nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2009‒09‒19
67 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. SMALL FARMS IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE: IS THERE A FUTURE FOR THEM? By Csaki, Csaba; Forgacs, Csaba
  2. What are the Key Constraints in Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Farmers in Africa? Empirical Evidence from Kenya By Owuor, George; Shem, Ouma A.
  3. Impact On Small Farmers and Fishermen Through Use Of Mobiles in India By Mittal, Surabhi; Gandhi, Sanjay; Tripathi, Gaurav
  4. The economic and social weight of small scale agriculture. Evidence from the Rural Income Generating Activities survey data. By Karfakis, Panagiotis; Hammam Howe, Tarek
  5. Food Stamp Programs and Food Insecurity in the U.S. By Lee, Jonq-Ying
  6. Impact of Public Market Information System (PMIS) on Farmers Food Marketing Decisions: Case of Benin By Kpenavoun Chogou, Sylvain; Lebailly, Philippe; Adegbidi, Anselme; Gandonou, Esaie
  7. Collective action of small farmers: A case study of Ruoheng farmer watermelon cooperative in China By Huang, Zuhui; Liang, Qiao; Hendrikse, G.W.J.
  8. Soil Erosion Control and Damage Costs in Nigerian Small Farms: Implications for Farm Growth and Sustainability By Okoye, Chukwuemeka U.
  9. Tunisian agriculture: Are small farms doomed to disappear? By Jouili, Mustapha
  10. STRATEGIES FOR SMALLHOLDERS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: COMMERCIALISATION, DIVERSIFICATION AND EXIT By Jonathan Brooks; Dalila Cervantes-Godoy; Erik Jonasson
  11. 'GMO-Free' labels - enhancing transparency or deceiving consumers? By Henseleit, Meike; Kubitzki, Sabine; Herrmann, Roland
  12. Can Group Based Credit Uphold Smallholder Farmers Productivity and Reduce Poverty in Africa? Empirical Evidence from Kenya By Owuor, George
  13. The Persistence of Small Farms and Poverty Levels in Nigeria: An Empirical Analysis By Apata, T.G.; Rahji, M.A.Y.; Samuel, K.D.; Igbalajobi, O.A
  14. Is organic farming a chance for family farms to survive? By FertÅ, Imre; Forgács, Csaba
  15. Institutional Reforms and Small Farms in Republika Srpska By Matteo Vittuari; Andrea Segrè
  16. FARMERSâ SURVIVAL STRATEGIES IN THE NORTH OF SCOTLAND By Bergmann, Holger; Thomson, Kenneth J.
  17. Non-Traditional Export Crops and Household Livelihood Strategies: Panel Data Evidence from Guatemala By Kilic, Talip; Carletto, Calogero
  18. Edible Oil Deficit and Its Impact on Food Expenditure in Pakistan By Ali, Muhammad; Arifullah, Syed; Memon, Manzoor Hussain
  19. Small U.S. Dairy Farms: Can They Compete? By Gillespie, Jeffrey; Nehring, Richard; Sandretto, Carmen; Hallahan, Charlie
  20. Size, Energy Use and Economies of Scale: Modeling of Policy Instruments to Address Small Farmsâ Advantages if Energy Is Scarcer and Ecology Matters? By Nuppenau, Ernst-August
  21. Reforms, Globalization, and Endogenous Agricultural Structures By Swinnen, Johan F.M.
  22. Credit Markets for Small Farms: Role for Institutional Innovations By Pillarisetti, Satish; Mehrotra, Nirupam
  23. Leaving land fallow: The case of subsistence farming in the Western Balkans By Sauer, Johannes; Davidova, Sophia; Latruffe, Laure
  24. Poverty, undernutrition and vulnerability in rural India: Role of rural public works and food for work programmes By Katsushi S. Imai
  25. Subsistence and Semi-subsistence Farming in Selected EU New Member States By Davidova, Sophia; Fredriksson, Lena; Bailey, Alastair
  26. What Influences Price Efficiency in Indigenous Chicken Markets in Africa? Evidence from Smallholder Farmers in Kenya By George, Owuor; Bocklain, Bebe
  27. CropRota – A Model to Generate Optimal Crop Rotations from Observed Land Use By Martin Schönhart; Erwin Schmid; Uwe A. Schneider
  28. U.S. Farm Policy and Small Farms By Ahearn, Mary; Effland, Anne
  29. Subsistence agriculture in Romania- a modus vivendi? By Alboiu, Cornelia
  30. New modes of governance of cooperative arrangements in agricultural markets: The case of Polish producer groups By Beckmann, Volker; Banaszak, Ilona
  31. Semi-subsistence farm households and the non-farm rural economy - Perspectives and challenges By Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Fritzsch, Jana; Wegener, Stefan; Curtiss, Jarmila; Gomez y Paloma, Sergio
  32. INCREASING NUMBER OF SMALL FARMS IN INDONESIA: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES By Sudaryanto, Tahlim; Susilowati, Sri Hery; Sumaryanto
  33. The Economics of Land Consolidation in Family Farms of Moldova By Cimpoies, Dragos; Lerman, Zvi; Racul, Anatol
  34. Economic impacts of livestock production in Sweden - An input-output approach By Lindberg, Gunnar; Hansson, Helena
  35. U.S. Small Farms: Decline and Persistence? By MacDonald, James M.; Hoppe, Robert A.; Korb, Penni; OâDonoghue, Erik J.
  36. Impact of different biofuel policy options on agricultural production and land use in Germany By Banse, Martin; Sorda, Giovanni
  37. Optimal Farm Size under an Uncertain Land Market: the Case of Kyrgyz Republic By Scandizzo, Pasquale Lucio; Savastano, Sara
  38. The persistence of small dairy farms in Austria from an economic perspective By Kirner, Leopold; Hambrusch, Josef; Ortner, Karl M.
  39. The sustainability of small dairy farms in six regions of France. The roles of resources and local institutions By Mundler, Patrick; Jauneau, Jean-Claude; Guermonprez, Bruno; Pluvinage, Jean
  40. Small farmers in the Romanian dairy market: Do they have a future? By Pieniadz, Agata; Hanf, Jon H.; Voicilas, Dan Marius; Wegener, Stefan; Götz, Linde
  41. Diversification in land and labor allocation in response to shocks among small-scale farmers in central Vietnam By Duc, Tung Phung; Waibel, Hermann
  42. The Crisis of Small Farms in Central Italy: Can Farmer Turnover Slow Down the Downfall? By Russo, Carlo; Sabbatini, Massimo
  43. Farm Structure and the Effects of Agri-Environmental Programs: Results from a Matching Analysis for European Countries By Pufahl, Andrea; Weiss, Christoph R.
  44. The Greek small farms paradigm: between decline and persistence By VOUNOUKI, Eleftheria
  45. The environmental resource curse hypothesis: the forest case By Olivier Damette; Philippe Delacotte
  46. Effects of rural non-farm employment on economic vulnerability and income distribution of small farms in Croatia By Möllers, Judith; Buchenrieder, Gertrud
  47. Could small dairy farms in Switzerland compete with their French counterparts? A metafrontier analysis during 1990-2004 By Ferjani, Ali; Latruffe, Laure
  48. Small farms in Italy between decline and innovative formula: an entrepreneurial model analysis By Capitanio, Fabian; Adinolfi, Felice; Malorgio, Giulio
  49. Dairy supply chain modernisation in Poland â what about those not keeping the pace? By FaÅkowski, Jan; Malak-Rawlikowska, Agata; Milczarek-Andrzejewska, Dominika
  50. Adjustment Capacity of Korean Farm Household By Kim, Hanho; Kim, Jae-Kyung
  51. Transformations of agricultural extension services in the EU: Towards a lack of adequate knowledge for small-scale farms By Labarthe, Pierre; Laurent, Catherine
  52. Life and work on small-scale farms in Norway: an outlook based on survey results linked to financial data By Lien, Gudbrand; Bergfjord, Ole Jakob; Hoveid, Oyvind
  53. What do we mean by a âsmall farmâ? By Lund, Philip J.
  54. Consumer acceptance of genetically modified rapeseed-oil: A discrete-choice-experiment By Klein, Agnes; Zapilko, Marina; Menrad, Klaus; Gabriel, Andreas
  55. On Flexibility in the Polish Farming Sector By Renner, Swetlana; Hockmann, Heinrich; Pieniadz, Agata; Glauben, Thomas
  56. âWaiting for Godotâ- Restructuring on Small Family Farms By Jack, Claire G.; Moss, Joan E.; Wallace, Michael T.
  57. Survival and Growth of Family Farms in a Transition Country â The Hungarian Case By Bakucs, Zoltan L.; Ferto, Imre
  58. Compliance with international food safety standards as an outcome of a Nash bargaining process: a case study on Kenyan small scale green beans farms By Nimenya, Nicodeme; de Frahan, Bruno Henry; Ndimira, Pascal-Firmin
  59. Positional Advantage within Small Farms: Evidence from Illinois By Micheels, Eric T.; Gow, Hamish R.
  60. Do private labels generate customer loyalty in food retailing? By Wettstein, Nadine; Brosig, Stephan; Glauben, Thomas; Hanf, Jon H.; Loy, Jens-Peter
  61. Is there a future for small farms in developed countries? Evidence from the French case By Perrier-Cornet, Philippe; Aubert, Magali
  62. Linking small producers to supermarkets? The role of intermediaries on the fresh fruit and vegetable market in Turkey. By Bignebat, Celine; Koc, Ali; Lemeilleur, Sylvaine
  63. The adoption of Bt-maize in Germany: An econometric analysis By Consmüller, Nicola; Beckmann, Volker; Petrick, Martin
  64. Assessing the impact of agricultural research on farmer's knowledge about African animal trypanosomosis : An application of the propensity score matching approach By Liebenehm, Sabine; Affognon, Hippolyte; Waibel, Hermann
  65. Economic Efficiency of Smallholder Intensive Dairy Farms in Iran: Adjusted for Market Distortion By Bakhshoodeh, M.; Shahnushi, N.
