nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2009‒06‒10
39 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. Agricultural Growth, Poverty Reduction and Millennium Development Goals in Africa: Outcomes of AAAE Conference By Nambiro, Elizabeth; Omare, Musa N.; Nkamleu, Guy B.
  2. Agriculture, Food Security,and Poverty in China; Past Performance, Future Prospects, and Implications for Agricultural R&D Policy By Jikun Huang
  3. The Impact of Ethanol Plants on Land Values in the Great Plains By Henderson, Jason; Gloy, Brent
  4. A Provisional Framework for Studying Information Connectivity in Food Networks By Engelseth, Per; Karlsen, Anniken
  5. Analysis, Design and Implementation of Biodiesel Projects in Brazil By da Silva Junior, Aziz Galvao; Perez, Ronaldo; de Oliveira, Rodolfo Osorio
  6. Legitimating Business Activities Using Corporate Social Responsibility: Is there a Need for CSR in Agribusiness? By Heyder, Matthias; Theuvsen, Ludwig
  7. Examining the Intertwined Spatial Relationships in Food Retailing: The Case of Second Life By Bourlakis, Michael; Papagiannidis, Savvas
  8. On insect infestation and agricultural productivity in developing countries By Raghav Gaiha; Katsushi S. Imai; Kenneth Hill; Shantanu Mathur
  9. Innovation and Food System Sustainability: Public Concerns vs Private Interests By Sodano, Valeria
  10. Agricultural Trade Reform and Poverty in the Asia-Pacific: A Survey and Some New Results By John Gilbert
  11. Gender and Modern Supply Chains in Developing Countries By Miet Maertens
  12. Food Security, Food Chains and Bioenergy Challenges for a Sustainable Development Environment By Pacheco de Carvalho, Bernardo M. T. Reynolds S.
  13. Fiscal and trade distorting effects of capital gains tax on land sales - empirical evidence from agricultural land market in Finland By Pietola, Kyosti; Myyra, Sami; Pouta, Eija
  14. Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Ethanol from Iowa Corn By Feng, Hongli; Rubin, Ofir D.; Babcock, Bruce A.
  15. Identifying Innovation Strategies: Insights from the Greek Food Industry By Matopoulos, Aristides; Vlachopoulou, Maro
  16. Chain Management: All about Success By Gagalyuk, Taras; Hanf, Jon
  17. Proactive Customers Integration as Drivers of an Integrated Food Chain By Sundmaeker, Harald
  18. Identifying the Implications of most Warming Foods: A Pilot Analysis By Hines, Peter; Zokaei, Keivan; Evans, Barry; Beale, Jo; Miele, Mara; Cole, Matthew
  19. Impact Evaluation of Food Safety Regulations: A Review of Quantitative Methods By Ragona, Maddalena; Mazzocchi, Mario
  20. Importance and Limits of the Cost-Benefit Analysis for GMOs Regulation By Charlier, Christophe; Valceschini, Egizio
  21. Hysterisis in Food Safety Investments By Richards, Timothy J.; Nganje, William E.; Acharya, Ram
  22. Mass Media and Public Policy: Global Evidence from Agricultural Policies By Alessandro Olper
  23. Information-Sharing and Strategy by Food Industry Firms By Baker, Derek; Hjorth Lind, Kim Martin; Hansen, Henning Otte
  24. Costs and Benefits of Quality Systems: Case Study By Krieger, Stephanie; Schiefer, Gerhard
  25. Relational Contracting and Allocation of Decision Rights in the Agri-Food Industry: Producer Contracts and Food Safety By Karantininis, Kostas; Graversen, Jesper T.; Rasmussen, Hans Jacob Nymann
  26. Liberalization with Endogenous Institutions: A Comparative Analysis of Agricultural Reform in Africa, Asia and Europe By Johan F.M. Swinnen
  27. Large Farmers In The Lease Market : How and Why Do They Enter the Market? Are Marginal Farmers Affected in the Process? By C. S Murty
  28. Research Lags Revisited: Concepts and Evidence from U.S. Agriculture By Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Ruttan, Vernon W.
  29. Would Functional Agricultural Foods Improve Human Health? By Traill, Bruce W.; Arnoult, M.H.P.; Chambers, S.A.; Deaville, E.R.; Gordon, M.H.; John, P.; Jones, P.J.; Kliem, K.E.; Mortimer, S.R.; Tiffin, J.R.
  30. The Role of Inter-Organizational Leadership in Agri-Food Value Chains By Dooley, Lawrence B.; Luca, E.
  31. An integrated simulation model to evaluate national policies for the abatement of agricultural nutrients in the Baltic Sea By Hyytiainen, Kari; Ahtiainen, Heini; Heikkila, Jaakko; Helin, Janne; Huhtala, Anni; Iho, Antti; Koikkalainen, Kauko; Miettinen, Antti; Pouta, Eija; Vesterinen, Janne
  32. The Relationship between Supply Chain Coordination and Quality Assurance Systems: A Case Study Approach on the German Meat Sector By Bahlmann, Jan; Spiller, Achim
  33. Quality Markers and Consumer Communication Strategies: Empirical Evidence in the 'Very Fresh' Sector in Italy By Arfini, Filippo; Giacomini, Corrado; Mancini, Maria Cecilia
  34. Wine Argentinean Export Chain: A Case Study in the UK Market By Cetrangolo, Hugo; Briz, Julian
  35. State-led or Market-led Green Revolution? Role of Private Irrigation Investment vis-a-vis Local Government Programs in West Bengal’s Farm Productivity Growth By Pranab Bardhan; Dilip Mookherjee; Neha Kumar
  36. Technology Transfer in the Irish Food Industry: Researcher Perspectives By Henchion, Maeve; Kelly, Debbie; OâReilly, Paul
  37. Administrative Burdens in the Dairy Industry â A Proposal for Empirical Research By Bremmers, Harry; Poppe, Krijn J.; Wijnands, Jo; van der Meulen, Bernd
  38. Brand-Based Competition in the Agri-Food Sector: Evidences from Italian SMEs By DelVecchio, Pasquale; Ndou, Valentina; Sadguy, Nezha
  39. Dynamic Sanitary and Phytosanitary Trade Policy By Lars J. Olson; Santanu Roy

  1. By: Nambiro, Elizabeth; Omare, Musa N.; Nkamleu, Guy B.
    Abstract: This report is a summary of emerging issues affecting African agriculture, recent experiences and policy proposals that can guide interventions in improving the sectorâs productivity. Agriculture is at the centre of rural poverty reduction in Africa and urgent measures are needed to increase farm yields and incomes in order to stem collapse of economies and societies.
