nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2009‒12‒19
twenty-two papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. Agricultural Sustainability and the Introduction of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) By Tisdell, Clem
  2. The Production of Biofuels: Welfare and Environmental Consequences for Asia By Tisdell, Clem
  3. International food prices and poverty in Indonesia By Peter Warr; Arief Anshory Yusuf
  4. NAFTA: Outcomes, Challenges and Prospects By Jotanovic, Aleksandar; Gilmour, Brad
  5. Krueger/Schiff/Valdés Revisited: Agricultural Price and Trade Policy Reform in Developing Countries since 1960 By Anderson, Kym
  6. European Union Agricultural Policy Institutions and Decision Making Processes By Vaughan, Odette; Tanguay, Luc; Gilmour, Brad
  7. Rural Poverty and Soil Degradation: Some Evidences from a Land Reform Settlement in the Brazilian State of Goiás By Alcido Elenor Wander; Cleyzer Adrian Cunha; Maria Izabel dos Santos; Rodrigo da Silva Souza; Agostinho Dirceu Didonet
  8. The Links between Poverty and the Environment in Malawi By Bentry Mkwara; Dan Marsh
  9. Non-traditional crops, traditional constraints : long-term welfare impacts of export crop adoption among guatemalan smallholders By Carletto, Calogero; Kilic, Talip; Kirk, Angeli
  10. Designing Climate Mitigation Policy By Aldy, Joseph E.; Krupnick, Alan J.; Newell, Richard G.; Parry, Ian W.H.; Pizer, William A.
  11. Market Responses to Climate Stress: Rice in Java in the 1930s By Pierre van der Eng
  12. Economic Impact of Bovine Tuberculosis on Minnesotaâs Cattle and Beef Sector By Buhr, Brian; McKeever, Kyle; Adachi, Kenji
  13. Food products' cycle of life By Antonescu, Eugenia
  14. The Diminishing Influences of Agricultural Output Changes on General Price Changes in China By Xian Xin; Xiuqing Wang; Xiaoyun Liu; Xuefeng Mao
  15. The Sustainability of Cotton Production in China and in Australia: Comparative Economic and Environmental Issues By Zhao, Xufu; Tisdell, Clem
  16. The Contribution of the Publicly Funded R&D Capital to Productivity Growth and an application to the Greek food and beverages industry By mamatzakis, e
  17. The Value of Native Bird Conservation: A New Zealand Case Study By Pamela Kaval; Matthew Roskruge
  18. Promoting Biodiversity Co-Benefits in REDD By Katia Karousakis
  19. Is ISO 14001 a Gateway to More Advanced Voluntary Action? A Case for Green Supply Chain Management By Arimura, Toshi H.; Darnall, Nicole; Katayama, Hajime
  20. On the origins of land use regulations: Theory and evidence from US metro areas By Hilber, Christian A. L.; Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric
  21. Forest Inventories: Discrepancies and Uncertainties By Waggoner, Paul E.
  22. Framework for Analisis and Improvement of Agrarian Dynamics By Bachev, Hrabrin

  1. By: Tisdell, Clem
    Abstract: In order to cater for the predicted growth in global population and aspirations for increased living standards, the world needs to increase substantially its level of agricultural production and sustain agricultureâs increased productivity. New technologies may enable this to occur but they also bring with them increased sustainability problems. There are many complex dimensions to achieving agricultural sustainability such as deciding on what agricultural attributes are worth sustaining and considering what trade-offs in objectives are required. These issues are discussed from a conceptual point of view. It is also shown using economic theory that market-based agriculture limits the opportunity for individual farmers to adopt sustainable agricultural techniques because of competitive economic pressures. It is argued that while modern agricultural methods and increased inter-regional trade have substantially increased agricultural supplies, they have also exacerbated the problem of sustaining agricultural production and yields and have had a disequilibrating effect on rural communities. Although genetic engineering is seen by some as a way forward for increasing agricultural production, it is shown that GMOs do not ensure sustainability of agricultural production and that they can be a source of rural disharmony and can threaten the sustainability of farming communities. Extension of intellectual property rights in new genetic material in recent times, particularly the granting of patents not only on techniques for producing GMOs but on the organisms themselves, have added to sustainability problems faced by modern agriculture.
