nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2010‒03‒13
ten papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. The Economic Value of Biochar in Crop Production and Carbon Sequestration By Suzette P. Galinato; Jonathan K. Yoder; David Granatstein
  2. The impact of economic shocks on global undernourishment By Tiwari, Sailesh; Zaman, Hassan
  3. The Costs and Benefits of Duty-Free, Quota-Free Market Access for Poor Countries: Who and What Matters By Antoine BOUET; David LABORDE; Elisa DIENESCH; Kimberly ELLIOTT
  4. Demand Matters: German Wheat Market Integration 1806-1855 in a European Context By Martin Uebele
  5. Wage Work for Women: The Menstrual Cycle and the Power of Water By Maimaiti, Yasheng; Siebert, W. Stanley
  6. Attitudes Toward Uncertainty Among the Poor: Evidence from Rural Ethiopia By Akay, Alpaslan; Martinsson, Peter; Medhin, Haileselassie; Trautmann, Stefan
  7. Adaptation of Forests to Climate Change: Some Estimates By Sedjo, Roger A.
  8. The Costs of Achieving the Millennium Development Goals through Adopting Organic Agriculture By Markandya, Anil; Setboonsarng, Sununtar; Hui, Qiao Yu; Songkranok, Rachanee; Stefan, Adam
  9. Options for Income-Enhancing Diversification in Burkina Faso By Chandra, Vandana; Osorio Rodarte, Israel
  10. Measuring risk by looking at changes in inequality : vulnerability in Ecuador By Ligon, Ethan

  1. By: Suzette P. Galinato; Jonathan K. Yoder; David Granatstein (School of Economic Sciences, Washington State University)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the economic value of biochar application on agricultural cropland for carbon sequestration and its soil amendment properties. In particular, we consider the carbon emissions avoided when biochar is applied to agricultural soil, instead of agricultural lime, the amount of carbon sequestered, and the value of carbon offsets, assuming there is an established carbon trading mechanism for biochar soil application. We use winter wheat production in Eastern Whitman County, Washington as a case study, and consider different carbon offset price scenarios and different prices of biochar to estimate a farm profit. Our findings suggest that it may be profitable to apply biochar as a soil amendment under some conditions if the biochar market price is low enough and/or a carbon offset market exists.
    Keywords: Biochar, Carbon sequestration, Crop, Farm profitability, Soil amendment
    JEL: Q16 Q54
    Date: 2010–02
  2. By: Tiwari, Sailesh; Zaman, Hassan
    Abstract: This paper estimates the impact of the 2008 food price spike and the 2009 contraction in global growth on undernourishment rates. The analysis is based on a methodology that uses a calorie-income relationship and income distribution data. The authors find that the 2008 global food price spike may have increased global undernourishment by about 6.8 percent, or 63 million people. Moreover, they show that the sharp slowdown in global growth in 2009 could have contributed to 41 million more undernourished people compared with what would have happened if the economic crisis had not occurred.
    Keywords: Food&Beverage Industry,Markets and Market Access,Emerging Markets,Economic Theory&Research,Regional Economic Development
    Date: 2010–01–01
  3. By: Antoine BOUET; David LABORDE; Elisa DIENESCH; Kimberly ELLIOTT
    Abstract: The Costs and Benefits of Duty-Free, Quota-Free Market Access for Poor Countries: Who and What Matters
    Date: 2010–02
  4. By: Martin Uebele
    Abstract: This study analyzes annual wheat prices in 13 German cities in the years 1806 to 1855, together with wheat price series from 44 other European and American cities. The method used is a dynamic factor model, which allows for distinguishing common price uctuations on international and national levels. I find a significant increase of price synchronization between German cities and international markets, between the first and the second quarter of the 19th Century. This is probably mainly due to the increased demand for food imports in Britain and the disappearance of political barriers, as well as economies of scale and gradual improvements to existing transportation technology. Within Germany, I find increasing common price uctuations in Mannheim and Munich, which arguably refl ects a customs union effect. Tree ring records as indicators of general plant growth conditions indicate that comovement was not driven by exogenous shocks.