    Keywords: AAAE, African Association of Agricultural Economists, millennium development goals in Africa, agricultural policies, agricultural research systems, poverty reduction, agricultural productivity, Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Farm Management, Food Security and Poverty, Production Economics, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Q010, Q130, Q170, Q180, Q560,
    Date: 2008–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaae07:50144&r=agr
  2. By: Jikun Huang
    Abstract: China’s experience demonstrates the importance of technological development and public investment in improving agricultural productivity, farmer income, and food security in a nation with limited supplies of land and other natural resources. Technology has been the engine of China’s agricultural productivity growth in the past and will continue to play a major role in boosting China’s agricultural development and improving the nation’s food security in the 21st century.[IFPRI NO 3]
    Keywords: China; Agricultural Research and Development; Alternative R & D; Investment; Agriculture; fertilizer; pesticides
    Date: 2009
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ess:wpaper:id:2039&r=agr
  3. By: Henderson, Jason; Gloy, Brent
    Abstract: Corn ethanol plants consume large amounts of corn and their location has the potential to alter local crop prices and surrounding agricultural land values. The relationship between ethanol plant location and agricultural land prices is examined using data obtained from the Agricultural Credit Survey administered by the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. The findings indicate that the portion of land price changes attributable to location is consistent with previous estimates of basis changes associated with ethanol plant location. As a result, the land markets appear to be rationally adjusting to the location of ethanol plants.
    Keywords: farmland, ethanol, land values, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2008
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:nc1007:48148&r=agr
  4. By: Engelseth, Per; Karlsen, Anniken
    Abstract: Through a discussion of peculiarities of food supply, involving focus on information connectivity, a preliminary framework is sought that underlines joint responsibility in a complete supply chain of actors working in network context to achieve safe, quality and economic provision of products to end-use.
    Keywords: Food chains and networks, Complete chain and network approach, Information connectivity, Enterprise modelling, Product traceability, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49844&r=agr
  5. By: da Silva Junior, Aziz Galvao; Perez, Ronaldo; de Oliveira, Rodolfo Osorio
    Abstract: During the oil crisis of the seventies, Brazil has developed a successful program for gasoline substitution by ethanol (Proálcool). Nowadays the biomass accounts for 27% of total national energy consumed in Brazil and the ethanol participates with 40% of the total national fuel consumption of Otto cycle vehicles. In 2004, the National Program for the Production and Use of Biodiesel (Biodiesel Program) was launched. One priority of the Biodiesel Program is the inclusion of family agriculture and smallholders into the production chain. The Federal University of Viçosa (UFV) has developed a software for the analysis of biodiesel projects with the participation of familiy agriculture. Results of production chain analysis and economic indicators calculated by the Biosoft system have allowed identifying the regular supply of oil at competitive prices as the key point to the efficiency of biodiesel production chains. The use of oil cake as feedstock is the leverage point of chain performance. The meal sale can lead to a vegetal oil price reduction, without compromising farmers´ income, since they can be able to set up their own oil extraction plants. Coordination is then the critical element and has the potential to improve the performance of both the biodiesel industry and the animal production chain.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49840&r=agr
  6. By: Heyder, Matthias; Theuvsen, Ludwig
    Abstract: result, enterprises in the agribusiness sector are increasingly exposed to the public eye (Jansen/ Vellema: 2004). The perception of consumers and other stakeholders - which are according to Freeman âany group or individual who can affect, or is affected by, the achievement of the organizationâs objectivesâ - is of growing criticism and risk-consciousness and manifests itself in changed attitudes towards food production (Jäckel/Spiller: 2006; Haddock: 2005). The use of GMO in agriculture, e.g., is regarded to be morally reprehensible (Becker: 1999). The BSE-crisis and other food scares led to growing consumer uncertainty and resulted in decreased meat consumption and in the increasing percentage of outspoken vegetarians and low-meat consumers (von Alvensleben: 1997; Staack: 2005). Moreover, the influence capacity of stakeholders is growing (Gerlach: 2006). As a result these factors have reduced the legitimacy of traditional (e.g., animal production) as well as new production technologies (e.g. bioenergy) in the agribusiness. In the long term the success of enterprises in the agribusiness can be affected by legitimacy losses. Against this background, legitimacy is regarded as a resource that guarantees the long-term survival of an enterprise (Palazzo/Scherer: 2006). Primarily the market based view in general management literature and the macro-institutional approach in neo sociological-institutionalism are employed to understand business operations embedded in societal structures. In this context legitimacy means the conformation of an organization with social norms, values and expectations (Oliver: 1996).
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49851&r=agr
  7. By: Bourlakis, Michael; Papagiannidis, Savvas
    Abstract: This paper analyses the evolution of food retailing and describes how metaverses impact on it considering that retailers could be present in three different, but intertwined spaces. Our analysis deals with the major promotional issues, challenges and opportunities faced by traditional retailers, e-retailers and metaverse food retailers and the case of Second Life, a popular metaverse, is examined. A major finding is that retailers should apply a holistic approach when developing their promotional strategies aiming to have a presence in all three spaces. The authors suggest the pressing need for food policy development and stress the promotional and transactional potential that metaverses provide to other agri-food chain members including SMEs and manufacturers.