    Keywords: Agricultural development, agricultural sustainability, biodiversity, co-evolution, economic sustainability, genetically modified organisms, GMOs, monopolisation, patents, social sustainability., Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Q000, Q010, Q200, Q300, Q500, Q570,
    Date: 2009–02
  2. By: Tisdell, Clem
    Abstract: The production of biofuels has been supported by many conservationists and environmentalists on the grounds that it reduces greenhouse gas emissions and is a renewable energy substitute for non-renewable fossil fuels, mainly oil. More recently the domestic production of biofuels (and the domestic supply of other forms of alternative energy) have been welcomed by several nations as ways to reduce their oil imports and increase their energy self-sufficiency, as for example, has happened in the United States. India also which is very dependent on oil imports has also begun to produce biofuels in Kerala and elsewhere. However, doubts have been raised about the effectiveness of biofuel use as a means to reduce the accumulation of greenhouse gases and elementary economics teaches us that it is likely to have opportunity costs. For example, increased cropping to provide biofuels can be at the expense of the production of food and natural fibres thereby adding to their prices. It may also increase the conversion of natural areas to agricultural use and consequently, add to biodiversity loss and an increase in greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. For example, in Borneo, forests are being converted to grow oil palm, partly used for biodiesel production in developing countries. These issues are discussed generally and their economic welfare implications are given particular attention in relation to Asian nations. Amongst the different situations examined from economic welfare and environmental points of view are the following: 1. Asian nations producing biofuels for their own use from home-grown crops, as is the case of India and China. 2. The external trade of Asian countries in feedstock for biofuels, such as palm oil in Indonesia and Malaysia and in biofuel itself. 3. Possible Asian ventures to grow crops for biofuels abroad or import biofuels. 4. The economic consequences for Asian countries of decisions by higher income countries, such as the United States (which also happens to be a major global exporter of food and natural fibre), to raise their production of biofuels. Analysis is provided that casts doubts on the likelihood that the introduction of biofuels will reduce greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere.
    Keywords: Biofuels, conservation, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2009–09
  3. By: Peter Warr; Arief Anshory Yusuf
    Abstract: This paper argues that recent increases in international food prices worsened poverty incidence in Indonesia, even though many poor farmers benefited. This conclusion is based on the application of a multi-sectoral, multihousehold general equilibrium model of the Indonesian economy. The positive effect on the welfare of poor farmers was exceeded by the negative effect on poor consumers. Indonesia’s ban on rice imports since 2004 complicates this account. The import ban shielded Indonesia’s internal rice market from the temporary world price increases from 2007 to 2008, but did so at the expense of permanently increasing both rice prices and poverty incidence.
    Keywords: Indonesia; food prices; poverty incidence; general equilibrium modeling
    JEL: D58 I32 F14
    Date: 2009
  4. By: Jotanovic, Aleksandar; Gilmour, Brad
    Abstract: As the remaining agriculture-related NAFTA clauses became fully implemented on January 1st, 2008, there is much evidence of the Agreementâs benefits to all three members in the forms of the agricultural trade expansion within the region and the growth of foreign direct investments in membersâ agri-food value chains. Better coordination would help the three governments to successfully address ongoing challenges such as trade disputes, security measures and animal health diseases. It would also help their economies and the agricultural sectors to continue capitalizing on opportunities that freer trade offers.
    Keywords: NAFTA, agricultural policy, trade disputes, COOL, security measures, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade, Political Economy, Public Economics,
    Date: 2009–11
  5. By: Anderson, Kym
    Abstract: A study of distortions to agricultural incentives in 18 developing countries during 1960-84, by Krueger, Schiff and Valdés (1988; 1991), found that policies in most of those developing countries were directly or indirectly harming their farmers. Since the mid-1980s there has been a substantial amount of policy reform and opening up of many developing countries, and indicators of that progress have been made available recently by a new study that has compiled estimates for a much larger sample of developing countries and for as many years as possible since 1955. The new study also covers Europe’s transition economies and comparable estimates for high-income countries, thereby covering more than 90 percent of world agricultural output and employment. This paper summarizes the methodology used in the new study (pointing out similarities and differences with those used by the OECD and by Krueger, Schiff and Valdés), compares a synopsis of the indicators from Krueger, Schiff and Valdés and the new study for the period to 1984, summarizes the changing extent of price distortions across countries and commodities globally since then, and concludes by evaluating the degree of distortion reduction over the years since 1984 compared with how much still remains, according to the results of a global economy wide model.
