New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2011‒03‒26
24 papers chosen by

  1. Training and Visit (T&V) Extension vs. Farmer field School: The Indonesian Experience By Budy Resosudarmo; Satoshi Yamazaki
  2. The rise of large farms in land abundant countries : do they have a future ? By Deininger, Klaus; Byerlee, Derek
  3. Sustainable Small Scale Irrigation Experiment in the Dry Zones: A Case Study on Happa ( Small Tank) Model in the State of West Bengal, India. By Jana, Sebak Kumar
  4. Productivity Growth in Food Crop Production in Imo State, Nigeria By Onyenweaku, C.E; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi N.; Opara, T.C.
  5. Can crop yield risk be globally diversified? By Xiaoliang Liu; Wei Xu; Martin Odening
  6. A Simple Model of Dairy Product Supply By Jung, Hanjoon Michael
  7. Role of Agriculture in Achieving MDG 1 in Asia and the Pacific Region By Katsushi S. Imai; Raghav Gaiha; Ganesh Thapa
  8. Informational Externalities and Adoption of Organic Farming Practices By Konstantinos Chatzimichael; Margarita Genius; Vangelis Tzouvelekas
  9. Are the Poverty Effects of Trade Policies Invisible? By Monika Verma; Thomas Hertel; Ernesto Valenzuela
  10. Insecticide Use and Crop Selection: A South Dakota Case Study By McDonald, Tia Michelle; Scott W. Fausti; Keating, Ariel Ruth; Li, Jing; Lundgren, Jonathan; Catangui, Mike
  11. The Effect of Customer Loyalty Programs on the Shopping Behavior in Retail : Loyalty Programs versus Loyalty Cards in the German Food Retail By Nikola Ziehe; Raina Stoll
  12. Information Asymmetries and Technology Adoption: The Case of Tissue Culture Bananas in Kenya By Nassul S. Kabunga; Thomas Dubois; Matin Qaim
  13. Fish in the city By Güttler, Stefan; Lambrecht, Danica; Fitwi, Biniam S.; Schulz, Carsten; Müller, Rolf A. E.
  14. Was land reform necessary? Access to land in Spain, 1860 to 1931 By Juan Carmona Pidal; Joan R. Rosés
  15. Evaluating the Effects of Planning Policies on the Retail Sector: Or do Town Centre First Policies Deliver the Goods? By Paul Cheshire; Christian A. L. Hilber; Ioannis Kaplanis
  16. How Reliable are Household Expenditures as a Proxy for Permanent Income? Implications for the Income-Nutrition Relationship By John Gibson; Bonggeun Kim
  17. Determinants for community participation in conservation efforts of a endemic species through cultivation: the experience in three rural communities of Guatemala By Miguel Quiroga; Mario Villatoro Martin Velasquez; José Pablo Prado Córdova
  18. The Amenity Value of English Nature: A Hedonic Price Approach By Steve Gibbons; Susana Mourato; Guilherme Resende
  19. Effects of urbanisation on multiple cropping pattern in coastal districts in India By Rode, Sanjay
  20. Poverty and commercialization of non-timber forest products By Lopez-Feldman, Alejandro
  21. Can the removal of VAT Exemptions support the Poor? The Case of Niger By Dorothée Boccanfuso; Celine De Quatrebarbes; Luc Savard
  22. Mexico’s Progresa-Oportunidades and the emergence of social assistance in Latin America By Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel
  23. Overcoming grape growers’ pesticide lock-in By Adeline UGAGLIA (USC 2032 GAIA - INRA SAD/ENITAB); Bernard DEL’HOMME (USC 2032 GAIA - INRA SAD/ENITAB); Maryline FILIPPI (USC 2032 GAIA - INRA SAD/ENITAB)
  24. Market Equilibrium in the Presence of Green Consumers and Responsible Firms: a Comparative Statics Analysis By Nicola Doni; Giorgio Ricchiuti

  1. By: Budy Resosudarmo; Satoshi Yamazaki
    Abstract: For several decades the effective and efficient dissemination of new agricultural knowledge among farmers in developing countries has been problematic. Two major programs were implemented in Indonesia, namely The Training and Visit (T&V) Extension Program or The Massive Guidance (BIMAS) Program, from the mid 1960s until the end of the1980s, and the Farmer Field School (FFS) Program, during the 1990s. The main difference between these two programs is that, while farmers were instructed what to do under the T&V program, the FFS program encouraged and stimulated farmers to make their own decisions. This paper aims to discuss and compare the effectiveness of these two programs with reference to rice production in Indonesia. The findings suggest that, for regions where the level of development is still very low, implementing a T&V program instructing farmers what to do is probably more appropriate than an FFS. As for regions where agriculture is relatively developed, an effective FFS program seems more appropriate.