    Keywords: food retailing, metaverses, virtual worlds, Second Life, marketing and promotion, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49770&r=agr
  8. By: Raghav Gaiha; Katsushi S. Imai; Kenneth Hill; Shantanu Mathur
    Date: 2009
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:man:sespap:0910&r=agr
  9. By: Sodano, Valeria
    Abstract: The food system negatively affects the environment, human health and the total well being of the society in many ways, causing: soil and water depletion, pollution due to the waste treatments, acid rains, desertification, climate change, ozone depletion and biodiversity loss. The paper endeavors to compare the needs of a sustainable food system with strategies actually carried out at private and public level. It is shown that while the process of trade liberalization is pushing towards market deregulation and decreasing state intervention, corporate social responsibility is very low and unable to tackle the huge environmental problems faced by the food system. The main conclusion of the paper is that the current competitive games played by leading firms are not in any way able to promote the sustainability of the new global food system and that more state intervention is requested in order to reach the goal.
    Keywords: innovation, sustainability, local food systems, fresh produce, participatory democracy, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49891&r=agr
  10. By: John Gilbert (Department of Economics and Finance, Utah State University)
    Abstract: We review the literature on the relationship between agricultural trade policy reform and poverty, and the results of recent detailed simulation studies applied to economies in the Asia- Pacific region. We then use the GTAP model to evaluate the possible impacts of the most recently proposed modalities for agricultural trade reform under Doha on the economies of the Asia-Pacific region, which we compare to a benchmark of comprehensive agricultural trade reform. The current proposal does not result in significant cuts to applied tariffs, and has very modest overall effects on welfare. Poverty in the region would decrease overall, but the distribution across countries is uneven. By contrast, comprehensive agricultural trade reform, with developing economies fully engaged, tends to benefit most economies in the region in the aggregate, and to consistently lower poverty.
    Keywords: Agricultural trade, Doha, Asia-Pacific, Poverty
    JEL: F13 F17 C68 O53
    Date: 2008–12–19
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:usu:wpaper:2008-01&r=agr
  11. By: Miet Maertens
    Abstract: The rapid spread of modern supply chains in developing countries is profoundly changing the way food is produced and traded. In this paper we examine the gender implications in modern supply chains. We conceptualize the various mechanisms through which women are directly affected, we review existing empirical evidence and add new survey-based evidence. Empirical findings from our own survey suggest that modern supply chains may be associated with reduced gender inequalities in rural areas. We find that women benefit more and more directly from large-scale estate production and agro-industrial processing, and the creation of employment in these modern agro-industries than from smallholder contract-farming.[LICOS DP 231/2008]
    Keywords: modern supply chains; developing countries; Supply chain governance; Intra-household and gender issues; Case-studies; Horticulture supply chains; Female participation; Agro-industrial employment; Feminization of the rural labor force; Gender discrimination
    Date: 2009
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ess:wpaper:id:1996&r=agr
  12. By: Pacheco de Carvalho, Bernardo M. T. Reynolds S.
    Abstract: Food system dynamics worldwide are under a new paradigm. Energy supply based on renewable natural resources is now a necessary solution, where agri-business can play an important role, and food systems will have to interact worldwide with new competitors for land and agriculture activity. The argument in this paper is based on the evidence that innovation and technology changes in food production (agricultural production) can offer a sustainable supply of grain and biomass, when demand behaviour is consistent and very flexible (demand elasticity above 1). The main argument is based on the hypothesis that demand behaviour is the main driver in food systems, which can be observed looking at technical and technological changes in production systems in Europe and elsewhere, such as Latin America, and more specifically Brazil. Economic surplus distribution across the food chain is another key factor for the induced innovation process to occur dynamically in food and agricultural production, based on well functioning markets such as the international markets (elastic demand for most countries). Science will face a new industry demand for solutions on the production side that are able to provide sustainability and supply increases that have to support empowerment of the primary sector to help producers capture surplus created by new technology possibilities, and ânew demandsâ. Technological changes will occur quickly enough to avoid strong changes in prices if, and only if, producers are able to look at new opportunities with conditions (and sufficient time) to improve their business (and share on economic surplus). Institutional innovation is another key factor in the food system, and should also provide capability to create value to a set of intangible goods provided by the primary sector, giving space for a multi-functionality perspective on the primary sector activity, such as environment and sustainability considerations. The first factor to be considered is certainly the market functioning, because food production traditionally suffers from market problems, which began with the characteristics of the products, space diversity, conservation problems, and production seasonality (to mention only the most obvious). Other considerations related with the environment, and non tangible goods, such as the landscape dimension (and other dimensions on manâs relationship with nature), will continue to deserve new initiatives to improve the Quality of Life.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49884&r=agr
  13. By: Pietola, Kyosti; Myyra, Sami; Pouta, Eija
    Keywords: capital gains, taxes, land, trade, fiscal effects, Agricultural Finance, Financial Economics, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2009–05
