New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2009‒07‒17
eight papers chosen by

  1. From Land Grab to Win-Win - Seizing the Opportunities of International Investments in Agriculture By David Hallam
  2. Support and protection of Greek Agriculture: inter-temporal developments and sectoral diversification By Pavlos Karanikolas; Dimitrios Bourdaras; Dimitrios Kremmydas; Nikos Martinos
  3. Sensitivity of Carbon Emission Estimates from Indirect Land-Use Change By Jerome Dumortier; Dermot J. Hayes; Miguel Carriquiry; Fengxia Dong; Xiaodong Du; Amani Elobeid; Jacinto F. Fabiosa; Simla Tokgoz
  4. Assessing farmer’s Pesticide Safety Knowledge in cotton growing area of Punjab, Pakistan By Khan, Muhammad; Husnain, Muhammad Iftikhar Ul; Akram, Naeem; Padda, Ihtsham Ul Haq
  5. Food Consumption in Jamaica: A Household and Social Behavior By Shiyuan Chen; Sally Wallace
  7. Cost-sharing Incentive Programs for Source Water Protection: The Grand River’s Rural Water Quality Program By Diane P. Dupont
  8. COFFEE COMMODITY CHAIN By Tine Olsen; Brett Inder

  1. By: David Hallam
    Abstract: Foreign acquisitions of farmland in Africa and elsewhere have become the focus of concern. Many observers consider them a new form of colonialism that threatens food security of the poor. However, investments could be good news if the objectives of land purchasers are reconciled with the investment needs of developing countries.
    Keywords: Land grab, FDI, investment, trade, colonialism, food security, land tenure, globalisation
    JEL: F21 F23 F54 O13 Q15 Q17
    Date: 2009
  2. By: Pavlos Karanikolas (Agricultural Economics and Rural Development Department, Agricultural University of Athens); Dimitrios Bourdaras (Directorate of Agricultural Policy, Ministry of Rural Development and Food, Athens); Dimitrios Kremmydas (Agricultural Economics and Rural Development Department, Agricultural University of Athens); Nikos Martinos
    Abstract: This paper aims at determining the level of support of Greek agriculture. The calculations are performed on commodity basis over the period 1989-2006. By using an adapted OECD methodology, research findings indicate that the overall support level of Greek agriculture is similar to that of EU though after 2002 diverging trends are observed. A redistribution of the various parts of support is ascertained, whereas livestock production is more supported than crop production. The ratio of market price support to the total value of production seems to explain variations in support levels between Greece and the EU. The need for a critical reappraisal of OECD methodology is stressed.
    Keywords: support, protection, agricultural policy, Greek Agriculture, OECD
    JEL: Q17 Q18
    Date: 2009
  3. By: Jerome Dumortier; Dermot J. Hayes (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD); Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI)); Miguel Carriquiry (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD); Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI)); Fengxia Dong (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD); Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI)); Xiaodong Du (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD); Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI)); Amani Elobeid (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD); Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI)); Jacinto F. Fabiosa (Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD); Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI)); Simla Tokgoz
    Abstract: We analyze the sensitivity of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land-use change to modifications in assumptions concerning crop area, yield, and deforestation. For this purpose, we run a modified version of the Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Agricultural Outlook Model, which was used previously to assess the impacts of energy price increases and biofuel policy changes on land conversion. To calculate the GHG implications of agricultural activity, we use GreenAgSiM, a model developed to evaluate emissions from land conversion and agricultural production. Both models are applied to scenarios that lead to higher US ethanol production. The results are contrasted with the findings of Searchinger et al., and we explain the role of model assumptions to elucidate the differences. We find that the payback period of corn ethanol's carbon debt is sensitive to assumptions concerning land conversion and yield growth and can range from 31 to 180 years.
    Keywords: biofuel, crop yield, greenhouse gas emissions, indirect land-use change.
    Date: 2009–07
  4. By: Khan, Muhammad; Husnain, Muhammad Iftikhar Ul; Akram, Naeem; Padda, Ihtsham Ul Haq
    Abstract: A pesticide safety knowledge test was developed to assess farmer’s knowledge related to pesticide safety. Yes-No (true-false) type 25 item, test, was constructed and used in a sample of 162 pesticide applicator in two districts of southern Punjab Pakistan. The overall mean score was 17.2(72%). More educated and adult respondents performed better than younger and illiterate. Similarly large land holder scored higher than small landholders, indicating their more access to information and extension. Overall ten Items received less than 50% correct response. The result shows that farmers have reasonably good knowledge but it still has to see, to what extent that knowledge is being used practically. It could possibly be the future research topic.