    Keywords: Food policy, agricultural economics and policy, development policy, public policy
    JEL: Q16 Q18 O11 O33
    Date: 2011
  2. By: Deininger, Klaus; Byerlee, Derek
    Abstract: Increased levels and volatility of food prices has led to a surge of interest in large-scale agriculture and land acquisition. This creates challenges for policy makers aiming to establish a policy environment conducive to an agrarian structure to contribute to broad-based development in the long term. Based on a historical review of episodes of growth of large farms and their impact, this paper identifies factors underlying the dominance of owner-operated farm structures and ways in which these may change with development. The amount of land that could potentially be available for expansion and the level of productivity in exploiting available land resources are used to establish a country-level typology. The authors highlight that an assessment of the advantages of large operations, together with information on endowments, can provide input into strategy formulation at the country level. A review of recent cases of land acquisition reinforces the importance of the policy framework in determining outcomes. It suggests that transparency and contract enforcement, recognition of local land rights and ways in which they can be exercised, attention to employment effects and technical viability, and mechanisms to re-allocate land from unsuccessful ventures to more productive entrepreneurs are key areas warranting the attention of policy makers.
    Keywords: Environmental Economics&Policies,Agricultural Knowledge&Information Systems,Rural Development Knowledge&Information Systems,Banks&Banking Reform,Labor Policies
    Date: 2011–03–01
  3. By: Jana, Sebak Kumar
    Abstract: Indian economy is still an agrarian economy more than 50% of people in India are still dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. Rainfed areas without any source of irrigation in the country still accounts for 60% of the cultivated area and these areas are home to majority of rural poor and marginal farmers. Food security of small and marginal farmers in these regions are greatly jeopardized by the lack of assured irrigation. In this backdrop, there is an urgent need to explore the possibilities of sustainable and innovative forms of irrigation. One such innovative experiment is happa experiment which is viewed as Integrated Natural Resource Management( INRM) emphasizing both water and soil management. A happa is a mud-excavated small water harvesting structure with the average size of 50ft× 45ft×12 ft. The programme is going on in some dry zones where the happa is being excavated in the private land of the farmer wherefrom the farmer can irrigate his own agricultural land with average command area of happa being 0.6 – 0.75 acres. The construction cost one happa is being funded from NREGS scheme, the flagship programme of Government of India for employment generation. After the construction of happa, it is managed by the farmer himself and all the operational expenditure is being incurred by the farmer for mainataining these. This model has got success in some dry zones. We have selected a village for our primary survey of households in the Bankura district which is located dry zone of West Bengal. There is specific geographical concentration of backwardness and poverty in these areas and these regions are affected by continuous degradation of natural resources. The main objectives of the study are as follows: (1) To judge the economic viability of the project using standard cost benefit analysis tools like NPV, BCR and IRR. (ii) Assessment of ecological and social impacts of the project, (iii) Identifying of different kinds of benefits accrued from the project, (iv) scope of upscaling of the project with the identification of problem areas in upscaling Our analysis reveals that the small irrigation program like happa has made a strong impact on the livelihood of rural people. The environmental impacts include soil and moisture conservation of the watershed area. The economic benefits include incremental production from paddy production and vegetable production through irrigation. The success and upscaling of the programme depends very much on the system of planning, application, execution, monitoring and fund-flow.