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:mttfdp:50040&r=agr
  14. By: Feng, Hongli; Rubin, Ofir D.; Babcock, Bruce A.
    Abstract: As the United States begins to move towards putting an economic value on reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the need for improved accounting standards becomes acute. Lifecycle analysis (LCA), which involves the systematic collection and interpretation of material flow in all relevant processes of a product, has become the accepted procedure to use to determine greenhouse gas emissions of products ranging from transportation fuels, to building materials, to food production (Farrell et al., 2006; Hill et al., 2006; Owen, 2004). The basic motivation of LCA is that, to conduct a fair assessment of the environmental impacts of a product, it is necessary to take into account all of the processes throughout the productâs lifespan, including the extraction of raw material, the manufacturing processes that convert raw material into the product, and the utilization and disposal of the product. For many products, including fossil fuels, a standard LCA is generally all that is needed to understand greenhouse gas emission implications. Accounting procedures for biological-based products, however, require additional considerations. Consider a country that expands production of an agricultural feedstock to produce biofuels. To understand how such an endeavor affects GHG emissions requires analysis of the greenhouse gas contents of all the inputs used to produce the feedstock as well as the inputs used to create the fuel from the feedstock. This is as far as most LCAs go. But expanded production of the feedstock does not just magically happen. Either current uses of the feedstock must be reduced to free up supply for production of biofuels, or additional production must occur. If current uses are reduced, then the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the current use should be credited towards the biofuels because they are no longer being emitted. However, if an alternative product is used as a substitute for the current use of the feedstock then the GHG implications of increased production of the substitute should also be counted as a debit. If current use is maintained, then the implications of expanded production of the feedstock need to be accounted for, including changes in crop acreage, production practices, and whether new land is brought into production. And lastly, if changes in land use in the biofuels-expanding region result in changed land-use decisions in other regions, then the GHG implications in these regions may have to be accounted for, depending on the definition of system boundary in an analysis. The need for accounting systems that take into account changes in production systems has been recognized (Delucchi, 2004; Feehan and Peterson, 2004). In a recent report, the Clean Air Task Force noted that âcurrent lifecycle analyses do not account for greenhouse gas emissions and other global warming impacts that may be caused by changes in land use; food, fuel, and materials markets (Lewis, 2007).â Righelato and Spracklen (2007) showed that carbon changes related to land use changes could outweigh the avoided emissions through the substitution of petroleum fuel by biofuels. The contribution of this chapter is two-fold: (i) to develop the beginnings of a protocol for system-wide accounting (SWA) systems that incorporates land use and other changes not included in LCA, and (ii) to apply the protocol to a case study of ethanol refined from Iowa corn. We will first lay out the basics of LCA for corn ethanol and gasoline. This serves as the beginning point for SWA because the components of LCA results can be used in SWA. We then assess the GHG impacts of ethanol from Iowa corn based on both types of accounting systems.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2008
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:fflc08:49101&r=agr
  15. By: Matopoulos, Aristides; Vlachopoulou, Maro
    Abstract: This paper emphasizes on the concept of innovation which is more and more nowadays recognized as of significant importance for all companies across different business sectors. The paper initially provides a review of the innovation literature in terms of types, classifications, and sources of innovation that have been proposed over time. Then, innovation in the context of the food industry is examined and it is attempted to identify innovation strategies followed by Greek food companies based on a value driven approach of innovation. The paper finally, provides insights from eight Greek food companies, which were selected from four subsectors: fruit and vegetables, dairy products, meat products (cured meats), and bakery products. The criterion used for the selection was market success and outstanding performance (e.g. market share, achieved results). Evidence indicates that companies tend to innovate along the dimension of offerings, which is more related to the traditional view of product and process innovation.
    Keywords: business innovation, innovation strategies, Greek food industry, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49881&r=agr
  16. By: Gagalyuk, Taras; Hanf, Jon
    Abstract: Nowadays food products are produced in vertically collaborating networks. The questions of how such chain networks have to be designed and which governance structure fits best have been addressed in several well known articles. However, questions dealing with chain strategy and management are not discussed satisfyingly. Neither is the understanding of what is success of chain management distinguished.
    Keywords: Chain management, Network goals, Success, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49845&r=agr
  17. By: Sundmaeker, Harald
    Abstract: Competitiveness of European Small and Medium sized Enterprises (SME) in the global marketplace is correlated to and determined by diverse factors. However, specifically SMEâs ability to satisfy explicit and implicit customer requirements as well as to proactively integrate them as a driver of complex business networks is a key success factor. Although this seems to be the most obvious economic principle, it is hard to be achieved in complex networks of small actors, including vertical and horizontal supply chain dimensions, especially due to self-organisation of single network entities in relation to the continuous and dynamic adjustment of the overall network. Moreover, dynamically changing customer needs, evolving requirements (e.g. legislative demands, technology enablers) and process disturbances (e.g. delivery deviations, incompatibility of supplied semi-finished products) need to be handled.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49892&r=agr
  18. By: Hines, Peter; Zokaei, Keivan; Evans, Barry; Beale, Jo; Miele, Mara; Cole, Matthew
    Abstract: The new found popular interest in sustainable development is highly skewed towards areas that are politically visible, such as transport and in particular the evils of air travel. This situation is mirrored in the academic community with an explosion of articles on sustainable transport (an EBSCO web search yielded 552 academic references to Sustainable Transport while for example Sustainable Livestock only found less than 10% of that number1). Nonetheless, only 14% of GHGâs actually result from transport, with as little as 2% coming from aviation, against 32% resulting from agriculture and land use â a major part of which can be directly attributed to the food chain (Stern, 2006). Moreover within the food system, certain areas such as livestock production are particularly problematic with meat and dairy products contributing more than 50% of the total GHGâs emitted (Kramer et al, 1999). Another recent study in the UK shows that GHG emissions attributable to meat and dairy consumption are about 4 times more than the GHG emissions generated from fruit and vegetable consumption (Garnett, 2007).