    Keywords: Agricultural price distortions; developing countries; trade policies
    JEL: F13 F59 H20 N50 O13 Q18
    Date: 2009–12
  6. By: Vaughan, Odette; Tanguay, Luc; Gilmour, Brad
    Abstract: This note examines European Union (EU) institutions and policy making processes in relation to its agriculture and food sector. With a market comprised of 495 million people across 27 countries and a comprehensive agricultural policy accounting for the largest share of the EU budget, how the EU policy environment functions is important to Canada. Decisions are made at the supranational EU level for agriculture, fisheries, trade, and regional development, while decision-making related to other policies occurs at the individual country level or through a system of inter-governmental cooperation. Decision-making occurs in three institutions: the Commission, the Council and the Parliament. Agriculture negotiations typically begin with a text drafted by the Council. Then the Commissioner for Agriculture works with national-level farm ministers to prepare a final text. Council decisions are voted on by member states' ministers. A qualified majority of a minimum of 74% of votes must be in favour for decisions related to agriculture. Agriculture policy is the only EU policy to receive most of its funding from the EU budget. Operating agriculture policy at the supranational level allows the EU to achieve a more level playing field for farmers across the member states. Knowledge of these and other facts relating to the EU's agri-food policy institutions and their responsibilities and decision-making processes allows us to better understand and anticipate policy outcomes in the EU.
    Keywords: European Union, agriculture, policy, institution, legislation, Agricultural and Food Policy, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, International Relations/Trade, Political Economy,
    Date: 2009–11
  7. By: Alcido Elenor Wander (EMBRAPA); Cleyzer Adrian Cunha (FACE-UFG, Ciências Econômicas); Maria Izabel dos Santos (FACE-UFG, Ciências Econômicas); Rodrigo da Silva Souza (FACE-UFG, Ciências Econômicas); Agostinho Dirceu Didonet (FACE-UFG, Ciências Econômicas)
    Abstract: In different continents there is a paradigm of a vicious circle of poverty and natural resource degradation. However, there are cases where this may not be true. Thus, the central objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between rural poverty and soil degradation in land reform settlement in the Brazilian Center West region. Therefore, farmers were interviewed and data was analyzed through an econometric analysis of the probit model. Our hypothesis was that environmental degradation can worse the rural poverty in the farm enterprises. The binary and dependent variable was the adoption of natural resource saving practices like agroforestry systems and crop rotation. As independent variables that explain the probability to occur (y=1 or y=0) we considered the total (farm and nonfarm) income, the total herd size of cattle, the land ownership and the education level of farmers (years of school visit). We expected positive signs for all estimated coefficients in the probit model, i.e. the higher the values of independent variables the more likely the conservation practices to be adopted. The estimated model was significant at 5% level. The independent variables explain 50.41% of the variation in the probability of adoption of crop rotation in the farms. Three of the independent variables had negative signs: total income, herd size and land ownership, meaning that increasing the values of those variables decrease the probability of the adoption of conservation practices. This result evidences an opposite relationship between rural poverty and environmental degradation. On the other side, the education level of farmers was positively related to the likeness of adoption of soil conservation practices. Thus, there was no relationship between rural poverty and soil degradation. However, there is a clear positive relationship between the education level of farmers and the likeness of adoption of natural resource conservation practices.
    Keywords: soil erosion, land reform, crop rotation, agroforestry
    JEL: Q51
    Date: 2009–11
  8. By: Bentry Mkwara (University of Waikato); Dan Marsh (University of Waikato)
    Abstract: Deforestation arising from conversion of forest areas into agriculture is a serious problem in Malawi. Cultivation of subsistence and cash crops is often cited as a major cause of this problem. This paper applies the von Thunen model to firstly, discuss competition for agricultural land and secondly, establish why the poor are closely associated with forests. Further, a regression analysis is conducted to examine the effects of changes in crop land use on changes in forest cover. Results indicate that cultivation of different crops has varying effects on deforestation. Cultivation of maize, primarily by the poor, appears to be the principal cause of deforestation while tobacco and pulses stand at second and third positions, respectively. Finally, a simple methodology is developed to estimate the extent of poverty-driven deforestation in Malawi.