  66. Income Diversification of Farm Households: Relevance and Determinants in Germany By Pieniadz, Agata; Renner, Swetlana; Rathmann, Christoph; Glauben, Thomas; Loy, Jens-Peter
  67. International grain reserves and other instruments to address volatility in grain markets By Wright, Brian

  1. By: Csaki, Csaba; Forgacs, Csaba
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52803&r=agr
  2. By: Owuor, George; Shem, Ouma A.
    Abstract: The idea that smallholder farmers are reasonably efficient has triggered much debate in Sub-Saharan Africa. Indeed, efficiency of smallholder farmers has implications for choice of development strategy; reason being that Sub-Saharan countries derive over 60% of their livelihoods from smallholder agriculture and rural economic activities. This paper evaluates factors that promote production efficiency among smallholder farmers in Kenya as avenues for policy intervention. A production frontier function was fitted to a random sample derived from a survey carried in 2007. Results show that all conventional inputs had the expected significance. On the inefficiency indicators, ownership to farmland, attendance to agricultural workshops, access to credit and participation in self-help groups significantly reduced inefficiency, while age, market distance, female gender and formal education increased inefficiency. Our findings suggest that within the available technologies, farmers can improve on their productivity if they nurture teamwork as in groups where labour is shared. Besides, better roads would reduce transaction costs and promote higher returns, and training in agriculture would boost efficient resources use for better performance. Therefore, there exists opportunity to improve efficiency in production given existing farm technologies.
    Keywords: Technical Efficiency, Smallholder Farmers, Africa, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52807&r=agr
  3. By: Mittal, Surabhi; Gandhi, Sanjay; Tripathi, Gaurav
    Abstract: Telecommunication and more specially mobile phones have the potential to provide solution to the existing information asymmetry in various lagging sectors like Agriculture. Indiaâs agricultural sector suffers from low growth rates and low productivity. Issues in access to information is a week point at every stage of the agrisupply chain. For small farmers base economy like India, access to information can possible enable better incomes and productivity to the farmers. This paper through focus group discussions and in-depth interview with farmers in villages of India, has tried to find answers to the use and impact of mobile and mobile enabled services on agricultural productivity. The answers to these questions are of relevance to develop better policy environment conducive for the small and medium farmers and has implications for mobile operators, for information service providers, and for policy-makers. The results show that although, mobiles can act as catalyst to improving productivity and rural incomes, the quality of the information, the timeliness of the information and trustworthiness of the information are the three important aspects that has to be delivered to the farmers, to meet there needs and expectations. There exist critical binding constraints that restricts the ability of the farming community to realise gains at full potential and this is more for the small than to large farmers.
    Keywords: Mobile and Agriculture, India, Productivity, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Marketing, Production Economics, Q13, Q16, Q18,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52809&r=agr
  4. By: Karfakis, Panagiotis; Hammam Howe, Tarek
    Abstract: In current economic reality, there seems to be a clear need to recognize, characterize and place small scale agriculture in a setup which accounts for novel trends in the modes of doing business in the global economy and with respect to the changing role of agriculture along development transition. Providing that ground it will make it possible to design and promote appropriate policy strategies that will best accommodate small scale farmersâ needs and exploit their potential for agricultural development. The present paper employs a multi country household survey database developed from ESA-FAO, and a series of ad hoc land thresholds to categorize rural households as small or large scale farmers and identify some of their key characteristics as well as their economic weight in the rural as well as the national economy.
    Keywords: Small scale agriculture, household survey data, developing countries, International Development, Production Economics, Q12,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52851&r=agr
  5. By: Lee, Jonq-Ying
    Keywords: food stamp program, food insecurity, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2009
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:fdcr09:52990&r=agr
  6. By: Kpenavoun Chogou, Sylvain; Lebailly, Philippe; Adegbidi, Anselme; Gandonou, Esaie
    Abstract: To sell their surpluses of maize, the main staple in Benin, farmers may choose among three modes of transaction: they may sell under a contract with itinerant traders, or they may sell without a contract at the farmgate or on distant markets. It has been postulated that farmers may choose a profitable mode of transaction if they have good access to information on the prevailing market conditions. Using detailed farm household survey data from Benin, this paper applies the Nested Logit model to test this hypothesis. The results show that farmers are likely to opt for selling at the farmgate without a contract if they have good access to information. However, such a decision may not be related to access to information through the government supported âPublic Market Information System' but rather it is likely to be induced by access to information through farmersâ own social networks.
    Keywords: Public Market Information System, farmers, modes of transaction, liberalization, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2009–08–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52999&r=agr
  7. By: Huang, Zuhui; Liang, Qiao; Hendrikse, G.W.J.
    Abstract: Watermelon production investments, incomes and the access to markets between members of a cooperative and individual small farmers are compared. The results of the case study regarding members of a watermelon cooperative and five individual small farmers in Zhejiang province in China indicate that members of the cooperative are prone to produce food of higher quality, have obvious advantage in accessing modern food supply chains over individual small farmers, and subsequently gain a significantly higher return or income than individual small farmers.
    Keywords: farmer cooperative, benefit, income, Consumer/Household Economics,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52840&r=agr
  8. By: Okoye, Chukwuemeka U.
    Abstract: In Nigeria 90% of the agricultural primary produce is in the hands of small holders cultivating between 0.8-4 hectares. Farm size expansion is limited by population pressure, land fragmentation, poor market opportunities and lack of finance. This article presents estimates of soil erosion control(SEC) and soil erosion damage costs (SEDC) in small farmers' fields in Nigeria and examines the contents and direction of the countryâs agriculture and environment policies vis-à-vis the SEC among small farmers. It was found that 24% of the farmersâ spending on tillage/cultural practices was directed at the institution of SEC measures, and that SEC-related defensive expenditures was 3.7 times more than the estimated SEDCs. The capacity of small farmers to respond to soil degradation is severely limited. Most SEC measures deployed derive from non-tradable inputs blurred by incomplete/missing markets for environmental assets. Yet farm development and environmental policies in Nigeria have dwelt on supply-side interventions based on marketable inputs, and have been largely ineffective. Policy and institutional reforms are needed to increase and focus support to farmers to increase defensive expenditures for SEC.
    Keywords: Soil erosion, damage costs, farm growth, Environmental Economics and Policy, Production Economics,
    Date: 2009–08–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:53079&r=agr
  9. By: Jouili, Mustapha
    Abstract: In Tunisia, small and medium-sized family farms dominate agriculture. From the early 80s, with the introduction of the Structural Adjustment Program (SAP), the conditions of production and reproduction of small farms have radically changed. In addition to the unfavorable trend of the prices, these farms are increasingly excluded from credit, land and support services. The ultimate consequence is a tendency in real incomes to decline, particularly sharp for small farms in the arid regions of the country. Faced with this degradation, small farms have developed mechanisms of adaptation or regulation allowing them to survive and, even in certain cases, to ensure more than a simple reproduction. But, it seems that the limits of these mechanisms of resistance have already reached or almost. All the indications suggest that the changes observed will lead the majority of these farmers to abandon their land and to undertake the path of proletarianization. However, other factors must be taken into account. The absence of any alternative of employment and stable income, in other activities, condemns small farms to remain in poverty and insecurity.
    Keywords: agriculture, agricultural policy, small farms, Tunisia, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Q10, Q12, Q18,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52816&r=agr
  10. By: Jonathan Brooks; Dalila Cervantes-Godoy; Erik Jonasson
    Abstract: This paper proposes a strategic framework for policies to assist smallholders in developing countries. It describes the inevitable features of structural change in the agricultural and rural economy, the associated pressures that these changes place on smallholders, and the consequent need for policies to facilitate rather than impede adjustment. A key premise of the framework is that, for the majority of smallholders, the long term (i.e. inter-generational)future lies outside the sector. Hence, long-term policies need to make a distinction between those who potentially have a competitive future in the sector and those who do not. In either case, many of the necessary policies will not be agriculture-specific, so it is important that agricultural policies are framed in a broader economy-wide framework. In addition, a clear distinction needs to be made between short-term policies to reduce poverty and food insecurity and long-term policies to stimulate development. This is because there are intertemporal trade-offs (as well as complementarities) between policies that are likely to be effective in the short-run, and those promising most impact over the long-term. The paper discusses the role of different agricultural and non-agricultural policies in providing the appropriate policy mix in countries at different stages of development.
    Keywords: smallholders, rural development, agricultural policy, structural change, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, International Development, O20, Q18, R23,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52867&r=agr
  11. By: Henseleit, Meike; Kubitzki, Sabine; Herrmann, Roland
    Abstract: Consumers, particularly in industrialised countries, are concerned about the application of genetic engineering in food production. There are considerations in many nations worldwide to introduce legal regulations to label food as free of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in order to enable producers to better promote such products. However, requirements for labelling food products as âGMO-freeâ can be very different, and therefore it is questionable whether consumersâ understanding of âGMO-freeâ is consistent with what certain labels actually can guarantee. We conducted a consumer survey in order to explore potential gaps between expectations of âGMO-freeâ food and production requirements in the case of the revised German regulation covering the labelling of foods as âGMO-freeâ. Our results indicate significant differences between consumersâ view and standards of production.