    Keywords: Happa; small scale irrigation; dry zones
    JEL: N50
    Date: 2011–01
  4. By: Onyenweaku, C.E; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi N.; Opara, T.C.
    Abstract: The study examined the productivity growth in food crop production in Imo State with emphasis on the decomposition of total factor productivity into technical progress, changes in technical and allocative efficiency and scale effects. A panel data set comprising 210 observations drawn over 2001 – 2007 periods was used in the study. Using the translog stochastic frontier production function, the decomposition components were computed applying the appropriate formulae. The results showed that total factor productivity decreased through time while technical change was negative, implying downward shift of the production frontier. As a major component, technical change was the main constraint to the achievement of high levels of TFP during the study period. The scale effect, which is generally bigger than technical change component shows that the sampled farms on the average have not taken advantage of scale economies. The result further revealed that the allocative efficiency had an average magnitude closer to the scale effect and points towards decreases in the efficiency with which production factors are allocated. This is an indication of a decline in technical efficiency. On the basis of the results, the study suggested reforms of the ADPs with a bid to enhancing their capacity in extending novel technologies and innovations to farmers.
    Keywords: Productivity decomposition; scale effect; allocative; efficiency
    JEL: C13 C42 D01 B41
    Date: 2010–09–02
  5. By: Xiaoliang Liu; Wei Xu; Martin Odening
    Abstract: In 2007 and 2008 world food markets observed a significant price boom. Crop failures simultaneously occurring in some of the world’s major production regions have been quoted as one factor among others for the price boom. Against this background, we analyse the stochasticity of crop yields in major production areas. The analysis is exemplified for wheat, which is one of the most important crops worldwide. Particular attention is given to the stochastic dependence of yields in different regions. Thereby we address the question of whether local fluctuations of yields can be smoothed by international agricultural trade, i.e. by global diversification. The analysis is based on the copula approach, which requires less restrictive assumptions compared with linear correlations. The use of copulas allows for a more reliable estimation of extreme yield shortfalls, which are of particular interest in this application. Our calculations reveal that a production shortfall, such as in 2007, is not a once in a lifetime event. Instead, from a statistical point of view, similar production conditions will occur every 15 years.
    Keywords: crop yield risk, fully nested hierarchical Archimedean copulas (FNAC), price boom
    JEL: C14 Q19
    Date: 2011–03
  6. By: Jung, Hanjoon Michael
    Abstract: Dairy products are characterized by two properties, namely, perishability and short-periodic production. These properties are so unique that conventional studies in agricultural economics or in industrial organization might not explain the dairy product supply well. Hence, to understand this dairy product supply, we model it based on these two properties. We find that these properties invite middlemen who can efficiently deliver the products, and give rise to economies of scale in transportation and accessibility advantage in the dairy product supply. The economies of scale in transportation arise because greater production reduces average delivery costs per unit. The accessibility advantage occurs because lowering delivery costs significantly reduces total transportation costs in the long term.
    Keywords: Accessibility Advantage; Dairy Products; Dairy Product Supply; Economies of Scale; Perishability; Short-periodic Production.