    Keywords: poverty; environment; agriculture; deforestation; Malawi
    JEL: Q15 Q23
    Date: 2009–11–30
  9. By: Carletto, Calogero; Kilic, Talip; Kirk, Angeli
    Abstract: This study documents the long-term welfare effects of household non-traditional agricultural export (NTX) adoption. The analysis uses a unique panel dataset, which spans the period 1985-2005, and employs difference-in-differences estimation to investigate the long-term impact of non-traditional agricultural export adoption on changes in household consumption status and asset position in the Central Highlands of Guatemala. Given the heterogeneity in adoption patterns, the analysis differentiates the impact estimates based on a classification of households that takes into account the timing and duration of non-traditional agricultural export adoption. The results show that while, on average, welfare levels have improved for all households irrespective of adoption status and duration, the extent of improvement has varied across groups. Long-term adopters exhibit the smallest increase in the lapse of two decades, in spite of some early gains. Conversely, early adopters who withdrew from non-traditional agricultural export production after reaping the benefits of the boom period of the 1980s are found to have fared better and shown greater improvements in durable asset position and housing conditions than any other category.
    Keywords: Economic Theory&Research,Rural Development Knowledge&Information Systems,Regional Economic Development,Crops&Crop Management Systems,Rural Poverty Reduction
    Date: 2009–11–01
  10. By: Aldy, Joseph E. (Resources for the Future); Krupnick, Alan J. (Resources for the Future); Newell, Richard G.; Parry, Ian W.H. (Resources for the Future); Pizer, William A.
    Abstract: This paper provides an exhaustive review of critical issues in the design of climate mitigation policy by pulling together key findings and controversies from diverse literatures on mitigation costs, damage valuation, policy instrument choice, technological innovation, and international climate policy. We begin with the broadest issue of how high assessments suggest the near and medium term price on greenhouse gases would need to be, both under cost-effective stabilization of global climate and under net benefit maximization or Pigouvian emissions pricing. The remainder of the paper focuses on the appropriate scope of regulation, issues in policy instrument choice, complementary technology policy, and international policy architectures.
    Keywords: global warming damages, mitigation cost, climate policy, instrument choice, technology policy
    JEL: Q54 Q48 H23
    Date: 2009–05–06
  11. By: Pierre van der Eng
    Abstract: Do markets in less-developed countries abate consequences of climate stress? Rainfall is an important factor in rice production in Indonesia. This paper uses changes in regional rice prices across the 19 residencies in less-developed Java to assess how rice markets responded to variations in rainfall during 1935-1940. It finds that rice markets were highly integrated across Java. The El Niño-induced episodes of lower than usual rainfall in 1935 and 1940 did not have a negative effect on levels and variations in regional rice prices, nor did they have adverse consequences for the supply of rice. Adaptive responses of firms specialising in the trade of rice are likely to have mitigated regional deficiencies in food production caused by climate stress.
    JEL: N55 O13 Q13 Q54
    Date: 2009–12
  12. By: Buhr, Brian; McKeever, Kyle; Adachi, Kenji
    Keywords: Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2009–12
  13. By: Antonescu, Eugenia
    Abstract: For determining the durability of a food product it is essential to correctly select the quality characteristics, the weight factor of those determined through sensorial evaluations having to be in accordance with the weight factor of measurable characteristics. Quality testing for determining and checking the durability, and therefore the expiry date, has to be done by experiments, analyzes and calculations which have in mind certain aspects of the use value of food products . In order for these evaluations to be conclusive, they have to be performed under certain storage conditions foreseen by standards.
    Keywords: science of commodities; term of validity; durability; consumption; alimentary safety; work specific proofs; physical – chemical and sensorial characteristics; methods of merchandise analysis; informational systems; fabrication technology; risk; producer; trader; consumer; market.
    JEL: L66 L00
    Date: 2009–12–10
  14. By: Xian Xin; Xiuqing Wang (China Agricultural University); Xiaoyun Liu (China Agricultural University); Xuefeng Mao
    Abstract: It has been argued that the influences of agriculture on the macro economy will be weakening along with economic development. We in this paper assess the impact of agricultural output changes on the general price level over time with China as an example. Our results suggest that China witnessed a declining influence of agricultural output changes on general price changes. The contribution of given agricultural output change on the general price change in 2005 was merely less than 60% of that in 1987, which in turn implies that macro policies targeting to curb general inflation via boosting agricultural output will be less effective as those of twenty years ago. We generate these results with the general equilibrium model calibrated to aggregated China¡¯s input-output tables of 1987, 1997, and 2005.