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49895&r=agr
  19. By: Ragona, Maddalena; Mazzocchi, Mario
    Abstract: Recently regulatory evaluation performed by the European Commission has been reviewed in response to the call for more evidence-based policy making and âBetter Regulationâ, which requires instruments to support the adoption of more effective and efficient regulations, as well as an improved coordination of policy interventions across the economic, social and environmental dimensions (European Commission, 2002). At the same time, there is a demand for clarity in the methods used to evaluate the impacts of regulations. While there is an ongoing debate on the methodological frameworks that are or could be used to assess the overall impact of regulations, our focus here is on the quantitative techniques that measure the economic effects and estimate the monetary values of non-market effects. This is especially relevant in policy areas like that of food safety, where a wide variety of alternative techniques are used to measure the same impact, often with very different or even conflicting results. Food safety regulations generate different effects to different economic actors along the food chain, covering more than a policy area, like health protection, competition, trade and environment. The aim of this study is to review and discuss the quantitative methodologies applied to assess the socio-economic impacts of food safety regulations in a selection of studies found in the literature available to date1. The paper is structured as follows. First, we propose a classification of potential impacts relevant in food safety regulations, based on the European Commission Impact Assessment Guidelines (2005). Then, we associate each impact with the methodologies used in the literature. An overview of the methodologies is presented, highlighting strengths and weaknesses; methodologies not currently used but potentially exploitable in food safety regulatory assessments are briefly described. In the fourth section, we add further information about the evaluation studies, by specifying stage of assessment, level of analysis, type of data required, and geographical scope of analysis. Final considerations conclude the review.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49887&r=agr
  20. By: Charlier, Christophe; Valceschini, Egizio
    Abstract: New technologies and innovations suspected to affect environment or public health need to be regulated. Scientific risk assessment is considered as a key element for the regulation. Its role is reinforced when the regulation has the potential of constraining the international trade. The Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement of the WTO dealing with this kind of issues gives primacy to scientific risk assessment. Interesting situations arise with small risks that is to say situations where the probability of damage is tiny and/or expected damages are very small. If risk assessment is the only scientific element considered, the mere presence of risk âeven smallshould give reason for regulation. Does it rationalize the public decision for all that? If the social benefits associated with the blocked activity are consequent accepting the risk could be worthwhile. Recent works from the economic literature have shown that in order to get a good ârisk governanceâ cost-benefit analysis should be considered together with risk assessment (Bureau et al. 1998, Turvey and Mojduszka 2005). The aim of cost-benefit analysis is indeed to help public decision making. It consists in a set of methods that enables to evaluate the relevance of a regulation, comparing it with other possible options (from other types of regulation to the absence of any regulation). For that purpose cost-benefit analysis aims at estimating a monetary valuation, on the one hand, for environmental (or public health) degradation and, on the other hand, for the expected benefits implied by environmental conservation and technologiesâ development.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49839&r=agr
  21. By: Richards, Timothy J.; Nganje, William E.; Acharya, Ram
    Abstract: Concerns regarding the safety and integrity of the fresh produce supply chain are becoming all too common in the media. In 2006, an outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 from farms in Central California sickened almost two hundred people and lead to the deaths of three. Estimated costs to the industry ranged from $100 per month to $200 million until spinach sales returned to normal. By some accounts, the spinach industry has yet to recover and may not for years to come. The incident, however, has lead to a host of initiatives from industry officials, legislators and fresh produce retailers to ensure the safety of fresh produce. The necessary technology and best practices knowledge exists, yet some growers have not made the investment required to ensure that such outbreaks do not happen again in the future.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49888&r=agr
  22. By: Alessandro Olper
    Abstract: Mass media plays a crucial role in information distribution and thus in the political market and public policy making. Theory predicts that information provided by mass media reflects the media’s incentives to provide news to different types of groups in society, and affects these groups’ influence in policy-making. We use data on agricultural policy from 60 countries, spanning a wide range of development stages and media markets, to test these predictions. We find that, in line with theoretical predictions, public support to agriculture is strongly affected by the structure of the mass media. In particular, a greater role of the private mass media in society is associated with policies which benefit the majority more: it reduces taxation of agriculture in poor countries and reduces subsidization of agriculture in rich countries, ceteris paribus. The evidence is also consistent with the hypothesis that increased competition in commercial media reduces transfers to special interest groups and contributes to more efficient public policies.[LICOS D P NO 232/2009]
    Keywords: Mass Media; Media Structure; Information; Agricultural Protection; Political Economy
    Date: 2009
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ess:wpaper:id:1992&r=agr
  23. By: Baker, Derek; Hjorth Lind, Kim Martin; Hansen, Henning Otte
    Abstract: This study investigates the strategic behaviour of food industry firms. Its two goals are to: (i) characterise strategies being employed; and (ii) identify distinct approaches to information-sharing Data from an interview-format survey of Danish food industry firms are used to characterise strategy at two levels: 11 âstrategic orientationsâ; each of which is composed of 3-6 of a total 57 âstrategic actionsâ. Principal components were identified and two complementary cluster analysis techniques were used to assemble clusters that are composed of firms either with distinct strategies, or sets of strategies occurring in distinct combinations. Eight clusters emerge, with reasonable procedural performance. The clusters are distinct in a surprisingly large number of ways, including their strategies for market share, pricing, approach and response to regulation, exports and use of retailersâ own-label brands. Information-sharing strategies are closely linked to both marketing strategy and regulation response/anticipation. Individual clusters identify distinct sets of behaviour regarding information-sharing up and/or down the value chain, their approach to quality and other aspects of market segmentation, targeting of export markets, and willingness to compete on price. Clustersâ distinct strategies regarding regulation featured anticipation, as opposed to several diverse means of passing on compliance costs: to buyers or to sellers. Such activities were linked to information-sharing strategies in different ways by different clusters.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49849&r=agr
  24. By: Krieger, Stephanie; Schiefer, Gerhard
