nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2008‒11‒25
23 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. Decoupling and prices: determinant of dairy farmers€٠choices? A model to analyse impacts of the 2003 CAP reform By Lelyon, B.; Daniel, K.; Chatellier, V.
  2. Contingent Valuation of Consumers€٠Willingness-to-Pay for Organic Food in Argentina By Rodriguez, E.; Lacaze, V.; Lupin, B.
  3. Agriculture, Population, Land and Water Scarcity in a changing World€ӠThe Role of Irrigation By Sauer, Timm; Havlik, Petr; Schneider, Uwe A.; Kindermann, Georg; Obersteiner, Michael
  4. Effects of agri-environmental measures and changes in EU single farm payments on Dutch agriculture By Helming, J.F.M.; Schrijver, R.A.M.
  5. The effect of decoupling on marginal agricultural systems: implications for farm incomes, land use and upland ecology By Acs, Szvetlana; Hanley, Nick; Dallimer, Martin; Gaston, Kevin J.; Robertson, Philip; Wilson, Paul; Armsworth, Paul R.
  6. DIRECT PAYMENTS AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE LAND MARKET IN POLAND By Dziemianowicz, Ryta Iwona; Przygodzka, Renata; Sadowski, Adam
  8. Resolving the conflict between environmental damage and agricultural viability on less favoured areas By Lehtonen, H.
  9. Greek cotton farmers' supply response to partial decoupling of subsidies By Rozakis, S.; Tsiboukas, K; Petsakos, A.
  14. Inter-Linkages Among Agricultural Research Investment, Agricultural Productivity and Rural Poverty in India By Kiresur, V.R.; Melinamani, V.P.
  15. BIOFUELS, AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE By Hubert, Marie-Helene; Chakravorty, Ujjayant; van Kooten, G. Cornelis
  16. Do Farm Credits Stimulate Development of Agriculture in Poland? By Tomasz, Siudek
  18. Spread of retailer food quality standards: An international perspective By Herzfeld, T.; Drescher, L.S.; Grebitus, C.
  19. Environmental protection of agriculture -clash of policies? By Helin, Janne
  20. Modelling the likely impact of healthy eating guidelines on agriculture in England & Wales By Arnoult, M.H.; Jones, P.J.; Tranter, R.B.; Tiffin, R.; Traill, W.B.
  23. Agri-environmental schemes in the European Union: the role of ex ante costs By Peerlings, Jack; Polman, Nico

  1. By: Lelyon, B.; Daniel, K.; Chatellier, V.
    Abstract: The reform of European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) in 2003 has resulted in substantial changes to the attribution of subsidies to dairy farmers. Moreover, dairy farmers are in also facing an unprecedented situation on the markets with the soaring prices of agricultural raw materials: they sell their products at a higher price (milk, meat and cereals), but must also cope with the increasing prices of concentrates. In this paper1, we discuss cross effects, on the productive strategy of French dairy farms, of the Luxemburg Agreement and the prices variations. A model based on mathematical programming has been privileged to determine how dairy farmers might re-evaluate their systems to identify optimal production plan. While respecting the principle of agent rationality (maximization of profit), the model incorporates the economic risk related to the volatility of the inputs and outputs prices. Thus the model maximises the expected utility of the income while taking into account a set of constraints: regulatory, structural, zootechnical, agronomic and environmental. The model is applied to four types of dairy farms to cope with the diversity of production systems in the west of France (€ܧrazier€ݠtype, €ܳemi intensive€ݠtype, €ܭilk + cereals€ݠtype and €ܭilk + young bulls€ݠtype). The model is used to produce quantitative estimations and support reflection through the simulation of the setting up of the Single payment scheme. The sensitivity of the results is discussed by taking into account several options of prices for cereals and livestock products. These may have a strong influence on the structure of the diet and, therefore, on the level of intensification of the forage area. The results show that the implementation of the CAP reform encourages farmers to substitute a part of corn silage by grass in the diet. However, the rising price of agricultural production encourages, on the contrary, farmers to intensify their system in order to free up land for growing cereals. We also observe that a decrease of the young bulls fattening activity to develop cereal crops is also economically profitable.