    Keywords: Inflation; General Equilibrium Model
    JEL: E31 Q10
    Date: 2009–05
  15. By: Zhao, Xufu; Tisdell, Clem
    Abstract: After providing some background about the importance of cotton as a fibre, this article provides information about the global relevance of Chinaâs and Australiaâs cotton industries and compares the structure and other significant features of their cotton industries. Attention is given to trends in overall cotton yields and the volume of production of cotton globally, in Australia, and in China as indicators of the sustainability of cotton supplies. Some simple economic theory is applied to indicate the relationship between market conditions and the sustainability of global cotton supplies. Then the environmental and economic factors that challenge the sustainability of Australian cotton production are outlined and analysed and this is done subsequently for Chinaâs cotton production. Geographical and regional features that affect the sustainability of cotton supplies in Australia and China are given particular attention. Some new economic theory is proposed to model hysteresis in Australiaâs supplies of cotton. Ways of coping with the sustainability difficulties that are being encountered by both these nations are compared. Many of the sustainability challenges facing these two countries are found to differ but some of their environmental obstacles to sustainable cotton production are similar.
    Keywords: Australia, China, cotton production, fibre markets, hysteresis of supplies, sustainable agriculture, water resources., Environmental Economics and Policy, Q01, Q11, Q15, Q24, Q50.,
    Date: 2009–06
  16. By: mamatzakis, e
    Abstract: This paper follows the dual cost function methodology and develops a theoretical specification that assesses the contribution of public R&D capital to the productivity growth. The empirical application focuses on Greek food and beverages industry. For this purpose it employs a micro-aggregated annual data set over the period 1976-2002. The regression analysis shows that publicly funded R&D capital is a productive input as 8.7 percent and 7.3 percent of the total factor productivity growth in the food industry and in the beverages industry respectively is attributed to the publicly funded R&D capital. The relationship between publicly funded R&D and private purchased inputs is also examined.
    Keywords: Public R&D; Productivity Growth; Rate of return.
    JEL: L6 O32
    Date: 2009–12
  17. By: Pamela Kaval (University of Waikato); Matthew Roskruge (University of Waikato)
    Abstract: During December 2007 and January 2008, telephone surveys were used to randomly sample Waikato, New Zealand residents. The purpose of the surveys was to determine whether respondents valued native bird conservation programmes in their area. We elicited the contingent valuation approach to determine the value in terms of their willingness-to-pay (WTP) to support regional conservation initiatives aimed at protecting, or restoring, native bird populations. Results indicated that local birdlife was regarded positively by residents and that they were in favour of local conservation and restoration initiatives. 86% of respondents were willing-to-pay an annual addition to their rates (taxes) to support these initiatives. Conservatively, the value of native bird conservation in the region was approximately $13 million (2008 NZ$). Willingness to support these initiatives depended strongly on income, ethnicity and age. The positive WTP for additional regional rates for local birdlife conservation suggests that there could potentially be an underinvestment in birdlife conservation in the Waikato region, and that regional bodies could draw upon local funding, as opposed to relying on central government funding, to support these initiatives.
    Keywords: contingent valuation method; endangered species; New Zealand; native birdlife; bird conservation
    JEL: Q51 Q57 Q26
    Date: 2009–11–15
  18. By: Katia Karousakis
    Abstract: This report examines how biodiversity co-benefits in REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) can be enhanced, both at the design and implementation level. It discusses potential biodiversity implications of different REDD design options that have been put forward in the international climate change negotiations and proceeds by examining how the creation of additional biodiversity-specific incentives could be used to complement a REDD mechanism, so as to target biodiversity benefits directly.<BR>Le présent rapport examine les moyens de renforcer les avantages connexes pouvant être tirés de la REDD (réduction des émissions liées à la déforestation et à la dégradation des forêts) sur le plan de la biodiversité, tant au niveau de la conception qu’à celui de la mise en oeuvre. Il analyse les répercussions potentielles sur la biodiversité des différents dispositifs de REDD envisageables qui ont été avancés dans les négociations internationales sur le changement climatique et poursuit en examinant comment compléter la REDD en créant des incitations supplémentaires spécifiquement axées sur la biodiversité, de manière à cibler directement les avantages liés à celle-ci.