    Abstract: The variety of quality systems is a very important and an actual theme in the agri-food sector. These quality systems are only partly acknowledged by different quality standard organizations, but customers within the supply chain demand them. Enterprises, which supply different customers and export abroad this, face the problem that they have to deal with several standards and implement them within the enterprise as well as take part in several systems audits and certifications. The economic problem consists of determining the most efficient introduction of a quality system or a combination of quality systems in the enterprise. The emphasis of the work lies in the development of a framework for the benchmarking of quality systems at all stages of the agri-food production and an allocation and operationalisation of cost and benefit categories. A concept including the database âQualintSysâ was developed during a PhD-thesis to estimate the costs and benefits of quality systems.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49879&r=agr
  25. By: Karantininis, Kostas; Graversen, Jesper T.; Rasmussen, Hans Jacob Nymann
    Abstract: We apply a formal theoretical model of adaptation to two empirical settings within the agri-food industry: specialized pig production and food safety in Denmark. The objective is to allocate decision rights ex ante so that actual decisions taken ex post will optimize the profit accruing to the two parties in a contractual or integrative relation. Two applications are presented in this paper: First an actual partnership between two pork producers in Denmark. Based on detailed budgets we develop detailed schedules for the âreneging temptationsâ of the two partners- These are the temptations to renege on the contract during the evolution of the partnership. Using a model developed by Baker, Gibbons and Murphy (2006) we calculate equilibria using the Folk theorem in order to determine which is the best allocation of decision rights. We find that the existing allocation of decision rights in the case we examine is efficient in the sense that it results into a second best allocation. Using the same modelling approach we present a second application on salmonella control related to end-feeding, that is, salmonella contamination of pork due to filled bellies of pigs fed for the last 12 hours before delivery. Based on appropriate assumptions, the parties should give the decision right (whether to end-feed or not) to the slaughterhouse in order to reach the firstbest solution which, given the assumptions, is feasible
    Keywords: Theory of the firm, Adaptation theory, Contracts, Decision Rights, Pig production, Food safety, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization, D21, L2, Q1,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49877&r=agr
  26. By: Johan F.M. Swinnen
    Abstract: Thirty years ago, a vast share of the poor and the middle income countries were heavily state-controlled. The effects of the liberalizations in the 1980s and 1990s differed strongly between regions in Africa, Asia and Europe. This paper compares the relative reform performance across Asia, Africa and Europe, using a series of indicators to compare changes in output and productivity during the reform period, with respect to agriculture. The paper shows a model which analyzes how liberalization affects the production and income distribution when liberalization affects the institutions that govern production and exchange. The model helps to derive hypothesis on how the endogenous institutional adjustments affect the supply response to the liberalizations. These insights are related to the empirical observations on agricultural performance and variations in commodity chain performance across countries. [LICOS DP no.233/2009]
    Keywords: liberalization; endogenous institutions; agricultural reforms; Asia; Africa; Europe; agricultural performance trends; pre-liberalization economy; model of liberalization; liberalization performances
    Date: 2009
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ess:wpaper:id:2009&r=agr
  27. By: C. S Murty
    Abstract: The paper revolves around the necessity to rid the large tenant of the lease market in the interest of the poor peasant, who yearns to lease-in a piece of land. The notion that the petty peasant is opting out of the lease market because of costliness of new technology seems unfounded. The peasant is not opting out, rather the large farmer is forcing him to withdraw from the market by appealing to the need of his lessor for secure rental receipts and by paying him rent in fixed cash. It is in the interest of the large farmer to drive out the petty cultivator from the lease market and thereby gain control over it, because mechanization of farming operations, in the context of high wages, is making heavy demands on him to expand the size of his operational holding. With the scope to enlarge the ownership holding having decreased, more because of the deterrent effect of the land ceiling laws, the large farmer has no option but to lease-in land to expand the size of holding to put his capital assets to optimum use. Large farmers may contribute to capitalist development in agriculture. But development of capitalist relations may lead to proletarianisation of large sections of the rural working classes.[CESS WP NO 55]
    Keywords: Marginal Farmers; tenancy laws; NSS Data; Holdings; Large Farmers
    Date: 2009
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ess:wpaper:id:2008&r=agr
  28. By: Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Ruttan, Vernon W.
    Abstract: Many researchers and commentators underestimate the length and importance of the time lags between initial research investment and ultimate impacts on the development and adoption of technological innovations. In both econometric studies of productivity and ex post and ex ante benefit-cost evaluations of research investments, researchers typically impose untested assumptions about the R&D lag, which can have profound implications for the results. In this paper we present a range of evidence on agricultural R&D lags including both aggregative analysis of U.S. agricultural productivity using time series data, and some specific details on the timelines for the research, development, and adoption processes for particular mechanical and biological innovations in U.S. agriculture. The aggregative analysis makes use of a comparatively rich state-level data set on U.S. agriculture that makes it possible to test hypotheses about the R&D lag and to evaluate the implications for the specification of models of production and for findings regarding the rate of return to public research investments. The results support the use of a longer lag with a different shape than is typically imposed in studies of industrial R&D. These findings are supported by the timelines for specific technological innovations, including new crop varieties, as well as tractors and other mechanical innovations.
    Keywords: Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2008–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:umaesp:50091&r=agr
  29. By: Traill, Bruce W.; Arnoult, M.H.P.; Chambers, S.A.; Deaville, E.R.; Gordon, M.H.; John, P.; Jones, P.J.; Kliem, K.E.; Mortimer, S.R.; Tiffin, J.R.
    Abstract: Concern over diet-health relationships has moved to the forefront of public health concerns in the UK and much of the developed world. It has been estimated, for example, that obesity costs the UK National Health Service up to £6b per year (Rayner and Scarborough, 2005), but if all consumers were to follow recommended healthy eating guidelines there would be major implications for food consumption, land use and international trade (Srinivasan et al, 2006). This is unlikely to happen, at least in the short term, but it is realistic to anticipate some dietary adjustment toward the recommendations, resulting in an improvement in diet quality (Mazzocchi et al, 2007). Although consumers are reluctant to make major changes to their diets, they may be prepared to substitute existing foods for healthier alternatives. Three of the most prominent nutritional recommendations are to consume more fruit and vegetables, which contain phytochemicals beneficial to health, reduce consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and increase intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids (FA). In the first case, consumption of fruit and vegetables has been stable at around three 80 g portions per person per day according to the Health Survey for England. It is estimated that 42,200 deaths per year could be avoided in England and 411,000 Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) could be saved if fruit and vegetable consumption were increased to the recommended 5 portions per day (Ofcom 2006). As well as continuing to encourage people to eat more, it could be desirable to âintensifyâ the beneficial phytochemical content of existing fruit and vegetables.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49893&r=agr