    Keywords: Genetic Engineering, Food Labelling, Consumer Survey, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2009–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gaae09:53263&r=agr
  12. By: Owuor, George
    Abstract: With access to formal credit proving almost impossible to smallholder farmers, group based lending is steadily becoming popular in Africa. However, little is documented on the role of such programmes. In this paper, we employ propensity score matching and endogenous switching regime methods on a sample of 600 smallholder farmers drawn from two agricultural regions in Kenya in 2007. The goal of the survey was to evaluate the economic impact of group based credit programmes on smallholder farmersâ productive performance and poverty reduction in Kenya. Our findings reveal gains with significant impacts of group based credit on incomes in the range of 300 and 480 euros as well as via purchased inputs, with participation in such credit programmes significantly constrained by low literacy levels prevalent among a majority of rural farm households, influence of gender, with female headed households dominating in membership and little participation on the part of male headed households, poor rural access road infrastructure and constraints in group management resulting from lack of cohesion as the group grows in membership. These factors form the key recommendations for policy intervention to achieve sustainability of group based informal lending among farm households in Africa and other similar developing nations.
    Keywords: Informal Micro-Finance, Smallholder Farmers, Performance in Kenya, Agricultural Finance, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Labor and Human Capital, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52806&r=agr
  13. By: Apata, T.G.; Rahji, M.A.Y.; Samuel, K.D.; Igbalajobi, O.A
    Abstract: Small farmers are one of the more disadvantaged and vulnerable groups in Nigeria. Studies have shown that majority of people living in absolute poverty can be found on small farms with half in this group undernourished. The study examined heterogeneity in circumstances and diversity in rural agriculture, the persistence of small farms, poverty and institutional development and facilities. Data for this study came from Nigerian living Standard Survey (NLSS) which covered the two periods 1994/2004. The data set consists of 9550 respondentsâ but only 8264 cases were useful for this study. The index of heterogeneity at 29.1 indicated persistence of small farms in the two periods under consideration. Persistence of small farms and poverty are closely related (r = 0.674). The poverty differential in the two surveys data revealed that poverty increased by 14.72%. Disaggregation analysis indicated that institutional development and facilities improved farm outputs, diversification to non-farm and reduction in poverty. Access to these institutional facilities can enable the small farmers to rearticulate their livelihood activities. Policy makers need to show more commitment to develop agriculture through identifying and providing the capacity need of small farmers in order for them to absorb and used whatever modern techniques introduced.
    Keywords: Heterogeneity index, Poverty Differential, Institutional Development, Structural Constraints, Nigeria, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Development,
    Date: 2009–08–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:53001&r=agr
  14. By: FertÅ, Imre; Forgács, Csaba
    Abstract: The paper investigates the choice between conventional and organic production technologies for individual farmers in Hungarian agriculture. We employ sequential logit model on a cross-section data set of Hungarian farmers for the period 2007. Our estimations reveal that age of farmers has negative, whilst being full time farmers and having more diversified production structure have positive impact on the intention for being organic farmers. Furthermore, it appears that education, being full time farmers and more diversified production structure positively influence the final decision between conventional and organic farming.
    Keywords: innovation, attitudes, organic production, diffusion, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52862&r=agr
  15. By: Matteo Vittuari; Andrea Segrè
    Abstract: The research aims to explore and analyze the main elements of agricultural policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina with a particular focus on one of the two entities: Republika Srpska. A particular attention has been given to the institutional capacity to identify adequate instruments and mechanisms. The paper is based on the use of different methodological tools including the agrarian system analysis; the examination of official documents and reports; a field survey; a number of interviews with policy makers and key informants.
    Keywords: Agricultural policies, Small farms, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52865&r=agr
  16. By: Bergmann, Holger; Thomson, Kenneth J.
    Abstract: Small and medium-sized farms all over Europe guarantee their survival by a broad range of strategies and different income sources. In remoter areas of highly developed countries such as the UK, such strategies may be expected to have their own characteristics, both legislative and socio-economic. This paper reports results from a socio-economic survey carried out among 40 Scottish agricultural households in the Caithness and Sutherland region of the North of Scotland, focussing specifically on the diversification strategies of (larger) farms and (smaller) crofts related to the multifunctionality of agriculture. After analysing the land, labour and capital use of farm/croft households in the region, the paper analyses why farms/crofts in this remote area have chosen specific diversification or specialisation strategies, and briefly considers their futures. The survey showed that only a quarter of the average household income of crofts comes from agriculture, and that this proportion (like the equivalent on farms) derives from substantial CAP subsidies. However, these known (if declining) income source may be the basis for the development of small and medium-sized rural enterprises if crofters and farmers are sufficiently educated, skilled and dedicated. The paper shows that, in times of economic decline, crofting (which has been the subject of a recent report to the Scottish Government) and farming in this area can be the basis of farm household survival in remote rural areas of developed countries.
    Keywords: farm households, Scottish Highlands, income sources, diversification, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Q12, Q15, R20, R10,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52832&r=agr
  17. By: Kilic, Talip; Carletto, Calogero
    Abstract: This study uses a unique panel dataset that spans a 20-year period (1985-2005), and estimates the effect of household non-traditional agricultural export (NTX) adoption on changes in livelihood orientation and participation in non-farm employment in Santiago Sacatepéquez municipality of Guatemala. Given the heterogeneity in adoption patterns, it provides differential impact estimates based on a classification of households that takes into account the timing and duration of NTX adoption. Our findings suggest that over time, household reliance on off-farm income and access to non-farm employment, particularly self-employment and blue collar work, increased in the surveyed communities, irrespective of snow pea adoption. However, the extent of change varied across groups. Although the magnitudes of increase in the aforementioned outcomes among early long-term adopters and late adopters were not statistically significant with respect to the trends among non-adopters, early adopters who withdrew from NTX production in the medium-term exhibited greater and statistically significant increases in the same livelihood outcomes with respect to any other category.
    Keywords: Smallholders, Non-Traditional Export Crops, Long-Term Livelihood Changes, Consumer/Household Economics, Crop Production/Industries,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52838&r=agr
  18. By: Ali, Muhammad; Arifullah, Syed; Memon, Manzoor Hussain
    Abstract: This study is an attempt to analyze the impact of Edible Oil Deficit on Food Expenditure in Pakistan for the period 1971-2008. Edible oil deficit is one of the major concerns for the policy makers in Pakistan. Despite of having agriculture based economy; Pakistan is unable to fulfil her domestic demand of edible oil by local production. This situation forces the government to import edible oil and oil seeds from other countries. This import not only increases our balance of payment deficit but also it negatively affects the ability to finance the external debt repayments. Autoregressive Distributed Lag model has been used to analyse the long run relationship amongst the variables. Other important determinants of food expenditure along with edible oil deficit were also used to check for their collective long run impact. It was found that long run negative relationship exists between edible oil deficit and food expenditure and hence the result derives the policy implication that there is a need to boost up the efforts in the agriculture sector to steadily increase the local production of oil seeds in the country. The relationship between the per capita GDP and food expenditure is found to be positive and significant with elasticity of 0.261 suggesting that 1 percent increase in per capita GDP will cause food expenditure to increase by 0.26 percent. The relationship between food subsidy and food expenditure is found to be insignificant suggesting that due to improper targeting and consumer’s perception about quality and accessibility of subsidized food, Government’s food support programs are not effective.
    Keywords: Edible Oil; Production; Imports; Trade Deficit; Balance of Payments; International Trade; Oilseed Crops; Agriculture; Pakistan; Edible oil deficit; demand function; food; inflation; food inflation; household expenditure.
    JEL: I31 Q11 E23 D20 E00 Q18
    Date: 2009–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:17149&r=agr
  19. By: Gillespie, Jeffrey; Nehring, Richard; Sandretto, Carmen; Hallahan, Charlie
    Abstract: The U.S. dairy industry is undergoing rapid structural change, evolving from a structure including many small farmers in the Upper Midwest and Northeast to one that includes very large farms in new production regions. Small farms are struggling to retain competitiveness via improved management and low-input systems. Using data from USDAâs Agricultural Resource Management Survey, we determine the extent of U.S. conventional and pasture-based milk production during 2003-2007, and estimate net returns, scale efficiency, and technical efficiency associated with the systems across different operation sizes. We compare the financial performance of small conventional and pasture-based producers with one another and with largescale producers. A stochastic production frontier is used to analyze performance over the period for conventional and pasture technologies identified using a binomial logit model. Large conventional farms generally outperformed smaller farms using most economic measures â technical efficiency, various profitability measures, and returns to scale.
    Keywords: Pasture-based system, technical efficiency, returns to scale, dairy, Livestock Production/Industries, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52869&r=agr
  20. By: Nuppenau, Ernst-August
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the discussion on appropriate farm sizes as dependent on energy use and green house gas emission. Normally large farms use more energy than small farms and obtain higher labor productivity which is one of the reasons for their superiority. We presume energy includes a component of negative externality if fossil energy is used and carbon CO2 are counted. Moreover it can be intended to use farming for carbon sequestration. In the paper we will analyze, how a new pathway can be developed, that includes incentives (taxes and subsidies) to save energy and develop coexistence between large and small farms. In favoring small scale farming because of less emission, a contribution to global warming reduction is envisaged. The issue is how can we address farm size, make incentives visible, help to switch technologies and promote farmers who adopt CO2 saving technologies? The paper suggests a framework of linear programming and quadratic expositions of farm behavior to depict policy for optimal farm operation size and farm structures composed of large and small scale farms. A moderate position is taken with respect to sustainable farming and the question of farm size and energy use is given to policy instruments.