    JEL: Q12
    Date: 2011–02
  7. By: Katsushi S. Imai (Economics, School of Social Sciences, University of Manchester, UK and Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University, Japan); Raghav Gaiha (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA & Faculty of Management Studies, University of Delhi, India); Ganesh Thapa (International Fund for Agricultural Development, Italy)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether agricultural growth through public expenditure, ODA or investment will improve significantly the prospects of achieving MDG 1 of halving poverty in Asia and the Pacific Region. As more than a few countries in this Region recorded impressive economic growth in the early years of the present decade, the case for the widely used poverty threshold of US$1.25 per day (at 2005 PPP) for assessing progress towards MDG1 is not so compelling now. Accordingly, the present assessment uses two poverty thresholds: US$2 per day and US$1.25 per day (both at 2005 PPP). Our analysis, based on country panel data, confirms robustly that increases in public agricultural expenditure, agricultural ODA, agricultural investment, or fertiliser use (as a proxy for technology), accelerate agricultural and GDP growth. Consequently, the headcount and depth of poverty indices are reduced substantially. Our simulation results show that, for halving the headcount index at US$2 per day, Asia and the Pacific region as a whole would need in 2007-13 a 56% increase in annual agricultural ODA, a 28% increase in agricultural expenditure, a 23% increase in fertiliser use or a 24% increase in agricultural investment. Aggregation of the simulation results for various groups reveals that countries in low income group, with a low level of macro governance or institutional quality, or with low ease of doing business would need larger increase in agricultural ODA, expenditure or investment to halve poverty. Although the share of agriculture in GDP has declined, our analysis reinforces the case for channelling a substantially larger flow of resources not just for accelerating growth but also for achieving the more ambitious MDG1. A policy dilemma, however, is the trade-off between institutional quality and resource transfers. National governments and donors must reflect deeply on triggers for institutional reforms and mechanisms that would ensure larger outlays for agriculture and their allocation between rural infrastructure and sustainable technologies.
    Keywords: Millennium Development Goal, Poverty, Agriculture, ODA, Investment, Public Expenditure, Asia, Panel Data, Simulations
    JEL: C31 C33 H53 I32
    Date: 2011–01
  8. By: Konstantinos Chatzimichael (Dept of Economics, University of Crete, Greece); Margarita Genius (Department of Economics, University of Crete, Greece); Vangelis Tzouvelekas (Department of Economics, University of Crete, Greece)
    Abstract: The present study empirically analyzes the competing effects of social interactions, learning-by-doing and subsidies on the adoption choices of individual farmers. Using the empirical counterpart of an input target model we analyze the decision to adopt organic farming for two samples consisting of Greek olive and German cereal producers. Our main results for both samples show that learning-by-doing is an essential factor for adoption, but its effect is diminishing as the farmer acquires additional information. Learning-from-others and subsidies are also important in enhancing adoption and their effects are diminishing as well. Moreover, while subsidies on the one hand and both types of learning on the other, enhance each other, we find that increases in one type of learning reduce the effect on the probability to adopt of increases in the other.
    Keywords: learning-by-doing, learning-from-others, informational externalities, organic farming, subsidies, Germany, Greece
    JEL: Q12 Q16 C25
    Date: 2011–03–20
  9. By: Monika Verma (Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University); Thomas Hertel (Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University); Ernesto Valenzuela (Centre for International Economic Studies, School of Economics, University of Adelaide)
    Abstract: Beginning with the WTO's Doha Development Agenda and establishment of the Millennium Development Goal of reducing poverty by 50 percent by 2015, poverty impacts of trade reforms have become central to the global development agenda. This has been particularly true of agricultural trade reforms due to the importance of grains in the diets of the poor, presence of relatively higher protection in agriculture, as well as heavy concentration of global poverty in rural areas where agriculture is the main source of income. Yet some in this debate have argued that, given the extreme volatility in agricultural commodity markets, the additional price and therefore poverty impacts due to trade liberalization might well be barely discernible. This paper formally tests this invisibility hypothesis using the method of stochastic simulation in a trade-poverty modeling framework. The hypothesis test is based on the comparison of two samples of price and poverty distributions. The first originates solely from the inherent variability in global staple grains markets, while the second combines the effects of inherent market variability with those of trade reform in these same markets. Results, at both national and stratum levels, indicate that the short-run poverty impacts of full trade liberalization in staple grains trade worldwide are not distinguishable in the majority of cases, suggesting that the poverty impacts of more modest (and realistic) agricultural trade liberalization are indeed likely to be statistically invisible. This does not mean that such reforms are economically unimportant. Rather it is a direct consequence of the high degree of volatility in agricultural commodity markets.