  30. By: Dooley, Lawrence B.; Luca, E.
    Abstract: For many years research on marketing channel behaviour was focused on power and conflict between channel members. More recently, as a result of globalisation, firms have become more dependent on each other and more collaborative models of channel behaviour have developed to meet the demands of the global marketplace. Research suggests that closer relationships involving trust, commitment, co-operation, co-ordination, and collaboration are needed between chain members to ensure the success of their value chains. The major challenge is to identify and develop leadership styles that foster efficient and collaborative value chains. Generally, the literature suggests that supply chain effectiveness and survival is linked to leadership behaviour. Leader behaviour has needed to adapt to the competitive global environment, which tends to focus on fostering inter-organisational co-operation rather than competing in an adversarial way . In this climate, leaders need to possess supply chain management skills and, perhaps more critically, the ability to establish and maintain effective inter-orgnisational networks. Early exploratory research in manufacturing suggested that a participatory leadership style is most effective in fostering co-operation and increased supply chain performance.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49843&r=agr
  31. By: Hyytiainen, Kari; Ahtiainen, Heini; Heikkila, Jaakko; Helin, Janne; Huhtala, Anni; Iho, Antti; Koikkalainen, Kauko; Miettinen, Antti; Pouta, Eija; Vesterinen, Janne
    Abstract: This study introduces a prototype model for evaluating policies to abate agricultural nutrients in the Baltic Sea from a Finnish national point of view. The stochastic simulation model integrates nutrient dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorus in the sea basins adjoining the Finnish coast, nutrient loads from land and other sources, benefits from nutrient abatement (in the form of recreation and other ecosystem services) and the costs of agricultural abatement activities. The aim of this study is to present the overall structure of the model and to demonstrate its potential using preliminary parameters. The model is made flexible for further improvements in all of its ecological and economic components. Results of a sensitivity analysis suggest that investments in reducing the nutrient runoff from arable land in Finland would become profitable only if Finlandâs neighbors in the northern Baltic committed themselves to similar reductions. Environmental investments for improving water quality yield the highest returns for the Bothnian Bay and the Gulf of Finland, and smaller returns for the Bothnian Sea. In the Bothnian Bay, the abatement activities become profitable because the riverine loads from Finland represent a high proportion of the total nutrient loads. In the Gulf of Finland, this proportion is low, but the size of the coastal population benefiting from improved water quality is high.
    Keywords: ecosystem services, nutrient abatement, Monte Carlo simulation, recreation, valuation, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2009–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:mttfdp:49896&r=agr
  32. By: Bahlmann, Jan; Spiller, Achim
    Abstract: The German meat industry faces a high demand for food safety and traceability. After several meat scandals in the recent past, efforts have to be made to regain consumer trust and to assure access to export markets. Apart from a few niche markets, there is no focal company in the German pork supply chain which efficiently coordinates food chain information, harmonizes the multiplicity of different IT systems or takes on professional public relations in charge of the whole sector. In cases of food crises, essential up- and downstream information slowly flows across the supply chain which hinders both seamless traceability and the harmonization of production processes between the various stages of the supply chain. This contribution focuses on the opportunities for more efficient coordination based on spot market environments. With reference to the theory of organization economics, a case study of the QS Qualität und Sicherheit GmbH as the leading certification scheme that addresses the German meat industry was carried out. Several non-classical certification activities which fall within the scope of coordination were identified with QS. Based on the assumption that the company continuously improves the coordination of the supply chain, there are opportunities for the meat sector as a whole which are pointed out in the conclusion.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49768&r=agr
  33. By: Arfini, Filippo; Giacomini, Corrado; Mancini, Maria Cecilia
    Abstract: Quality is a key factor when consumers choose agri-food products, but at the same time is difficult for them to assess. On the demand side, consumers require protection measures, and on the supply side, efficient communications need to be available to all operators, including those who cannot afford to supply their own. In this context, quality markers such as logos, brands and indications or denominations that distinguish a product from its competitors can be a strategic way of transmitting information, especially for firms which cannot afford resources for communications or their own brand name. This research analyses and assesses the role of brands and territorial markers (PDO, PGI) in enhancing and promoting âvery freshâ food products, in particular fruit and vegetables. The first part of the work identifies the most widely used quality markers, and the legal and organisational aspects for some of them. The second part is empirical and includes case studies on PDO and PGI, two company brands (Melinda and Marlene) in the fruit and vegetable sector and, finally, one collective brand, âQC â Qualità Controllataâ set up by a regional authority, Emilia Romagna Region. Our case studies lead to the conclusion that collective brands and indications or denominations alone are not a sufficient condition for commercial success. What is essential, on top of basic product requisites, is the organisation of supply and brand strategy.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49767&r=agr
  34. By: Cetrangolo, Hugo; Briz, Julian
    Abstract: International wine market is becoming one of the more dynamic in beverages sector. This paper is a summary of the research developed during 2004-2006 at the UPM with Argentinean exporters. The selection of UK market was due to the high degree of competition between international wines: European, American, Australian and others. Secondary information was collected from EU and Argentina publication and data bases. Primary information was obtained through face to face interviews with the main stakeholders and wine exporter entrepreneurs. UK wine market is one of the more competitive in the world and the main destinations of Argentinean exports. The presentation describes the strengths and weaknesses of the more significant wine exporters with a SWOT matrix analysis. Argentina has comparative advantages in wine production but the main problem is the wine network exporting performance. The challenge is how to design adequate strategies, involving public and private national resources and get adequate quota market in the coming future. Some specific recommendations are related to: Firms and country commercial brands, relationship exporters-UK retailers, trade brands shared by producers and commercial agents, promotion and publicity of Argentinean wines in UK. Other scenarios of future development are the improvement of firm strategic alliances, rising added value in the wine chain for exporters and communication programs with UK society.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49838&r=agr
  35. By: Pranab Bardhan (Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley); Dilip Mookherjee (Department of Economics, Boston University); Neha Kumar (International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington DC)
    Abstract: This paper estimates respective roles of private investments in irrigation and local government programs (land reforms, extension services, and infrastructure investments) in the growth of farm productivity in West Bengal, India between 1981-95. Using a farm panel from a stratified random sample of farms from major agricultural districts of West Bengal, we find evidence that private investment in irrigation which reduced irrigation costs for farms played an important role in the growth process. However, the growth in private investment was itself stimulated by tenancy registration and minikit distribution programs implemented by local governments. This channel helps account for the substantial spillover effects of the tenancy reform on non-tenant farms noted in an earlier study. Hence the observed productivity growth was a result of complementarity between private investment incentives and state-led institutional reforms.