    Keywords: dairy farm, single payment, price variation, Agricultural and Food Policy, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2008
  2. By: Rodriguez, E.; Lacaze, V.; Lupin, B.
    Abstract: Throughout these last years, organic agriculture has undergone a remarkable expansion due, among other things, to the greater interest shown by consumers aware of food safety concerns involving real or perceived quality risks [1]. This paper aims to estimate consumers€٠willingness to pay (WTP) for organic food products available in the Argentinean domestic market, with a view to providing some useful insights to gain support and outline strategies for promotion of organic production, marketing, regulation, and labelling programs of organic food products. A Binomial Multiple Logistic Regression model is estimated with data from a food consumption survey conducted in Buenos Aires city, Argentina, in April 2005. The Contingent Valuation Method was chosen in order to calculate their WTP for five organic selected products: Regular Milk, Leafy Vegetables, Whole Wheat Flour, Fresh Chicken and Aromatic Herbs. The empirical results reveal that consumers are willing to pay a premium for these products and that although prices play an important role, lack of store availability and of a reliable regulatory system to mitigate quality risks constraint consumption of organic products in this country.
    Keywords: Willingness-to-pay, Food attributes, Organics, Demand and Price Analysis,
    Date: 2008
  3. By: Sauer, Timm; Havlik, Petr; Schneider, Uwe A.; Kindermann, Georg; Obersteiner, Michael
    Abstract: Fertile land and fresh water constitute two of the most fundamental resources for food production. These resources are affected by environmental, political, economic, and technical developments. Regional impacts may transmit to the world through increased trade. With a global forest and agricultural sector model, we quantify the impacts of increased demand for food due to population growth and economic development on potential land and water use. In particular, we investigate producer adaptation regarding crop and irrigation choice, agricultural market adjustments, and changes in the values of land and water.
    Keywords: Irrigation, Food supply, Integrated assessment, Water use intensity, Agricultural adaptation, Land scarcity, Partial equilibrium model, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2008
  4. By: Helming, J.F.M.; Schrijver, R.A.M.
    Abstract: Part of the Health check of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union in 2008, will be a discussion of the linkage between direct payments to farmers and the contribution of agricultural production to social important values. The objective of this paper is to analyse the economic and environmental effects of extra region specific environmental measures and a redistribution of direct payments to the Dutch agricultural sector in 2020. In doing so a chain of models is used from the dairy farm level to the regional sector level in the Netherlands to the European sector level. From the dairy farm model it is found that the extra-environmental measures result in a decrease in the number of dairy cows per ha and a decrease in the gross margin per ha in the regions at hand. At maximum the gross margin decreases with about ‚̠1,300 per ha. This is the case on intensive types of dairy farms in the Nature2000 areas. Linking and aggregating these results to the regional sector level and using the sector model of the Netherlands it is found that income from dairy farming at sector level and national milk production decreases with about 6%. Emission of ammonia decreases with 11% and Nitrogen (N) surplus at soil level decreases with 22%. However, economic and environmental results can be very different per type of dairy farm and province.
    Keywords: economic models, model linking, policy, regions, dairy farming, environment and nature, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Livestock Production/Industries, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2008
  5. By: Acs, Szvetlana; Hanley, Nick; Dallimer, Martin; Gaston, Kevin J.; Robertson, Philip; Wilson, Paul; Armsworth, Paul R.
    Abstract: In many parts of Europe, decades of production subsidies led to the steady intensification of agriculture in marginal areas, but the recent decoupling of subsidies from production decisions means that the future of farming in these areas is uncertain. For example, in the uplands of the United Kingdom, an area important both for biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service provision, hill farmers steadily increased stocking densities in response to headage payments but must now reconfigure farm businesses to account for the shift to the Single Farm Payment scheme. We examined hill farming in the Peak District National Park as a case study into the future of marginal agriculture after decoupling. We surveyed 44 farm businesses and from this identified six representative farm types based on enterprise mix and land holdings. We developed linear programming models of production decisions for each farm type to examine the impacts of policy changes, comparing the effects of decoupling with and without agri-environment and hill farm support, and evaluating the effects of removal of the Single Farm Payment. The main effects of decoupling are to reduce stocking rates, and to change the mix of livestock activities. Agri-environmental schemes mediate the income losses from decoupling, and farmers are predicted to maximise take up of new Environmental Stewardship programmes, which have both positive and negative feedback effects on livestock numbers. Finally, removal of the Single Farm Payment would lead to negative net farm incomes, and some land abandonment. These changes have important implications for ongoing debates about how ecological service flows can be maintained from upland areas, and how marginal upland farming communities can be sust ained.