    Keywords: Trade policy reform, agricultural trade, computable general equilibrium, developing countries, poverty headcount, volatility, stochastic simulation, non-parametric hypothesis testing.
    JEL: C12 C68 F17 I32 Q17 R20
    Date: 2011–03
  10. By: McDonald, Tia Michelle (South Dakota State University Department of Economics); Scott W. Fausti (South Dakota State University Department of Economics); Keating, Ariel Ruth; Li, Jing (South Dakota State University Department of Economics); Lundgren, Jonathan (South Dakota State University); Catangui, Mike
    Abstract: South Dakota has recently experienced a significant increase in the proportion of acres treated with insecticide. Unfortunately, data on insecticide usage by crop at the county level is not available. The following case study seeks to uncover the reasons for this increase by analyzing county-level data in South Dakota with a fixed effects panel regression. The study links the proportion of acres planted for a specific crop to the proportion of total acres treated with insecticide. This approach provides insight on how changing cropping patterns in South Dakota have influenced insecticide use.
    Keywords: Variance Risk Premium, Variance Swap, Model-free Variance, Implied Variance, Realized Variance, Corn VIX
    JEL: Q13 Q14 G13 G14
    Date: 2010–06
  11. By: Nikola Ziehe (Department of Economics of the Duesseldorf University of Applied Sciences); Raina Stoll (Department of Economics of the Duesseldorf University of Applied Sciences)
    Abstract: This empirical study will show how bonus programs, particularly loyalty programs and loyalty cards, have an impact on the purchasing behavior of consumers in the german food retail trade. The study was carried out by students of the Bachelor degree program in Business Administration from the University of Applied Sciences Duesseldorf. The study results are based on two study parts: firstly, there has been an oral survey of consumers in the food retail business. To study the effect of loyalty programs and loyalty cards on the purchasing behavior and customer loyalty will be found in the food retail trade. In addition, several forces were conducted expert interviews with managers who are intensively engaged in their professional environment with customer loyalty programs. In this case was of interest to which customer loyalty measures are carried out with what success and how they affect the purchasing behavior of consumers. It should also found out what at the consumers better works: loyalty programs or customer cards. In conclusion, it is fair to say that bonus programs are suitable as a tool for customer loyalty and a high impact on the purchasing behavior and attitudes of consumers in the german food retail trade. It became clear that the success of a bonus program primarily depends on the design of programs by the retail trader. An interesting bonus program with attractive premiums is critical to the consumers.
    Keywords: customer loyalty, customer loyalty programs, loyalty programs, loyalty cards, Payback, Kundenbindung, Kundenbindungsmaßnahmen, Treueprogramme, Kundenkarten
    JEL: M30 M37
    Date: 2011–02
  12. By: Nassul S. Kabunga (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Thomas Dubois (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)); Matin Qaim (Georg-August-University Göttingen)
    Abstract: Classical innovation adoption models implicitly assume homogenous information flow across farmers, which is often not realistic. As a result, selection bias in adoption parameters may occur. We focus on tissue culture (TC) banana technology that was introduced in Kenya more than 10 years ago. Up till now, adoption rates have remained relatively low. We employ the average treatment effects approach to account for selection bias and extend it by explicitly differentiating between awareness exposure (having heard of a technology) and knowledge exposure (understanding the attributes of a technology). Using a sample of Kenyan banana farmers, we find that estimated adoption parameters differ little when comparing the classical adoption model with one that corrects for heterogeneous awareness exposure. However, parameters differ considerably when accounting for heterogeneous knowledge exposure. This is plausible: while many farmers have heard about TC technology, its successful use requires notable changes in cultivation practices, and proper understanding is not yet very widespread. These results are also important for other technologies that are knowledge-intensive and/or require considerable adjustments in traditional practices.