    Date: 2009–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:bos:iedwpr:dp-184&r=agr
  36. By: Henchion, Maeve; Kelly, Debbie; OâReilly, Paul
    Abstract: The public R&D system represents an important part of the framework conditions for carrying out innovation activities and creating commercially applicable knowledge (Drejer and Jørgensen, 2004). It is an important source of information for companies, particularly those that are developing new products (Tijssen, 2004). However, Rubenstein (2003) stated that there has been a perception that public research capacity and results were not being optimally used and thus that potential economic benefits were not entirely realised. It is also suggested that research conducted in the public sector is not efficiently or successfully transferred to industry (Markman et al, 1999) and that it is necessary to understand and improve the means of technology transfer for society to reap the benefits of public science (Geuna and Nesta, 2003). Thus, there is a growing interest, and indeed pressure, among policymakers and academics to ensure informed spending of taxpayersâ money, that useful and relevant research is conducted that represents good âvalue for moneyâ and that wealth is generated from publicly-funded research (Carr, 1992; Lyall et al., 2004; Mustar et al., 2006). To achieve this requires, amongst other things, the establishment of scientific and technical human capital which is the sum of researchersâ professional network ties and their technical skills and resources (Bozeman and Coreley, 2004). This paper examines the interactions engaged in by researchers from Irish public science providers (public research centres and higher education institutions), with a particular focus on researchers- industry interactions, as well as their skills and resources. To provide context, it firstly briefly outlines the actors involved in conducting publicly funded R&D in Ireland. It then describes the methodology and presents the results of a national survey of publicly funded food researchers focusing on the extent and nature of researcher interactions with other researchers and with industry, the barriers to and motivations for researcher-industry interaction and researcher skills regarding technology transfer. It concludes with a discussion and some policy recommendations.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49850&r=agr
  37. By: Bremmers, Harry; Poppe, Krijn J.; Wijnands, Jo; van der Meulen, Bernd
    Abstract: The goal of this paper is to frame the effect of regulatory burdens in a research outline which enables the study of their effect on the competitiveness of the food and drinks industry, especially the European dairy sector. A firm perspective is used. We address the basic structure and tendencies in the food sector, the regulatory role of regulatory burdens and their effect on competitiveness. A theoretical foundation is provided by transaction cost economics and total quality management insights. The effects of legislation on administrative costs and competitiveness are mediated by impacts on innovativeness, company strategy, food safety system availability, as well as the available information & communication capabilities. Building on a previous studies showing the negative impact of administrative requirements on on competitiveness, this paper focuses at expanding the available research framework and to adjust it to sector (i.e. dairy) specifics. We will connect to previous research (Wijnands et al., 2007) which, among others, generated the following generic results: - administrative burdens are connected to prevention measures; - administrative burdens impede on the innovativeness of food companies; - administrative burdens are influenced by the content of law and by the predictability and clearness of regulations.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49886&r=agr
  38. By: DelVecchio, Pasquale; Ndou, Valentina; Sadguy, Nezha
    Abstract: In a scenario characterized by the globalization of the markets, the competitiveness of firms across the industries and mainly in the agri-food sector is linked to their capability to make distinguishable their products and communicate their uniqueness. Branding can concretely answer to these needs allowing firms to compete by communicating the quality and all that set of factors that differentiate their own offer by the competitors. Anyway, brand management in small and medium enterprises (SMEs) is a field of study in its infancy, and one in which real interest was shown only during the final decade of the previous century. Although considerable literature has been published about brand management in general, all theory and case studies are focused only on multinationals and big companies operating in the food sectors, such as Coca Cola, Unilever, Procter & Gamble. This is however ignoring the fact that more than 95% of businesses in the European Union are small and medium enterprises (Eurostat 2004) and that this composition, confirmed in the agrifood sectors, contribute to make the European market extremely interesting and profitable. The objective of this paper aims to contribute to already existing research in the field and shows the role and importance of brand management in food SMEs and all the key factors that supports it. Our analysis will highlight as the term brand in agri-food SMEs is initiated and supported by an active role of the entrepreneur who is a fundamental actor in the achievement of brand recognition. Thus, directors and managers of small food companies should place brand management in a top position in their daily mind set, since achieving brand recognition starts inside the organization itself. Beside, the paper describes the real opportunity offered by new technologies (web, internet, B2Bâ¦) that allows small food companies to build their brand in a more effective way and reach a larger market in a low cost. To meet these objectives a qualitative research methodology was carried based on case studies, since this latter allows to understand more in detail firmâs behaviours and strategies. The food small and medium enterprises that were selected are located in the South of Italy and all of them have a web-site. These case studies were built based on structured questionnaires that have been firstly sent by mail, and was followed by face to face interviews with entrepreneurs and director of sales and marketing department. The results obtained are extremely interesting and representative of the importance of brand management both for food SMEs, as key element to innovate, grow and to be distinguished as well as for the entrepreneur in building, through the use of new technologies, a successful brand management strategy of his own company.
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Industrial Organization,
    Date: 2008–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:eea110:49890&r=agr
  39. By: Lars J. Olson (University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland.); Santanu Roy (Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas.)
    Abstract: This paper characterizes the optimal use of sanitary and phytosanitary standards to prevent the introduction of harmful pests and diseases through international trade. Because established pest and disease infestations grow and spread over time their introduction has intertemporal consequences. In a dynamic economic model, an efficient trade policy balances the costs of SPS measures against the discounted stream of the costs of control and social damages that are avoided by using SPS measures, where future growth and spread of any established infestation is accounted for. We examine when phytosanitary trade policy makes good economic sense, when it is efficient to provide full protection against pests and diseases, and when restrictive, but not fully protective trade policy is efficient.
    Keywords: International trade, pests and diseases, invasive species, sanitary and phytosanitary trade policy.
    JEL: Q5 F18 D9 Q2
    Date: 2008–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:smu:ecowpa:0806&r=agr

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