    Keywords: market integration, 19th Century, dynamic factor analysis, wheat prices, Germany
    JEL: N70 N71 N73 C32 F15 E32
    Date: 2010–02
  5. By: Maimaiti, Yasheng (University of Birmingham, UK); Siebert, W. Stanley (University of Birmingham, UK)
    Abstract: We hypothesise that women's participation in wage (off-farm) work is reduced when their greater water needs due to the menstrual cycle are not met because their household has poor access to water. For testing, we use the data from rural villages in China. Controlling for village fixed effects, poor access to water is found to decrease the probability of wage work participation of affected (pre-menopause) women by about 10 percentage points, a large effect. As expected, there is no adverse causal impact of poor household access to water for women post-menopause, or for men, ceteris paribus.
    Keywords: wage work, women, menopause, water engineering, rural development, China
    JEL: J16 J21 O15
    Date: 2010–02
  6. By: Akay, Alpaslan; Martinsson, Peter; Medhin, Haileselassie; Trautmann, Stefan
    Abstract: We looked at risk and ambiguity attitudes among Ethiopian peasants in one of the poorest regions of the world and compared their attitudes to a standard Western university student sample elicited by the same decision task. Strong risk aversion and ambiguity aversion were found with the Ethiopian peasants, and these attitudes are similar to those of the university students. Testing for the effect of socioeconomic variables on uncertainty attitudes showed that poor health increased both risk and ambiguity aversion.
    Keywords: risk attitudes, ambiguity attitudes, poverty, cultural differences
    JEL: D81 C93 O12
    Date: 2010–02–22
  7. By: Sedjo, Roger A. (Resources for the Future)
    Abstract: This paper is based on a World Bank–sponsored effort to develop a global estimate of adaptation costs, considering the implications of global climate change for industrial forestry. It focuses on the anticipated impacts of climate change on forests broadly, on industrial wood production in particular, and on Brazil, South Africa, and China. The aim is to identify likely damages and possible mitigating investments or activities. The study draws from the existing literature and the results of earlier investigations reporting the latest comprehensive projections in the literature. The results provide perspective as well as estimates and projections of the impacts of climate change on forests and forestry in various regions and countries. Because climate change will increase forest productivity in some areas while decreasing it elsewhere the impacts vary for positive to negative by region. In general, production increases will shift from low-latitude regions in the short term to high latitude regions in the long term. Planted forests will offer a major vehicle for adaptation.
    Keywords: forests, climate change, adaptation, productivity, plantations, industrial wood, climate models
    JEL: Q20 Q23 Q55
    Date: 2010–01–26
  8. By: Markandya, Anil (Asian Development Bank Institute); Setboonsarng, Sununtar (Asian Development Bank Institute); Hui, Qiao Yu (Asian Development Bank Institute); Songkranok, Rachanee (Asian Development Bank Institute); Stefan, Adam (Asian Development Bank Institute)
    Abstract: This paper provides estimates of the costs of organic agriculture (OA) programs, and sets them in the context of the costs of attaining the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It analyzes the costs of OA programs in four case studies: Wanzai, PRC; Wuyuan, PRC; Kandy, Sri Lanka; and Ubon Ratchathani, Thailand. The results show considerable variation across the case studies, suggesting that there is no clear structure to the costs of adopting OA. Costs do depend on the efficiency with which the OA adoption programs are run. The lowest cost programs were more than ten times less expensive than the highest cost ones. A further analysis of the gains resulting from OA adoption reveals that the costs per person taken out of poverty was much lower than the World Bank's estimates, based on income growth in general or based on the detailed costs of meeting some of the more quantifiable MDGs (e.g., education, health, and environment).
    Keywords: organic agriculture un mdg; millennium development goals organic; organic agriculture asia mdg
    JEL: Q01 Q18 Q56
    Date: 2010–02–09
  9. By: Chandra, Vandana; Osorio Rodarte, Israel
    Abstract: One of the objectives of this CEM was to identify the most promising products and conduct competitiveness diagnostic. The products list is summarized in Table 1 below. Competitiveness, in this report, is seen as a combination of productivity and costs, and the second section of the CEM presents industry chapters that systematically benchmarks Burkina’s competitiveness performance against its main competitors. Sectoral chapters also explore reforms achieved and their impact on productivity, list remaining bottlenecks and opportunities and discuss possible emulation from other countries.
    Keywords: Burkina Faso; Exports; Product Space; Economic Diversification; Economig Growth;
    JEL: O55 O25 O33 O12
    Date: 2009–11–24
  10. By: Ligon, Ethan (University of California, Berkeley. Dept of agricultural and resource economics)
    Date: 2010

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