    Keywords: Health cost; Environmental cost; Pesticide knowledge; pesticide safety
    JEL: Q50 I12 Q57
    Date: 2009–07–13
  5. By: Shiyuan Chen; Sally Wallace (Andrew Young School of Policy Studies)
    Abstract: This paper explores household food consumption in Jamaica and estimates the effects of related variables on the intensity of consumption. Use of data from the 2001 Jamaica Survey of Living Conditions permits estimation of an Engel curve that reflects the relationship between household food consumption and related variables. As a means to investigate a possible neighborhood effect on food consumption, spatial correlations pertaining to neighborhood food consumption were tested and estimated. The estimated results can be used to help formulate policies that may produce more effective food support distribution programs.
    Keywords: Food Consumption, Jamaica, food, consumption, Engel, spatial, poverty
    Date: 2009–02–01
  6. By: Edwyna Harris
    Abstract: This paper analyses the transition of water rights institutions in Victoria, Australia, between 1840 and 1886. It will focus on the shift from the common law doctrine of riparian rights to government control of water supplies via quasi-government organisations known as irrigation trusts examining factors leading to this transition and whether it increased institutional efficiency. Evidence suggests transition to government control resulted from two factors. First, the decreasing costs of using government relative to costs of private redefinition because settlement numbers increased thereby increasing scarcity while adding to costs of private investment in redefinition due to higher negotiation and enforcement costs, legal uncertainty, and the inability for private actors to capture the full benefit of a transition. In this way, transition was efficient as it lowered transaction costs associated with creating irrigation schemes to provide water supply security. Second, crisis of drought that increased in magnitude over the period due to changes in dominant farming methods from land extensive grazing to land intensive crop farming. Drought escalated demands, via lobbying, for government action. Combined, these two factors explain why an efficiency enhancing transition from riparian rights to government control took place at this juncture in Victoria’s history.
    Keywords: .
    Date: 2009–06
  7. By: Diane P. Dupont (Department of Economics, Brock University)
    Abstract: Canadian provinces have become increasingly concerned with possible contamination of water from upstream agricultural activities. Many see watershed-based source protection, so called “source-to-tap†programs, as a means of improving water quality. A key factor in the success of these programs is the extent to which they provide incentives to farmers to undertake actions that ultimately result in a reduction of non-point source pollution. One type of program is cost-sharing whereby farmers are reimbursed for out-of-pocket expenses relating to best management practices which are expected to reduce runoff into water courses. Given increasing reliance on these types of programs, it is necessary from a public policy perspective to identify design features leading to the greatest likelihood of farmer participation. This paper examines Ontario’s Rural Water Quality Program for the Grand River using data from the first seven years of its operation, along with data from Agricultural Canada’s Farm Census, to model and estimate participation rates. Significantly positive determinants include: the maximum grant available and performance incentives, although both with diminishing returns. Projects with a one-time capital subsidy alone are much less likely to encourage participation than projects that combine a subsidy with a performance incentive.
    Keywords: cost-sharing; non-point source pollution; best management practices; economic incentives;
    JEL: Q25 Q57 Q58
    Date: 2009–06
  8. By: Tine Olsen; Brett Inder
    Abstract: To explain the value added along the coffee commodity chain we propose and estimate a theoretical model of the coffee commodity chain. The theoretical model consists of four markets and five agents in the coffee commodity chain and predicts that prices in the coffee commodity chain move together but are also influenced by income, technology and production. A vector error correction model is used to test the theoretical predictions. In addition to the theoretical conclusions the empirical model confirms the beneficial role of the International Coffee Agreement and the importance of the level of production in determining coffee prices.
    Keywords: global commodity chain, vector error correction model, coffee, value added.
    JEL: F02 Q11 C32 F23 F14
    Date: 2009–06

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