    Keywords: Energy use, farm size and agricultural policy, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use, Production Economics,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52805&r=agr
  21. By: Swinnen, Johan F.M.
    Abstract: In this paper I draw lessons from two quasi-natural experiments (the transition process in former Communist countries and the rapid globalization of food chains) on the optimality of farms and agricultural structures more generally. I argue that (a) the farm structures that have emerged from the transition process are much more diverse than expected ex ante; (b) this diversity is to an important extent determined by economic mechanisms which are influenced by initial conditions (eg technology) and reform policies; (c) non-traditional farm structures have played an important role during transition since they were optimal to address the specific institutional and structural constraints imposed by the transition process; (d) there is more diversity than often argued in the farms that are integrated in global food chains; (e) endogenous institutional (contracting) innovations in food chains may lock existing farm structures in a long-run institutional framework; and (f) indicators based on farm structures are not a good measure of welfare effects of the globalization of food chains.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52802&r=agr
  22. By: Pillarisetti, Satish; Mehrotra, Nirupam
    Abstract: Indian agriculture is characterized by the predominance of smallholders. This paper seeks to examine the access of small holders to agriculture credit in the context of financial sector reforms in India in the nineties. It explores the role of institutional and non institutional agencies in extending agriculture credit to the smallholder and the ground realities as revealed by recent data sets. The nineties also saw the unfolding of the largest microfinance programme in the world in India. While this was very successful in bringing micro enterprises under the credit purview, it was unable to cater to the need for agriculture credit. This paper examines the reasons for this and suggests that newer kinds of institutional innovations in the Pilot stage like, Joint Liability Groups, VDC- Farmers Club Model, SHG-Contract Farming Linkage model which seek to overcome the difficulties faced by smallholders in accessing agriculture credit are effective. They need to be upscaled and mainstreamed in order to bring about vibrancy in the rural credit market in India.
    Keywords: Agriculture credit, Farm Size, Land Economics/Use, Q1, Q15,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52858&r=agr
  23. By: Sauer, Johannes; Davidova, Sophia; Latruffe, Laure
    Abstract: The key question of this paper is why farmers in Kosovo leave land fallow when the total land of their farms is rather small and households are rather large. In order to elicit some barriers to land utilisation in Kosovo, the paper is based on a comprehensive survey investigating agricultural householdsâ perceptions of production and market conditions, and employs several households and farm characteristics to empirically approximate the significance of different factors for leaving land fallow and not using it for production purposes. Three different models have been estimated. All estimated model specifications show a statistical significance at a satisfactory level and no severe signs of misspecification. One of the main factors farmers stated for their decision to leave land fallow was the low profitability of farming. The increase in incentives to farmers by improving market institutions up- and downstream is one measure which could alleviate the barriers to land use. Larger arable areas decrease the probability for fallow land. This emphasises the need for land consolidation.
    Keywords: fallow land decision, Kosovo, Tobit regression, Fractional response regression, Zero-inflated binomial regression, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Risk and Uncertainty,
    Date: 2009–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gaae09:53278&r=agr
  24. By: Katsushi S. Imai
    Date: 2009
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:man:sespap:0914&r=agr
  25. By: Davidova, Sophia; Fredriksson, Lena; Bailey, Alastair
    Abstract: Factor and cluster analysis are used to analyse the attitudes and perceptions of agricultural households in five EU New Member States towards farming, commercialisation, and barriers to and drivers for an increased integration in agricultural markets. The contribution of unsold output to the total household income is valued. A stepwise linear regression is employed to detect important variables explaining the degree of agricultural market integration of farm households. The analysis indicates that subsistence farming is of utmost importance for the rural poor, and particularly in Bulgaria and Romania. The proportion of consumption from own production, manual cultivation techniques and distance to an urban centre negatively affect output sales. Rural development policies targeted at rural physical and market infrastructure might relieve some of these constraints.
    Keywords: agricultural households, subsistence, commercialisation, incomes, cluster analysis, stepwise regression, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Crop Production/Industries, Q12,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52801&r=agr
  26. By: George, Owuor; Bocklain, Bebe
    Abstract: This study explored appropriate options for smallholders to maximise market price for Indigenous chicken products in rural and urban markets in Western Kenya (Rongo, Homabay and Kisii in 2008 with results revealing that, the major participants along the indigenous chicken supply chains are village brokers, distant traders, and urban assemblers, who eventually sell hotels, butchers and households. Buyers preferred hens followed by cocks, and attached greater preference on weight and high market prices. The price differential was un-uniform, with the larger differentials recorded between farmers and the middlemen. Turnover and losses were however the key determinants of the selling price. The study thus recommends training of farmers on the market linkages and on accessing market information about final consumer prices and preferences. Last, but not least, interventions to empower farmers to carry out selection for improved weight through feeding should be encouraged.
    Keywords: Indigenous chicken, market efficiency, Kenya, Agribusiness, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2009–08–27
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:53075&r=agr
  27. By: Martin Schönhart (Doctoral School Sustainable Development (dokNE), University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna); Erwin Schmid (Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna); Uwe A. Schneider (Research Unit Sustainability and Global Change, Center for Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, KlimaCampus, Hamburg University, Germany,)
    Abstract: Crop rotations are an important factor for the design and implementation of sustainable agricultural systems. Integrated agricultural land use models increasingly acknowledge the role of crop rotations by assessing economic and environmental impacts of agricultural production systems. However, insufficient data on crop rotations often challenge their implementation. In this article, we present the crop rotation optimization model CropRota. CropRota integrates agronomic criteria and historical crop mixes at field, farm, or regional scales in order to generate optimal crop rotations for the particular scale. The article describes model structure, empirical crop mix data, and its application and validation for a case study region in Austria. Model calibration and sensitivity analysis are conducted to emphasize the importance of sound expert judgments on assumptions about crop rotations. The comparison of model results against seven years of field survey data from 579 farms in the Mostviertel region of Austria indicates that CropRota is suitable and reliable in modeling typical crop rotations. A model approach based on calibrated model parameters delivered weighted deviations of modeled and observed crop sequences of around 10% for the most important two-crop sequences covering 50% of total crop lands in the region.
    Keywords: crop rotation; crop sequence; modeling; optimization; sustainable agricultural systems
    JEL: Q12 Q57
    Date: 2009–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:sed:wpaper:452009&r=agr
  28. By: Ahearn, Mary; Effland, Anne
    Abstract: We begin with a brief comparison of the size distribution of US and EU-15 farms to provide the European audience a greater context to the US issues. The EU data are from the Farm Structures Survey and the US data are from USDAâs Agriculture Resource Management Survey (ARMS). We next address the reasons for the unexpected increase in the number of small farms in the US and the possible role of government policies. We draw on ARMS to provide the distribution of commodity and conservation payments by farm size. Although limits on payments to large farms have long been addressed by the periodic US Farm Acts, payments continue to be concentrated on large farms largely because of their historical ties to farm production. The most recent 2008 Farm Act included more provisions to target program participants based on the personal characteristics of the operators and to limit payments to individuals likely to be operating large farms.
    Keywords: small farms, EU-US farm structure comparison, farm policy, payment distribution, Agricultural and Food Policy, Q12,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52868&r=agr
  29. By: Alboiu, Cornelia
    Abstract: The paper intends to make an analysis at regional level in the South-East region of the country in order to determine the present situation of agriculture in this region compared to the whole country. The paper investigates the crop structure, the irrigated area and the number of irrigation equipment in the region, the market orientation of farms, the type and development level of the non-agricultural activities, the labour force, and the specialization of farms. The objective of this paper is to analyze the regional agricultural characteristics and to determine the level of entrepreneurship in the area, so that farmers and regional policies might better interfere in order to help farmers adjust their production to the market and obtain a benefit. A comparison with the situation at the whole country will be also provided. The paper concludes that Romanian subsistence agriculture is still a âmodus vivendiâ, and most likely only time and the force of new technologies employed by the large commercial companies will partly solve the issue.
    Keywords: subsistence, regional analysis, irrigations, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52848&r=agr
  30. By: Beckmann, Volker; Banaszak, Ilona
    Abstract: The cooperative movement in Poland has a long but difficult history. The socialistic regime introduced a command and control system into cooperatives which was destructive to their self-governing functions and eventually led to a lack of member involvement. There was a mass neglecting and abandonment after the transformation in particular of rural cooperatives. Nonetheless, in the early 1990s the first farmersâ cooperative marketing organizations, called agricultural producer groups, appeared on the market. They are bottom-up, voluntary organizations whose main purpose is to jointly sell their membersâ output Although producer groups functions similarly to marketing cooperatives, farmers establishing producer groups have been choosing other legal forms than cooperatives. In the paper we investigate why the new forms of governance of cooperative arrangements are chosen and what are the implication of these choices for the success of the groups on the market. We discuss the impact of invested capital, the impact of advisors, and the impact of institutional environment on this choice. The empirical data was collected on 62 producer groups functioning in one province of Poland.
