New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2009‒08‒30
four papers chosen by

  1. Biofuels production versus forestry in the presence of lobbies and technological change By Hammes, Johanna Jussila
  2. An Analysis of Household's Tobacco Consumption Decisions: Evidence from India By Rijo M John
  3. Issues Affecting the Movement of Rural Labour in Myanmar: Rakhine Case Study By Okamoto, Ikuko
  4. Liberalizing climate-friendly goods and technologies in WTO environmental goods negotiations: product coverage, modalities, challenges and the way forward By Zhang, ZhongXiang

  1. By: Hammes, Johanna Jussila (VTI)
    Abstract: We study the political determination of a hypothetical land tax, which internalises a negative environmental externality from biofuels. The tax allocates land from biofuels towards forestry. Lobbying affects the tax rate, so that the sector with the lower elasticity of land demand determines the direction in which the tax deviaties from the social optimum. Lobbying by the sector with higher elasticity of land demand cancels partly out the other sector's lobbying. The politically optimal tax rate is "self-enhancing" in that the tax lowers the elasticity of land demand in the sector which initially had a lower elasticity, and raises it in the other sector. This can dwarf the government's other attempts to support the production of biofuels. Finally, technological progress in biofuels serves to strengthen that sector by lowering its elasticity of land demand, and weakens the forestry sector by raising its elasticity of land demand. Depending on the initial tax rate, this can be welfare enhancing or lowering. Furthermore, it can lead to excessive deforestation.
    Keywords: Biofuels; forestry; land use; political economy; technological change
    JEL: D78 H23 O13 O30 Q15 Q23 Q24 Q42 Q55
    Date: 2009–07–08
  2. By: Rijo M John
    Abstract: The consumption patterns, socio-economic distribution and the household choice of a variety of tobacco products across rural and urban India are analyzed. Using a Multinomial Logit Model, the choice behavior of a household in deciding whether and which tobacco products to consume analyzed. Household level data from National Sample Survey in India for the year 1999-2000, which has information on 120,309 households, has been used for this purpose. [IGIDR WP-2004-002].
    Keywords: Tobacco, Bidi, Cigarette, Consumption, Multinomial Logit, India, national sample survey, multinominal logit model, household, socio-economic
    Date: 2009
  3. By: Okamoto, Ikuko
    Abstract: This paper presents issues affecting the movement of rural labour in Myanmar, by examining the background, purpose and earned income of labourers migrating to fishing villages in southern Rakhine. A broad range of socioeconomic classes, from poor to rich, farmers to fishermen, is migrating from broader areas to specific labour-intensive fishing subsectors, such as anchovy fishing. These labourers are a mixed group of people whose motives lie either in supplementing their household income or accumulating capital for further expansion of their economic activities. The concentration of migrating labourers with different objectives in this particular unstable, unskilled employment opportunity suggests an insufficiently developed domestic labour market in rural Myanmar. There is a pressing need to create stable labour-intensive industries to meet this demand.
    Keywords: Migration, Labour, Fishery, Migrant labor, Labor market
    JEL: J61 R23
    Date: 2009–07
  4. By: Zhang, ZhongXiang
    Abstract: The Doha Round Agenda (paragraph 31(3)) mandates to liberalize environmental goods and services. This mandate offers a good opportunity to put climate-friendly goods and services on a fast track to liberalization. Agreement on this paragraph should represent one immediate contribution that the WTO can make to fight against climate change. This paper presents the key issues surrounding liberalized trade in climate-friendly goods and technologies in WTO environmental goods negotiations. It begins with what products to liberalize and in which manner. Clearly, WTO environmental goods negotiations to date show that WTO member countries are divided by this key issue. Focusing on the issue, the paper explores options available to liberalize trade in climate-friendly goods and technologies, both within and outside the WTO, and along with these discussion, discusses how to serve the best interests of developing countries.
    Keywords: Environmental goods and services; Low-carbon goods and technologies; Doha Round; WTO
    JEL: F18 F13 Q48 Q56 Q54 Q58
    Date: 2009–04–01

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