    Keywords: biodiversity conservation, climate change, cost-benefit analysis, deforestation, environmental economics, analyse coûts-avantages, changement climatique, conservation de la biodiversité, déforestation, économie de l'environnement
    JEL: Q23 Q57
    Date: 2009–11–27
  19. By: Arimura, Toshi H. (Resources for the Future); Darnall, Nicole; Katayama, Hajime
    Abstract: Using Japanese facility-level data, we estimate the effects of ISO 14001 certification on the promotion of more advanced practices, namely green supply chain management (GSCM). Our results show that ISO 14001 promotes GSCM practices, in that facilities with environmental management systems (EMS) certified to ISO 14001 are 40 percent more likely to assess their suppliers’ environmental performance and 50 percent more likely to require that their suppliers undertake specific environmental practices. Further, we find that government approaches that encourage voluntary EMS adoption indirectly promote GSCM practices, in that the probability of facilities’ assessing their suppliers’ environmental performance and requiring them to undertake specific environmental practices increases by 9 percent and 10 percent, respectively, if a government assistance program exists. Combined, these findings suggest that there may be significant but previously unnoticed spillover effects of ISO 14001 and government promotion of voluntary action.
    Keywords: voluntary actions, positive spillover, environmental management systems, ISO 14001, green supply chain management, government assistance programs, environmental impacts, discrete choice model, endogeneity
    JEL: C35 Q53 Q58
    Date: 2009–03–25
  20. By: Hilber, Christian A. L.; Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric
    Abstract: We model residential land use constraints as the outcome of a political economy game between owners of developed and owners of undeveloped land. Land use constraints benefit the former group (via increasing property prices) but hurt the latter (via increasing development costs). More desirable locations are more developed and, as a consequence of political economy forces, more regulated. Using an IV approach that directly follows from our model we find strong and robust support for our predictions. The data provide weak or no support for alternative hypotheses whereby regulations reflect the wishes of the majority of households or efficiency motives.
    Keywords: housing supply; land ownership; land use regulations; zoning
    JEL: H7 Q15 R52
    Date: 2009–12
  21. By: Waggoner, Paul E.
    Abstract: Credits for sequestered carbon augment forests’ already considerable value as natural habitat and as producers of timber and biomass, making their accurate inventory more critical than ever before. This article examines discrepancies in inventories of forest attributes and their sources in four variables: area, timber volume per area, biomass per timber volume, and carbon concentration. Documented discrepancies range up to a multibillion-ton difference in the global stock of carbon in trees. Because the variables are multiplied together to estimate an attribute like carbon stock, more precise measurement of the most certain variable improves accuracy little, and a 10 percent error in biomass per timber levers a discrepancy as much as a mistake in millions of hectares. More precise measurements of, say, accessible stands cannot remedy inaccuracies from biased sampling of regional forests. The discrepancies and uncertainties documented here underscore the obligation to improve monitoring of global forests.
    Keywords: forest monitoring, Forest Identity, forest carbon, remote sensing
    JEL: Q23 Q56 Q57
    Date: 2009–08–24
  22. By: Bachev, Hrabrin
    Abstract: In this paper we incorporate interdisciplinary New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics (combining Economics, Organization, Law, Sociology, Behavioral and Political Sciences), and suggest a framework for analyzing and improvement of governance of socio-economics dynamic of agriculture. This new approach take into account: the role of specific institutional environment (formal and informal “rules of the game”, distribution of various rights between individuals, and systems of enforcement of rights and rules; behavioral characteristics of agents (preferences, bounded rationality, tendency for opportunism, risk aversion, trust); costs of governance and critical factors of transactions (uncertainty, frequency, asset specificity, and appropriability); comparative efficiency of market, private, public and hybrid modes of governance; efficiency of alternative modes for public intervention; complementarities between different modes; needs for multilateral and multilevel governance; technological and ecological factors.
    Keywords: governance of socio-economic dynamics and sustainable development; market, private, public and hybrid modes of governance; agrarian development
    JEL: D62 O19 L14 D71 L33 D73 K0 D41 O13 Q01 Q12 Q18 D23 O17 D52 F53 L22
    Date: 2009–11

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