    Keywords: Co-operatives, Governance, Organizational choice, Poland, Producer groups, Socialist legacy, Agribusiness,
    Date: 2009–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gaae09:53269&r=agr
  31. By: Buchenrieder, Gertrud; Fritzsch, Jana; Wegener, Stefan; Curtiss, Jarmila; Gomez y Paloma, Sergio
    Abstract: Semi-subsistence farm households (SFHs) have persevered in Central and Southeastern Europe. An outlook on future perspectives of SFHs asks for reliable information on the phenomenon of SFHs and the impact of policy measures on their development options: (1) intensifying farming, (2) diversifying income creating activities, or (3) exiting farming for waged employment. This article focuses on SFHs and rural non-farm employment (RNFE). On the basis of a comparative 2007-survey of 489 SFHs in Bulgaria, Poland and Romania, three countries with particularly many SFHs, four major types of SFHs (rural pensioners, farmers, rural diversifiers, rural newcomers) were identified. For policy analysis, a multiobjective linear programming household model was developed. In the model, labour can be devoted to (1) farming, (2) self-employment and (3) waged employment. The policy scenarios reflect different development options for SFHs: (1) farm development, (2) start selfemployment, (3) farm development and start self-employment, and (4) stop agriculture. Policy can foster the structural change but the modeling results show that fine targeting to the various types of semi-subsistence farms and country specificities is a strong precondition for success.
    Keywords: Semi-subsistence, rural non-farm economy, policy analysis, transition countries, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Land Economics/Use, Political Economy, C61, P27, Q12,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52804&r=agr
  32. By: Sudaryanto, Tahlim; Susilowati, Sri Hery; Sumaryanto
    Abstract: Acording to agricultural cencus data, the percentage of small farms (holding <0.5 ha) has increased from 48.5% in 1993 to 56.5% in 2003. Evidence from micro panel data is also inline with this observation. In rice farming region of Java, average farm size has declined from 0.49 ha in 1995 to 0.36 ha in 2007. In the off-Java region, average farm size declined from 1.49 ha in 1995 to 1.35 ha in 2007. The increasing trend of small farm is due to several factors, namely: high population presure coupled with limited non-farm employment, persistent trend of land conversion to non-farm use, and traditional practice of land inheritance. Due to small farm size, rural farm household have to diversify their income to meet their family needs. In Java, 51.7% of household income in 2007 is accounted for nonfarm income. This observation implies that strategic policies to increase household income in rural areas are by increasing access to land resources coupled with promoting off-farm and non-farm employment.
    Keywords: small farm, land conversion, non-farm employment, Labor and Human Capital, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52808&r=agr
  33. By: Cimpoies, Dragos; Lerman, Zvi; Racul, Anatol
    Abstract: The paper investigates the current situation with fragmentation of family farms in Moldova and its effects on family well-being and farm productivity. A key hypothesis is that consolidation of agricultural land in Moldova has beneficial effects in terms of productivity and is desirable in the long run. We examine the case for market-driven land consolidation using data from several recent surveys in Moldova. We show that, in the individual sector, larger farms consume less of their output and attain higher levels of commercialization. Larger individual farms thus have higher revenues from commercial sales and generate higher family incomes. Farm augmentation accordingly makes a positive contribution to the well-being of the rural population. The extent of parcel consolidation is directly correlated with the relative efficiency of farms: consolidated family farms are more efficient than those with fragmented holdings. Hence, land consolidation leads to better economic performance of family farms.
    Keywords: Land consolidation, land fragmentation, land market, family farms, rural incomes, Moldova, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52837&r=agr
  34. By: Lindberg, Gunnar; Hansson, Helena
    Abstract: This study uses a disaggregated input-output (IO) table of Sweden to assess the economic impacts of different production lines within Swedish agriculture. Focus has especially been placed on the differences between different types of livestock production and the differences between livestock and arable productions. Swedish agriculture was divided into the production lines, or sectors, cattle (milk and beef), pig, poultry and egg, sheep, mixed livestock production, cereals and mixed farm production, and the importance and potential of each one of them were assessed. To enable such a detailed analysis we first developed and applied a method for disaggregating the single agricultural account in the Swedish IO table. To do so we disaggregated the inputs and outputs of all production lines identified in the study. We used farm accounting data for Sweden together with sector specific data from Statistics Sweden and Agriwise to determine the purchases and sales of different farm types. Within the so called Make-Use framework of the IO table we allowed different farm types to produce more than one output to take the normal heterogeneity of farm production into consideration. Turning the IO table into an IO model we analyzed the various interdependencies in the economic system and determined the relative impact and potentials of different sectors. In particular, output, employment and income multipliers, together with elasticities were calculated and analyzed. In this process we developed the already existing measure of elasticities to better capture the relative importance of sectors with limited final demand. Livestock production lines are generally more integrated in the system of intermediate sales and purchases compared with cereal production. This means that these production lines offer a greater potential in generating output throughout the economy, if the final demand for these products was to increase exogenously. Among the livestock production lines, poultry and egg production seem to be the most input-intensive; however this production line uses labour to a small extent. Combining the multipliers with the relative size of production lines to derive measures of elasticities we find that significant production lines are cattle (milk and beef), cereals and mixed farming. The output, employment and income multipliers, as well as the elasticities, calculated in this study offer a basis for decisions related to sector priorities and regional and rural development. It is however utterly important that the results are interpreted in the right way and that the reader understands that production lines with great output generating potential might for example not perform as well in generating employment. Furthermore generating employment can be measured from different perspectives. That is, a sector can generate employment from one more person employed in the sector or from exogenous increase in the demand for the product of the production line. Results might differ substantially.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2009
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:swaswp:52971&r=agr
  35. By: MacDonald, James M.; Hoppe, Robert A.; Korb, Penni; OâDonoghue, Erik J.
    Abstract: We use two comprehensive and representative USDA databases to assess the performance of small farms in the U.S. Farm production is shifting to much larger farms, and the number of small commercial farms is declining. Most large U.S. farms remain family-owned and operated enterprises, and most remain small businesses by U.S. standards. Small commercial farms tend to focus on three commodities: beef cattle, grains and oilseeds, and poultry. On average, large farm financial returns substantially exceed those on small farms, but the range of performance among small farms is quite wide. About one quarter of the nearly 800,000 small commercial farms show very good financial returns.
    Keywords: small farms, structural change, farm income, Agricultural and Food Policy, Q12,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52870&r=agr
  36. By: Banse, Martin; Sorda, Giovanni
    Keywords: biofuel, Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2009–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gaae09:53251&r=agr
  37. By: Scandizzo, Pasquale Lucio; Savastano, Sara
    Abstract: The paper illustrates a theoretical model of real option value applied to the problem of land development. Making use of the 1998-2001 Kyrgyz Household Budget Survey, we show that when the hypothesis of decreasing return to scale holds, the relation between the threshold value of revenue per hectare and the amount of land cultivated is positive. In addition to that, the relation between the threshold and the amount of land owned is positive in the case of continuous supply of land and negative when there is discontinuous supply of land. The direct consequence is that, in the first case, smaller farms will be more willing to rent land and exercise the option where, in the second case, larger farms will exercise first. The results corroborate the findings of the theoretical model and suggest three main conclusions: (i) the combination of uncertainty and irreversibility is a significant factor in the land development decisions, (ii) farmersâ behaviour is consistent with the continuous profit maximization model, (iii) farming unit revenue tends to be positively related to farm size, once uncertainty is properly accounted for.
    Keywords: Option value theory, Farm size, Uncertainty, irreversibility, Agricultural and Food Policy, Land Economics/Use, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, O13, Q12, Q15, Q18,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52844&r=agr
  38. By: Kirner, Leopold; Hambrusch, Josef; Ortner, Karl M.
    Abstract: In the international comparison the structure of milk production in Austria is small scale. The present study presents two theoretical approaches to explain the persistence of small dairy farms in Austria: the opportunity cost principle and the theory of the agricultural household. With regard to the first one it is debatable whether the flat rates really can represent the costs of own production factors in their alternative uses in small enterprises. An illustration on the basis of production cost accounts shows that small dairy farms with no possibilities for the utilization of their own production factors (especially for labour) can cover the production costs by revenues only. Secondly it is argued that agricultural production is likely to continue in small dairy farms as long as the enterprise contributes persistently to the household income of the family. Indicators from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) of voluntarily participating farms in Austria support the notion that labour is allocated efficiently between the enterprise and the household in small operations in order to achieve maximum total income. The study proposes arguments according to which it can be expected that rather small dairy farms are going to be a prominent presence in Austrian agriculture also in the future.
    Keywords: Small dairy farms, production costs, farm household, opportunity costs, FADN, Consumer/Household Economics, Q12, R20,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52850&r=agr
  39. By: Mundler, Patrick; Jauneau, Jean-Claude; Guermonprez, Bruno; Pluvinage, Jean
    Abstract: A survey of more than 150 small dairy farms and local economic, professional and political stakeholders was conducted in six regions of France. It revealed five types of farm strategy in relation to the farmâs size, agricultural diversification, importance of direct selling, and farm and household incomes. A âresource-basedâ approach shows that the sustainability of small farms is linked to economic, social and human resources. In this way the study shows the important part played by the householdâs income and the farmerâs integration in the social fabric. This approach is complemented by an institutional approach: The sustainability of a small farm depends on local economic, professional and political institutions and an important role is played by the territorial context. Local representations can be formalised in different development processes and concern both the possible future of the dairy sector and the types of farm that are in a position to be competitive, and in this way contribute to the selection of dairy farms. This study shows that small dairy farms are not doomed to disappear. The mobilisation of the farm householdâs internal resources combined with the positive impacts of the âlocal dairy surroundingsâ can offset in part, but successfully, the dairy sectorâs permanent restructuring.