    Keywords: adoption; tissue culture; banana; average treatment effects; knowledge and exposure; adoption gap; Kenya
    Date: 2011–03–17
  13. By: Güttler, Stefan; Lambrecht, Danica; Fitwi, Biniam S.; Schulz, Carsten; Müller, Rolf A. E.
    Abstract: Aquaculture is the most recent addition to animal husbandry and it is the fastest growing food production industry. Its contribution to world food security in the 21st century is already significant and it is bound to continue to grow because demand for fish for human consumption is rapidly increasing whereas fish supplies from ocean fisheries are likely to decline. The rapid evolution of aquaculture involved a host of innovations of which many were based on R&D activities by public and private research organizations. Applied R&D tends to be the more effective the better focused it is on specific research problems or opportunities. Among the many possible aquaculture production systems on which aquaculture R&D might focus are recirculation aquaculture systems and in this paper we explore crucial aspects of the potential of urban recirculation aquaculture. Our exploration begins with a vision of recirculation aquaculture production plants located at the fringes of cities of converging economies. Such production systems are distinctly different from conventional urban aquaculture systems based on urban sewage. We scrutinize our vision from four perspectives: (i) the expected demand for aquaculture fish from urban consumers; (ii) cost competitiveness of fish produced at the fringes of cities as compared to fish produced in the rural hinterland; (iii) the potential for integration of urban recirculation aquaculture production into the modern food supply chains that are now emerging in converging economies, and (iv) the ecological footprint of aquaculture production compared to that of chicken production. Based on trends in the growth of urban populations world-wide and trends in demand for fish for food we estimate a total urban demand for aquaculture finfish between 11 and 51 million tons in 2025. We use von Thünen's location theory to provide support for the vision to locate recirculation aquaculture plants not within cities and not in their rural hinterland but on the fringes of cities. Moreover, we argue that tightly controlled recirculation aquaculture production would seem to be particularly well suited for being integrated into modern food supply chains. Finally, we compare the ecological footprint of recirculation aquaculture fish with that of industrially produced chicken and we find that the ecological balance depends on the source of energy used. We conclude our exploratory study with some thoughts on the implication for aquaculture R&D of the potential for recirculation aquaculture located on the fringes of cities in emerging economy countries. --
    Date: 2011
  14. By: Juan Carmona Pidal; Joan R. Rosés
    Abstract: In Spain, land reform involving the break-up of large southern estates was a central issue during the first decades of the twentieth century. It was justified on the grounds of economic efficiency, social equity and the distribution of political power. This paper uses new provincial data on landless workers, land prices and agrarian wages to consider if government intervention was desirable because land redistribution did not take place. Our evidence shows that the relative amount of landless workers decreased largely from 1890 to 1930. This was due to two interrelated market forces: structural change that drained rural population and a decrease in the ratio between land prices and rural wages, which made land cheaper for landless workers. So, given that rural markets did not restrict access to land, the government-initiated land redistribution had no clear-cut justification.
    Keywords: Land markets, Structural change, Land prices, Landless peasants
    JEL: N54 N53 Q15
    Date: 2011–02
  15. By: Paul Cheshire; Christian A. L. Hilber; Ioannis Kaplanis
    Abstract: Few studies conceive of land as a productive factor but British land use policies may lower total factor productivity (TFP) in the retailing industry by (i) restricting the total availability of land for retail, thereby increasing space costs (ii) directly limiting store size and (iii) concentrating retail development on specific central locations. We use unique store-specific data to estimate the impact of space on retail productivity and the specific effects of planning restrictiveness and micromanagement of store locations. We use the quasi natural experiment generated by the variation in planning policies between England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland to isolate the impact of town centre first policies. We find that TFP rises with store size and that planning policy directly reduces productivity both by reducing store sizes and forcing retail onto less productive sites. Our results, while they strictly only apply to the supermarket group whose data we analyse, are likely to be representative of supermarkets in general and suggest that since the late 1980s planning policies have imposed a loss of TFP of some 25%.
