: We use recent methods for the analysis of time series data, in particular related to breaks in trends, to establish that human factors are the main contributors to the secular movements in observed global and hemispheric temperatures series. The most important feature documented is a marked increase in the growth rates of temperatures (purged from the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) and anthropogenic greenhouse gases occurring for all series around 1955, which marks the start of sustained global warming. Also evidence shows that human interventions effectively slowed global warming in two occasions. The Montreal Protocol and the technological change in agricultural production in Asia are major drivers behind the slowdown of the warming since 1994, providing evidence about the effectiveness of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases other than CO2 for mitigating climate change in the shorter term. The largest socioeconomic disruptions, the two World Wars and the Great Crash, are shown to have contributed to the cooling in the mid 20th century. While other radiative factors have modulated their effect, the greenhouse gases defined the secular movement in both the total radiative forcing and the global and hemispheric temperature series. Deviations from this anthropogenic trend are shown to have transitory effects.
    Date: 2012–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bos:wpaper:wp2012-012&r=agr
  58. By: Brainerd, Elizabeth (Brandeis University); Menon, Nidhiya (Brandeis University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of fertilizer agrichemicals in water on infant and child health using data on water quality combined with data on the health outcomes of infants and children from the 1992-93, 1998-99, and 2005-06 Demographic and Health Surveys of India. Because fertilizers are applied at specific times in the growing season, the concentrations of agrichemicals in water vary seasonally and by cropped area as some Indian states plant predominantly summer crops while others plant winter crops. Our identification strategy exploits the differing timing of the planting seasons across regions and differing seasonal prenatal exposure to agrichemicals to identify the impact of agrichemical contamination on various measures of child health. The results indicate that children exposed to higher concentrations of agrichemicals during their first month experience worse health outcomes on a variety of measures (infant mortality, neo-natal mortality, height-for-age z scores and weight-for-age z-scores). Disaggregated runs reveal that effects are largest amongst the most vulnerable groups – children of uneducated poor women living in rural India.
    Keywords: fertilizer agrichemicals, water pollutants, child health, infant mortality, India, fertilizers
    JEL: O12 I15 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2012–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6559&r=agr
  59. By: Dufhues, Thomas; Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Munkung, Nuchanata
    Abstract: This study shows how different forms of individual social capital affect access to formal credit in rural Thailand. In the context of agriculture economics, an innovative data collection approach is used that originates from the field of sociology (personal network survey). We measure social capital according to: 1. the tie strength between the respondent and the personal network member (bonding/bridging); and 2. the social distance between the respondent and the personal network member (linking). Strong ties (bonding) in combination with access to socially distant network members (linking) reduce the chances of being access-constrained.
    Keywords: Thailand, access to credit, social capital, personal networks, Agricultural Finance, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae12:123401&r=agr
  60. By: Grisolia, Jose M.; Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, George; Kee, Frank
    Abstract: This paper analyses how individuals trade-off health risks against lifestyle choices. The work uses a choice experiment (CE) survey for a representative sample of the Northern Ireland population. Unlike most CE studies for valuing public health programs, this questionnaire uses a tailored exercise based on the individuals’ baseline choices. A fat screener links actual cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk to each specific choice set in terms of diet. Individuals are informed about their real status quo risk of a fatal cardiovascular event, based on an initial set of health questions. Thus, actual risks, real diet and exercise choices are the elements that constitute the choice task. Our results show that our respondents are willing to pay for reducing mortality risk and, more importantly, are willing to change physical exercise and dietary behaviours. In particular, subjects with Body Mass Index (BMI) in the range of overweight or obese seem more inclined to practise physical exercise than to modify their diet to reduce their CVD risks.
    Keywords: Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123527&r=agr
  61. By: Ishdorj, Ariun; Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Jensen, Helen H.
    Abstract: Considering most children spend a majority of their weekdays at school and, on average, obtain more than one-third of their daily caloric intake from meals consumed at school during the school year, school is a natural place to implement nutrition policies that would help develop healthy eating habits and improve health and well-being of children. At the same time, local school meal policies may influence what foods are offered and how the foods are prepared. In this regard, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) two school meal programs can play an important role in children’s diets and food habit formation and thus positively influence children’s health. The focus of our research is children’s intakes of fruits and vegetables by location of consumption. We include intake of the fruits and vegetables at school and at home and evaluate whether the school meal intake substitutes or supplements intake at home. We use data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA-III), and estimate jointly the student’s latent consumption of target foods (fruits and vegetables) by location of consumption and the student’s endogenous decision to participate in the school meal program. We find demographic effects influence consumption, and although school food policies examined had little effect on participation in the school meal program, some school policies do affect fruits and vegetables consumption. There is evidence that increased exposure to fruits and vegetables in school will positively affect home consumption.
    Keywords: Food Assistance, Fruits and Vegetables, School Meals, Endogeneity, Censoring, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, C11, C34, C36,
    Date: 2012–03–15
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaeafe:123534&r=agr
  62. By: Quoc, Hoang Dinh; Dufhues, Thomas; Buchenrieder, Gertrud
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of individual social capital on the access of rural households to services. In the context of agriculture economics, an innovative data collection approach is used to determine social capital. The approach originates from the field of sociology and entails a personal network survey. We define four social capital variables according to tie strength (bonding/bridging) and social distance (bondinglink/bridginglink) between the respondent and his/her network member. The econometric results suggest that social capital with weaker ties in combination with socially distant ties (bridginglink social capital) can potentially improve households’ access to rural services.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, rural services, social capital, rural households, Vietnam,
    Date: 2012
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:iaae12:123402&r=agr
  63. By: Kadow, Alexander
    Abstract: Fair Trade (FT) products such as coffee and textiles are becoming increasingly popular with altruistic consumers all over the world. This paper seeks to understand the economic effects of this grassroots movement which directly links ethically-minded consumers in industrialised countries with marginalised producers in developing economies. We extend the Ricardian trade model and introduce a FT sector in developing South that offers a fair wage – the FT premium. There are indeed positive welfare effects from FT but those come at the expense of rising inequalities within South which are in turn a rational by-product of FT. The degree of inequalities depends on the specifics of the cooperative structures in the FT sector. Given the rigidities and inequalities FT introduces and rests upon, this form of alternative trade appears to be only sustainable as niche movement.
    Keywords: Fair Trade, comparative advantage, wage premium, inequalities, ethical consumerism, cooperative,
    Date: 2011
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:edn:sirdps:252&r=agr

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