    Keywords: Small dairy farms, sustainability, resources, territorial institutions, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Q12, Q18, R10, R58,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52820&r=agr
  40. By: Pieniadz, Agata; Hanf, Jon H.; Voicilas, Dan Marius; Wegener, Stefan; Götz, Linde
    Abstract: This paper investigates various modes of vertical coordination, with the focus on small farm integration in the Romanian dairy chain. It draws on results from a World Bank study based on semi-structured interviews conducted in spring 2009. The findings indicate that large and prosperous dairy chains fortify their chain efficiency by partner selection and provision of sophisticated assistance to relatively larger farmers. On the contrary, many barriers exist for small and medium-sized dairy chains (processors and farmers). The main factors hampering their potential exploitation are restricted access to inputs markets (capital, know-how) as well as poor quality of input service (agricultural service delivery, veterinary issues). The majority of cow's milk in Romania is still delivered by small farmers who have difficulties fulfilling the requirements of the modern procurement systems. However, small farmers are a relatively heterogeneous group. Hence, different development paths can be expected. In addition to working with retail chains via strengthening horizontal integration, another opportunity for small dairy famers is to occupy a market niche. Nevertheless, some small farmers will have to leave the dairy market.
    Keywords: vertical coordination, small farms, Romania, dairy., Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52861&r=agr
  41. By: Duc, Tung Phung; Waibel, Hermann
    Abstract: The paper analyzes the relationship between the allocation of labor and land of the households, the number of crops grown and the number of income sources of the households with different types of shocks and risks. It uses the data from the first phase of the household survey in three provinces of Central of Vietnam, conducted within the scope of the DFG research project âImpact of shocks on the vulnerability to poverty: consequences for development of emerging Southeast Asian economiesâ. The results suggest that the households diversify their portfolio (labor and land) into different income generating activities in order to cope with shocks. Among the different types of shocks and risks, agriculture and economic shocks and risks are the main factors to explain the (ex-post) risk-coping strategies and the (ex-ante) risk management of the households. The number of crops grown and the number of income sources from the households experienced with shocks are higher than others. In addition, the high-risk expectation households diversify their labor and land more than the low risk expectation households. The access to credit and market, the number of household labor, the education of the household head, and the wealth of the household are also very important factors that impact on the diversification level of the households.
    Keywords: Diversification, risk management, risk coping strategies, Vietnam, Farm Management, Labor and Human Capital,
    Date: 2009–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gaae09:53255&r=agr
  42. By: Russo, Carlo; Sabbatini, Massimo
    Abstract: We use original data to assess if the current incentives to farmer turnover may help the competitiveness of small farms in the Lazio Region (central Italy). Our results show that substantial changes in the policy may be needed. The paper analyzes sharp declining trend in small farm number, discusses its causes and evaluates the policies that have been adopted to stop or slow down this downfall. The regional policy makers consider the ageing of the farmers is a key determinant of the decline of small farms. Consequently, they have designed an incentive policy to generational turnover mainly based on installation payments. Given our empirical findings we conclude that this policy may fail to achieve the stated objectives. Firstly, farms that had a generational turnover in the last seven years do not show higher propensity to investment than the control group. These results suggest that farmersâ turnover per se may fail to increase the competitiveness of small farms. Secondly, in almost half of the cases the change in ownership is the result of a long process. Thus the timing of the policy may be wrong. Thirdly the policy is difficult to monitor and opportunistic behavior is possible.
    Keywords: Generational turnover in Agriculture, Installation payments, Agricultural and Food Policy, Q10, Q18,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52843&r=agr
  43. By: Pufahl, Andrea; Weiss, Christoph R.
    Abstract: This paper extends previous research (Pufahl and Weiss, 2009) and applies a semi-parametric propensity score matching approach to evaluate the effects of agrienvironment (AE) programs on input use and farm output of individual farms in eight Member States of the European Union. We find substantial differences in treatment effects between countries. The analysis reveals significant effects of AE participation on production (Germany, France) and farm profits (France, Ireland, United Kingdom). AE participation sporadically reduces the intensity of land use as measured by the purchase of farm chemicals (fertilizer, pesticide) and grazing livestock densities. We also find differences in the treatment effect among farms with different farm size (heterogeneous treatment effects).
    Keywords: evaluation, agri-environment programs, propensity score matching, Germany, Italy, Spain, France, Portugal, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, EU-15, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2009–08–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52997&r=agr
  44. By: VOUNOUKI, Eleftheria
    Abstract: Although Greece is one of the older Member States of the European Union, its agricultural structures have not followed the same evolution compared to those of other Western European countries. In the majority of the latter, the number of farms and farmers has declined subsequently to the modernisation movement, while Greek agriculture has maintained a high number of farms and farmers. The Greek case can be considered as a paradigm between two EU country groups: the old and the new Member States. This paper deals with the reasons leading to this phenomenon: how do Greek farms manage to resist to an increasingly liberalised environment and to the reduction of EU and State financial support? Why do young people go on dealing with agriculture? This is a curious fact given the hostile natural environment, the low productivity and intensification of these farms. Moreover, this paper deals with some other questions relevant to the ways small farms function and contribute to landscape planning, environmental management and sustainable development of rural areas in general. Finally, some scenarios are developed about the future of European agriculture in the context of forthcoming changes that result from the CAP reform and liberalisation.
    Keywords: Farm reproduction, Agricultural model, Greece, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52864&r=agr
  45. By: Olivier Damette (BETA UMR CNRS (Bureau d'Économie Théorique et Appliquée), Faculté de Droit et de Sciences économiques); Philippe Delacotte (Laboratoire d'Economie Forestière, INRA - AgroParisTech)
    Abstract: The resource curse hypothesis relies on the resource-rich countries tendency to grow slower than resource-poor countries. Focusing on forest issues, this paper extends the resource curse hypothesis to environmental degradation: how do forest endowment and forest harvesting affect deforestation? Our empirical results show that countries with important forest cover and forestry sectors seem to deforest more than others, which supports the hypothesis of an environmental resource curse. Moreover, countries implied in important timber certification processes have lower deforestation levels.
    Keywords: resource curse, tropical forest, deforestation
    JEL: C21 O13 Q33
    Date: 2009–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:lef:wpaper:2009-04&r=agr
  46. By: Möllers, Judith; Buchenrieder, Gertrud
    Abstract: Rural non-farm employment (RNFE) is thought to curtail increases in rural poverty and income inequality. In the Croatian context three key questions arise: (1) Does the uptake of alternative employment actually help to raise the welfare of small family farms? (2) How is the rural income distribution affected by mixed income structures? (3) Will non-farm diversification rather trigger farm exit or inhibit structural change because a large number of tiny farms persist? In this paper we present results on the effect of RNFE on the income structure and inter-household income distribution among Croatian family farms. The analysis draws on a survey of 175 randomly selected family farms in two Croatian regions in 2007. The poorest farm households have little access to land, and â although dependent on farming incomes they cannot live from agriculture alone. The better-off farms receive significantly higher incomes per hectare of land. RNFE affects rural livelihoods positively in two ways: it is the most important income source of middle income farms, and is found to be an important catalyst that helps smoothing income inequality in the rural context.
    Keywords: rural non-farm employment, rural poverty, Croatia, income distribution, Agribusiness, International Development, Labor and Human Capital, Q12, P25, O15, O18,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52863&r=agr
  47. By: Ferjani, Ali; Latruffe, Laure
    Abstract: The objective of the paper is to investigate whether Swiss farms specialised in dairy (the prevailing production of the country), which are small in international standards, would have a survival potential if they had to compete more directly with EU farms. More specifically, we investigate whether Swiss dairy farms would be able to compete with their French counterparts (located in mountainous areas, but larger than Swiss ones) in a future made of increased globalisation and reduced borders. For this we evaluate which country, during the period 1990-2004, would have been more able to use efficiently a common hypothetical technology, and would have had a more productive (own) technology. Efficiency scores and technology ratios are calculated using the concept of metafrontier and the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach. Results indicate that Swiss farms would have been slightly less efficient on average with respect to the common frontier, and that they had a less productive technology, the productivity gap with France being however only 5 percent. Regression results suggest that the efficiency differential and the productivity gap between Swiss farms and French farms were mainly due to larger Swiss farms with lower labour per livestock unit and higher proportion of family labour.
    Keywords: technical efficiency, technology gap, Data Envelopment Analysis, dairy farming, Switzerland, France, Agricultural and Food Policy, Productivity Analysis, Q12, D24,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52828&r=agr
  48. By: Capitanio, Fabian; Adinolfi, Felice; Malorgio, Giulio
    Abstract: During the three-year period of our investigation, we found that the weight of family run farms declined and there was an increase in the role of farms integrated in the market and in integrated low-impact farm. This is a partial change which may be an indicator of a greater capacity of the entrepreneurial fabric to come to the market and the ability to capitalise on the relationship between farm and territory. Comparison between the two periods observing the behaviour of common farmers confirmed the substantial stability of the reference framework and offered further scope for interpretation. First, only about 22% changed their strategic profile. Shifts between strategic profiles especially affected family-run farms and light weighted specialised farms (17%). In particular, there was a major shift from the family-run type to the small, specialised farm. By contrast, the shift from the area of specialisation to the family-run type was less marked, and mostly concerned farms situated in marginal areas with less labour employed on the farm. Another element to be taken into consideration is that the second strategic profile, which has a positive balance of some importance, is that of integrated low-impact farms.