    Keywords: Land use regulation, regulatory costs, firm productivity, retail
    JEL: D2 L51 L81 R32
    Date: 2011–01
  16. By: John Gibson (University of Waikato); Bonggeun Kim (Seoul National University)
    Abstract: Measurement error in short-run expenditures from household surveys may attenuate estimated effects of permanent income on economic outcomes. Repeated observations on households during the year are used to calculate reliability ratios and estimate errors in variables regressions of the impact of income on calorie intakes. In contrast to influential studies finding no effect of income, the results suggest significant nutritional responses to income in poor countries.
    Keywords: income; measurement error; nutrition
    JEL: C2 I3 O1
    Date: 2011–03–18
  17. By: Miguel Quiroga (Departamento de Economía, Universidad de Concepción, Chile); Mario Villatoro Martin Velasquez (Departamento de Economía, Universidad de Concepción, Chile); José Pablo Prado Córdova (Faculty of Agronomy, University of San Carlos de Guatemala, Guatemala)
    Keywords: : Abies guatemalensis; Pinabete; Cultivation; Conservation; Contribution, Participation
    Date: 2010
  18. By: Steve Gibbons; Susana Mourato; Guilherme Resende
    Abstract: Using a hedonic property value price approach, we estimate the amenity value associated with proximity to habitats, designated areas, domestic gardens and other natural amenities in England. There is a long tradition of studies looking at the effect of a wide range of environmental amenities and disamenities on property prices. But, to our knowledge, this is the first nationwide study of the value of proximity to a large number of natural amenities in England. We analysed 1 million housing transactions over 1996- 2008 and considered a large number of environmental characteristics. Results reveal that the effects of many of these environmental variables are highly statistically significant, and are quite large in economic magnitude. Gardens, green space and areas of water within the census ward all attract a considerable positive price premium. There is also a strong positive effect from freshwater and flood plain locations, broadleaved woodland, coniferous woodland and enclosed farmland. Increasing distance to natural amenities such as rivers, National parks and National Trust sites is unambiguously associated with a fall in house prices. Our preferred regression specifications control for unobserved labour market and other geographical factors using Travel to Work Area fixed effects, and the estimates are fairly insensitive to changes in specification and sample. This provides some reassurance that the hedonic price results provide a useful representation of the values attached to proximity to environmental amenities in England. Overall, we conclude that the house market in England reveals substantial amenity value attached to a number of habitats, designations, private gardens and local environmental amenities.
    Keywords: amenity value, hedonic price method (HPM), environmental amenities
    JEL: R11 R29
    Date: 2011–03
  19. By: Rode, Sanjay
    Abstract: Coastal area protects from natural disasters and provides livelihood to population. But over the period of time, industrialized has grown across the coastal area in India. Such industrialization has created higher employment opportunities. Educational achievements of the population of coastal districts are higher as compare to the non coastal districts. Workers engaged service sector activities are higher as compare to non coastal districts in India. Random effect regression results show that the area under non agriculture use is higher in coastal districts. Cereals and rubber production is positively significant in coastal districts. Multiple cropping patterns are negatively co-related to the coastal districts. The policies like community participation, waste recycling of various industrial units, protection of the mangroves and strict implementation of the coastal regulation zone laws will protect the coastal area.
    Keywords: Land use; Infrastructure index; Random effect
    JEL: O1 O13
    Date: 2010–08–25
  20. By: Lopez-Feldman, Alejandro
    Abstract: While there is much interest by NGOs and environmental groups in the potential of non-timber forest products (NTFP) programs to si- multaneously achieve conservation and poverty alleviation, there is not a great deal of understanding of whether they work in practice, and how incentives and local management do, indeed affect poverty and local resource use. In this paper I propose a methodology to analyze the potential impacts that price increases can have on the income that extractors receive from NTFP extraction. The case study illustrates how one could evaluate the effectiveness of different price scenarios. It also shows the kind of biologic and socioeconomic information that is needed to apply the methodology suggested. The more accurate the information is the more confident one can be about the policy recommendations. This is an area of opportunity where applied research between economists and ecologists can lead to con- crete policy applications.