    Keywords: Farmers strategic profile, enterpreneurial analysis, rural development, Agricultural and Food Policy, Q18, Q58,
    Date: 2009–08–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:53003&r=agr
  49. By: FaÅkowski, Jan; Malak-Rawlikowska, Agata; Milczarek-Andrzejewska, Dominika
    Abstract: Taking into consideration a significant outflow of Polish farmers from dairy sector, we investigate what factors determine their decision to quit milk sales. We also analyse their current revenues and compare with that of similar households that remained in commercial milk production. Using logit model we find that severing relations with the market is mainly determined by worse endowment of farms with dairy specific assets, smaller cow herds and older age of the farm manager. Based on semi-parametric matching methods we find that in terms of revenues farms that decided for subsistence milk production perform worse than those that maintained commercial dairy business. However, more detailed analysis shows that this difference could be attributed to supply chain modernisation and becomes insignificant once subsistence farmers are compared to commercial farms supplying traditional marketing channel.
    Keywords: milk production, dairy supply chain, subsistence farming, matching methods, Poland, Agribusiness, Livestock Production/Industries, Marketing, Q12, Q13,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52854&r=agr
  50. By: Kim, Hanho; Kim, Jae-Kyung
    Abstract: Structural adjustment is defined as the farm householdâs behavior of changing its existing farm asset distribution toward more specialized or diversified directions. Farm households are classified into agricultural or non-agricultural based ones. Estimated expected income through switching regression model reveals that higher revenue is expected when adjustment paths toward more specialization and more non-agricultural based activities are chosen.
    Keywords: trade policy reform, structural adjustment, expected income, switching regression model, farm household, Agricultural and Food Policy, Consumer/Household Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Q100, Q180,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52839&r=agr
  51. By: Labarthe, Pierre; Laurent, Catherine
    Abstract: This paper examines the consequences of the transformations of extension services for small scale farms. It presents the results of investigations embedded in regulation theory, which combine a comparative institutional analysis, statistical data processing (national agricultural census) and direct surveys. We describe the transformations in the EU and show that they make it more difficult for small farms to access extension services and to benefit from âfront officeâ support (i.e. direct advice from extensionists). Finally, we emphasize that due to the modification of the knowledge production regime, these small farms may also suffer new specific adverse effects resulting from the re-organization of the "back-office" R&D activities of these extension services (i.e. knowledge base updating, database building, scientific experiments, etc.).
    Keywords: Agricultural extension services, Small-scale farms, Institutional Analysis, Europe, Knowledge, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q16, Q12, B52, P51, D83,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52859&r=agr
  52. By: Lien, Gudbrand; Bergfjord, Ole Jakob; Hoveid, Oyvind
    Abstract: This paper studies what causes (small-scale) farmers to leave their farms and typically move to urban areas. A data set is constructed by linking survey results with financial data, and the data set is analyzed by multivariate statistical techniques. Our results indicate that, while existence and size of future farm production is important, there is also a difference between farmers who primarily have financial objectives for their farming, and those who have more lifestyle oriented objectives. The latter group is, everything else being equal, more likely to stay on the farm. This could imply that, if preventing migration from rural to urban areas is a policy objective, production support schemes will be effective for some groups, but will be less effective for the group with lifestyle objectives. If this group is to be encouraged to stay on the countryside, policies directed at improving the general living conditions in the local community are likely to be more effective than specific support schemes related to agricultural production.
    Keywords: migration, farmer objectives, agricultural policy, structural equation modelling, Agricultural and Food Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52849&r=agr
  53. By: Lund, Philip J.
    Abstract: The holding of a seminar on the future for âsmall farmsâ requires us to consider what is meant by a âsmall farmâ. This is not as straightforward as might be imagined. It presupposes an unambiguous definition of what constitutes âa farmâ and a means of distinguishing those farms which are considered to be âsmallâ from the remainder of other farms, that is larger farms. This in turn presupposes an accepted measure of farm size (or amalgam of such measures) and adoption of an agreed size threshold below which farms might be described as âsmallâ. However the choices in respect of measure of farm size and threshold for a farm being considered as âsmallâ may depend, respectively, on the particular policy context (for example, contribution to output or employment or land use) and the size distribution of farms within the country(ies) in question. In particular, and analogous with the definition of poverty, there is a choice to be made as to whether farm size is to be assessed in absolute or relative terms. If the former, virtually all farms in some countries may be considered to be small; if the latter, the existence of a âsmall farmâ sector will inevitably continue.
    Keywords: Farm, Agricultural holding, Farm size, Small farms, Part-time farming, Consumer/Household Economics, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52847&r=agr
  54. By: Klein, Agnes; Zapilko, Marina; Menrad, Klaus; Gabriel, Andreas
    Abstract: This paper deals with consumer acceptance of genetically modified rapeseed-oil in Germany and analyzes under which conditions consumers would buy such products. To investigate this subject a Discrete-Choice-Experiment was performed within the framework of a cross-European consumer survey in spring 2007. The results show that consumersâ utility is increased by an organically produced product and decreased by a GM product. Thereby the association with individual advantages (health benefits) decreases consumersâ utility less compared to the association with environmental benefits. Additionally, it could be shown that German consumers prefer locally produced rapeseed-oil compared to imported. If GM products exhibit a considerable price discount compared to conventional products, a certain market potential for GM rapeseed-oil exists in Germany. But the granting of discounts must be carefully balanced especially against the background of profitability for producers and processors.
    Keywords: Consumer behavior, GM food, rapeseed-oil, Discrete-Choice-Experiment, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2009–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gaae09:53264&r=agr
  55. By: Renner, Swetlana; Hockmann, Heinrich; Pieniadz, Agata; Glauben, Thomas
    Abstract: This paper investigates the flexibility of the Polish farming sector during a transition period. Flexibility is considered to be a farmâs ability to change output by sustaining average costs. We argue that flexibility is a crucial factor in farmersâ competitive advantage, especially under dynamically changing environmental conditions. We propose a flexibility measure that accounts for both input and output flexibility. This measure is used to empirically investigate the magnitude and sources of flexibility in Polish family farming. We also identify the main factors that explain the proposed flexibility indices. The empirical findings reveal that Polish farms use different technologies regarding their input and output flexibility. While small and specialized farms can easily adapt their input structure, the larger and highly diversified producers adjust their output levels according to price changes. Farmers who use more capital-intensive production technologies, i.e. milk producers, are less flexible with regard to input and overall adjustments. Furthermore, access to bank credit increases a farmâs adjustment ability.
    Keywords: Flexibility, Family Farm, Poland, Consumer/Household Economics, Production Economics, D24, Q12,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52841&r=agr
  56. By: Jack, Claire G.; Moss, Joan E.; Wallace, Michael T.
    Abstract: This paper examines the extent to which favourable off-farm labour market conditions coupled with growth in land values have contributed to the observed resilience of small scale family farms. We use data from Northern Ireland and employ farm household optimisation models to analyse household decision making processes that contribute to the observed inertia in farm structure. The analysis indicates that farm household behaviour is influenced not just by current farm income, but also expected capital asset returns. Increased wealth, associated with continuing land ownership, gives rise to the proposition that the link between off-farm incomes, increased land values and remaining in farming may be associated with farmers pursuing wealth maximizing objectives, whilst still maintaining a rural way of life. Alongside increased wealth through land ownership the farm household model quantifies the importance of off-farm income removing the pressure from farming income to fund all family consumption needs. This enables households to sustain low-income farming activities in order to pursue other objectives such as wealth management (including tax efficient transfer of wealth) and lifestyle. Consequently, the results indicate that the survival of small-scale family farms may be much less sensitive to agricultural support policies than has been commonly suggested. In an extension that explores the effects of the recent economic turbulence due to the âcredit crunchâ we find that the households remain resilient even when subjected to a protracted period of reduced off-farm employment.
    Keywords: Farm households, resilience, wealth accumulation, off-farm income, Consumer/Household Economics, Productivity Analysis, C61, Q12,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52835&r=agr
  57. By: Bakucs, Zoltan L.; Ferto, Imre
    Abstract: The paper investigates the validity of Gibratâs Law in Hungarian agriculture. We use FADN data between 2001 and 2007 and employ quantile regression techniques to test the validity of Gibratâs Law across quantiles. The Law is strongly rejected for all quantiles, providing strong evidence that smaller farms tend to grow faster than larger ones. We provide a number of socio-economic factors that can explain farm growth. Of these we found that total subsidies received by farm and far operatorâs age are the most significant factors.
    Keywords: Gibratâs Law, family farm, quantile regression, transition agriculture, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, P32, Q12, Q19,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52846&r=agr
  58. By: Nimenya, Nicodeme; de Frahan, Bruno Henry; Ndimira, Pascal-Firmin
    Abstract: This study provides a stylized model on âExit, voice and loyaltyâ as alternative strategic responses taken by Kenyan green beans farmers in the context of new and more stringent international food safety standards. On the analytical side, we use the Nash bargaining theory where the exporter and a representative grower bargain over the product quality level and the premium producer price. The comparative statics analysis shows that the producer bargaining power unlike the compliance costs has, ceteris paribus, a positive effect on the equilibrium quality level while these exogenous variables have ambiguous effects on producer price at equilibrium. Empirical results from logit model estimation with survey data at farmlevel in Kenya show that households with highly educated members, access to credit and relatively large-size farms are more likely to participate in the certified supply chain. Off-farm income, live assets and distance of public services from the farm do not influence the compliance. In terms of policy implications, education and credit access could play an important role in the capacity-building of small-scale growers associations through public private partnership.