    Keywords: Non-timber forest products; poverty; resource extraction
    JEL: I30 Q20
    Date: 2011–02
  21. By: Dorothée Boccanfuso (GREDI - Université de Sherbrooke); Celine De Quatrebarbes (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Luc Savard (GREDI - Université de Sherbrooke)
    Abstract: In order to have the public funds necessary for its development, Niger is examining the possibility of expanding its VAT tax base to exempted goods and basic food products. This proposal has prompted violent opposition leading to the question of the social impacts of taxation. The first micro-macro computable general equilibrium model of Niger's actual economy has been developed. This model allows analysis of the social impact and distributional analysis of the following VAT structures: a pure VAT structure, a structure maintaining certain exemptions, and a multiple-rate VAT structure. The model's results shows that although restoring the VAT rate would be socially costly compared to the initial situation, the distributional impact of the VAT differs according to the system implemented in the country. Maintaining VAT exemptions in food crop agriculture sectors associated with a tax base expansion in the remaining sectors will increase public revenue while taking into account the national goal of poverty reduction. The net social impact of exoneration depends on the economic structure of the concerned sector. If the national goal is the end of exemption, the model shows that applying a pure VAT conforming to the theory is preferable in terms of economic growth whereas applying a reduced-rate on food crop agriculture lightens the social impact of the end of exemptions compared to a single rate.
    Keywords: distributional analysis;Value Added Tax;exemptions;micro-simulation;Computable general equilibrium model;niger
    Date: 2011–03–16
  22. By: Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel
    Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the political and economic context under which Mexico’s Progresa-Oportunidades was introduced to prelude the emergence of social assistance in Latin America. The paper identifies four distinctive features of the programme that were revolutionary in their own right. First, the Progresa-Oportunidades embraced a multidimensional approach to poverty, linking income transfers with simultaneous interventions in health, education and nutrition. Second, the programme focused on the poor. This is in clear contrast to generalised food subsidies and other targeted interventions that dominated the antipoverty agenda in the past. Third, the programme followed a complex system of identification and selection of beneficiaries to prevent discretionary political manipulation of public funds. Finally, an independent impact evaluation protocol proved to be critical for both improving the programme’s effectiveness and strengthening its legitimacy across different political factions and constituencies. The paper concludes that the success of Progresa-Oportunidades must be understood in a broader context, where a harsh economic and political environment, coupled with a rapid democratisation and increasing political competition, laid down the foundations for the introduction and then sustained expansion of the programme
    Keywords: social assistance; poverty; human development; Latin America; Mexico
    JEL: I31 O54 I38 O12
    Date: 2011–03–16
    Abstract: An evolutionary framework is used here to study the issue of pesticide reduction in vineyards. After analyzing grape growers’ pesticide lock-in we show that, although Integrated Pest Management (IPM) could reduce pesticide use significantly, the lack of specific implementation know-how hampers its diffusion. Consequently, once the features of technological change for IPM have been scrutinized, we adopt a case analysis approach in which environmental regulation is envisaged as one possible way of promoting IPM diffusion. We also show that, however necessary such regulation is, it is insufficient: grape growers equally need extension services.
    Keywords: evolutionary framework, environmental innovation, IPM, pesticides, grape growing
    JEL: Q59
    Date: 2011
  24. By: Nicola Doni (Università degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche); Giorgio Ricchiuti (Università degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes how the interaction between green consumers and responsible firms affects the market equilibrium. The main result is that a higher responsibility by both producers and consumers can have different impacts on the efficiency of the firms' abatement activity, depending on the nature of the cleaning costs. When the abatement costs are fixed, the efficiency of the clean-up effort is always increasing in their degree of responsibility. On the other hand, when the abatement costs are variable, a higher level of responsibility may reduce social welfare. Finally, the first best allocation is never reached, even in the presence of the highest credible level of responsibility of both consumers and producers.
    Keywords: Green Consumers, Corporate Social Responsibility, Vertical Differentiation
    JEL: D62 L13 L21
    Date: 2011

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