    Keywords: bargaining, small-scale farm, voice, Agribusiness, Consumer/Household Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, D18, O17, O33, Q13, Q17,
    Date: 2009–08–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:53004&r=agr
  59. By: Micheels, Eric T.; Gow, Hamish R.
    Abstract: As the economic viability of small farms continues to be an issue facing policy makers and economists alike, a market orientation may be a valuable resource producers can develop as they compete in a marketplace dominated by larger firms. Marketing and strategy scholars have long established the importance of a market orientation in determining firm performance. More recently, scholars have studied the effect of these concepts in agriculture. Extending the literature of market orientation in agriculture, this study examines the concept of a positional advantage and its effect on performance using a sample of small farms in Illinois. Using a sample of 347 Illinois beef producers, we empirically measure and test the construct of positional advantage and test the relationship between positional advantage and subjective performance. Our results indicate that market orientation, entrepreneurship, innovation and learning are first-order indicators of positional advantage and that the positional advantage of a firm is positively related to firm performance.
    Keywords: Agriculture, innovation, market orientation, positional advantage, Farm Management, Production Economics, L11, L25, L26,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52810&r=agr
  60. By: Wettstein, Nadine; Brosig, Stephan; Glauben, Thomas; Hanf, Jon H.; Loy, Jens-Peter
    Abstract: The increase of private labels in food retailing and retailers' high expenditures for establishing them raise one central question: Do consumers really consider private labels as "real" brands and develop loyalty towards them. We analyse a four year panel data set on frozen pizza purchases to study differences in consumers' repurchasing behaviour between two strong national brands and private labels. In sum, our results show significant differences. However, the observable repurchase behaviour can not fully reflect the attitudinal component of brand loyalty. So subsequently, we present potential approaches to identify the underlying attitudinal component.
    Keywords: food retailing, private labels, brand loyalty, panel data, hazard analysis, Consumer/Household Economics, Marketing,
    Date: 2009–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gaae09:53265&r=agr
  61. By: Perrier-Cornet, Philippe; Aubert, Magali
    Abstract: This research aims to identify the specific characteristics of small farms in developed countries and the factors which influence their survival and growth. Using the case of France, we employ statistical and econometric analysis of data from the Farm Structure Survey (N=70,000) for the period 2000-2007. The principal findings suggest that small farms are no more likely than other farms to employ âalternativeâ strategies to the predominant model of increasing farm size, nor are they more likely to diversify on-farm activities or operate under quality-labelled production systems, with the notable exception of organic agriculture. However, where small farms do adopt or practice these activities, they are seen to have a favourable effect in ensuring their survival and growth. In contrast, we are unable to conclude that pluriactivity of farm households has a positive impact on the survival of small enterprises. The effect of geographic location on small farms is largely expressed in their concentration in mountainous or disadvantaged regions. Overall, the trajectory of small farms is marked by farm exit, principally as the result of farmers retiring at the end of their careers. The small farm sector is also revitalised by both larger farms declining and thus being reclassified as small farms, as well as the progressive entry into agriculture of small farm holders whose income was previously derived largely off-farm.
    Keywords: Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52855&r=agr
  62. By: Bignebat, Celine; Koc, Ali; Lemeilleur, Sylvaine
    Abstract: A wide range of the empirical studies shows to what extend the rise of supermarkets in developing countries deeply transform domestic marketing channels. In particular, the exclusion of small producers from the so-called dynamic marketing channels (that is remunerative ones) is at stake. Based on original data collected in Turkey in 2007 at the producer and the wholesale market levels, we show that the intermediaries are decisive in order to understand the impact of downstream restructuring (supermarkets) on upstream decisions (producers). The results show first that producers are not aware of the final buyer of their produce, as intermediaries hinder the visibility of the marketing channel, their choice is restricted to that of the first intermediary. Moreover, the econometric results conclude that producers who are indirectly linked to the supermarkets are more sensitive to their requirements in terms of quality and packaging than to the price premia they set accordingly to the effort made to meet their standards. Therefore, the results question the role of the wholesale market agents who act as a buffer in the chain and protect small producers from negative shocks, but who stop positive shocks as well, and reduce incentives.
    Keywords: supermarkets, small farmers, fresh fruit and vegetables, Turkey, Agribusiness, Production Economics, Q13, L14, D24,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52856&r=agr
  63. By: Consmüller, Nicola; Beckmann, Volker; Petrick, Martin
    Abstract: In this study, we theoretically and empirically investigate the determinants of Bt-maize adoption in German regions. Specifically, we ask how the regulatory framework, the farm structures as well as the socio-political environment of GM expansion in Germany have influenced regional adoption rates. Following a description of the relevant legal and economic framework in Germany, we develop theoretical hypotheses concerning regional variation in Bt-maize adoption and test them econometrically with unique data at the Federal States (Länder) and County (Landkreis) level. The study provides evidence that the adoption of Btmaize in different regions is positively affected by the amount of maize grown per farm and by the European Corn Borer (ECB) infestation rates. There is also some evidence that the Btmaize adoption is negatively affected by the activities of the anti-GMO movement and the establishment of GMO-free zones.
    Keywords: GMO crops, Germany, panel data analysis, Crop Production/Industries, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2009–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gaae09:53262&r=agr
  64. By: Liebenehm, Sabine; Affognon, Hippolyte; Waibel, Hermann
    Abstract: Ex-post evaluation of agricultural research is aimed to empirically provide evidence of past investmentsâ effectiveness. This paper is intended to measure the immediate impact of livestock research activities on cattle farmersâ knowledge about trypanosomosis and its therapeutic and preventive control strategies. According to the quasi-experimental design of the intervention, it is shown that its impact will be adequately estimated by propensity score matching (PSM). Based on data collected according to a knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) questionnaire in the region of Kénédougou that is common to Mali and Burkina Faso, results indicate a significant gain in farmersâ know-how due to participation in livestock research activities.
    Keywords: African animal trypanosomosis (AAT), knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP), propensity score matching (PSM), Livestock Production/Industries, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2009–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:gaae09:53277&r=agr
  65. By: Bakhshoodeh, M.; Shahnushi, N.
    Abstract: The dairy farmers in Iran are faced with milk price distortion due to the market imperfection. To measure an unbiased farm-specific efficiency, prices should be adjusted in an imperfect market. To examine this issue, a shadow-price profit frontier was applied to a sample of 860 Iranian small intensive dairy farms surveyed in 2005-06 in order to calculate profit efficiency of individual dairy farmers. This adjusted measure was then compared with that of unadjusted measure that assumes undistorted market. A multiple general linear model (GLM) technique was applied to the data to examine the multiple effects of pure-bred animals, and the used farm capacity on profit efficiency indices. The mean value of adjusted profit efficiency was 0.40, significantly different from the latter measure, i.e. 0.72, revealing overstating efficiency by ignoring imperfect structure of market. The difference between the figures is attributed to an index of market efficiency that was estimated of 46% in average. The number of pure-bred animals in the herd was found to affect the profit efficiency indices. Regardless of their characteristics, all the farms can gain from correcting the distortion in milk market, where small and average- sized farms are domain farms in the country.
    Keywords: profit efficiency, dairy farms, Iran, Agribusiness, Livestock Production/Industries, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, C31, N55, Q12,
    Date: 2009–08–24
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52996&r=agr
  66. By: Pieniadz, Agata; Renner, Swetlana; Rathmann, Christoph; Glauben, Thomas; Loy, Jens-Peter
    Abstract: During recent years, the number of farms able to generate satisfactory income from agricultural production has continuously decreased in advanced economies. The main reasons are the implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy of 1992 and the increasing capitalization of the primary sector. The relevance of income diversification and interest in various development paths of rural households have, therefore, been renewed in political-economic debates in those countries. The aim of this study is to identify factors that determine income diversification in Germany. An econometric model has been estimated based on a comprehensive surveyâs data. The results show that the main economic incentive for farm diversification is the expected income increase or resource allocation, whereas risk minimization is less relevant. Access to resources (labor, capital) is an important requirement for tapping alternative economic activities. Other significant variables include the education of the farmer as well as his experience in managing the farm. These findings are relevant for designing effective agricultural policy measures to explicitly meet the heterogeneous needs of the rural households.
    Keywords: Income diversification, farm household, survey, Germany, Consumer/Household Economics,
    Date: 2009–08–20
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eaa111:52836&r=agr
  67. By: Wright, Brian
    Abstract: In the long view, recent grain price volatility is not anomalous. Wheat, rice, and maize are highly substitutable in the global market for calories, and when aggregate stocks decline to minimal feasible levels, prices become highly sensitive to small shocks, consistent with storage models. In this decade, stocks have declined due to high income growth and biofuels mandates. Recently, shocks including the Australian drought and biofuels demand boosts due to the oil price spike were exacerbated by a sequence of trade restrictions by key exporters beginning in the thin global rice market in the fall of 2007, which turned market anxiety into panic. To protect vulnerable consumers, countries intervened in storage markets and, if they were exporters, to limit trade access. Recognizing these realities, vulnerable countries are building strategic reserves. The associated expense and negative incentive effects can be controlled if reserves have quantitative targets related to the consumption needs of the most vulnerable, with distribution to the latter only in severe emergencies. More-ambitious plans manipulate world prices via buffer stocks or naked short speculation to keep prices consistent with fundamentals. Past interventions of either kind have been expensive, ineffective, and generally short-lived. Further, there is no significant evidence that prices do not reflect fundamentals, including export market access.
    Keywords: Markets and Market Access,Access to Markets,Emerging Markets,Debt Markets,Economic Theory&Research
    Date: 2009–08–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5028&r=agr

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