    Keywords: CAP reform; de-coupling; ecological-economic modelling; upland farming
    Date: 2008–09
  6. By: Dziemianowicz, Ryta Iwona; Przygodzka, Renata; Sadowski, Adam
    Abstract: The article makes an attempt to answer the question: how direct payments affected the land market in Poland? The first part of the article explains the theoretical aspects of direct payments as an instrument of agricultural policy and their prospective effectiveness. Also the special character of the solutions adopted by Poland in relation with the use of this instrument was shown. The second part presents the main problems of the land market in Poland, taking into account both the supply and the demand factors of this market. The third part concentrates on searching for the cause-effect relations between the direct subsidies and the changes in the land market in Poland. They suggest, among others, that the forecasts regarding the retaining of land in households have been confirmed in practice.
    Keywords: Direct Payments, Land Market, Agriculture Policy, Structure of Agriculture, Agricultural and Food Policy, Q10, Q15, Q18.,
    Date: 2008–11–12
  7. By: Gracia, Azucena; de Magistris, Tiziana; Casado, Jose Maria
    Abstract: The aim of the paper is to provide an econometric, dynamic, multi-product and partial equilibrium model for the Spanish agriculture able to analyse the effects of the SFP and subsequent reforms in both the irrigated and non-irrigated cultivation. In the case of the EU Mediterranean countries, irrigated agriculture is very relevant because farmers in irrigated land get higher productivity and returns. However, irrigation is also the source of a number of environmental concerns, such as over-abstraction of water from subterranean aquifers, irrigation driven erosion, soil salinisation, etc.. The new decoupling direct payments from production will reduce many of the incentives to intensive production. The developed model is called Spanish Econometric Simulation of Agricultural Policies (SESAP) and it is estimated using Eurotat data from 1983 to 2004 and solved using the GAMS software for the period 2005 to 2020. Simulation results indicate that irrigated area harvested for arable crops, less environmental friendly, is expected to decrease more than non-irrigated.
    Keywords: CAP reform, partial equilibrium model, policy modelling, irrigated Agriculture, simulation, Agricultural and Food Policy, Land Economics/Use, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2008
  8. By: Lehtonen, H.
    Abstract: Production linked supports are paid for agriculture in less favoured areas (LFA) in Finland in order to maintain agricultural production and farms. The CAP reform increased the importance of LFA payments and other payments which are still partly coupled to production. We evaluate if any significant environmental damage can be avoided without risking maintenance agricultural production in less favoured areas. We also evaluate the relative effectiveness of alternative policy measures to decrease nutrient surplus, promote biodiversity, and maintain production and farm income. The policy options evaluated are full decoupling, fertiliser tax, both combined and explicit payments for reduced nutrient surpluses. The impacts of the options are compared to the baseline assuming milk quota abolition and continuation of production linked CAP beef premia. Sector model results suggest that decoupling of certain degree would improve the effectiveness of targeted agri-environmental support measures, and in some cases considerable reduction in nutrient surplus is possible with relatively minor reduction in agricultural production and farm income. Fertiliser tax appears to be efficient especially when combined to decoupling while explicit payments on nutrient surpluses as well as full decoupling have some negative side-effects.
    Keywords: Agri-environmental policies, nutrient surplus, agricultural sector modelling, Environmental Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2008
  9. By: Rozakis, S.; Tsiboukas, K; Petsakos, A.
    Abstract: A mathematical programming model based on a countrywide sample of farms is used to assess the impacts of the new C.A.P on the supply of the cotton sector in Greece. Results show a decrease in cotton cultivated area along with the introduction of a new production system called €ܳemi-abandonment cotton€ݮ Farm income is practically unchanged, largely due to the decoupled payments. When these payments are not considered, farm income turns negative in some cases, thus leading towards abandonment of activities.
    Keywords: Cotton, C.A.P, decoupling, mathematical programming, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance,
    Date: 2008
  10. By: Ciaian, Pavel; Swinnen, Johan F.M.
    Abstract: This article analyses how credit market imperfections affect the impacts of subsidies by analyzing the effects of agricultural subsidies in the new Eastern Member States of the European Union with a partial equilibrium model which integrates credit and land market imperfections. We show that credit constraints have important implications for the distribution of policy rents. Credit market imperfections may induce very different effects of direct payments and lump-sum transfers.
    Keywords: agricultural policy, imperfect credit markets, land market, policy rents, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2008
  11. By: Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Leat, Philip
    Abstract: It is recognised that following the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) farmers may go through a period of transition where they evaluate the different production alternatives available to them according to their existing situation, expectations and preferences. Drawing on a survey of Scottish beef and sheep producers undertaken in mid-2006, the purpose of this paper is to analyse the preferences of producers in relation to a number of possible economic strategies for production adjustment following CAP reform. The results show that the nature of adjustment is still uncertain, reflected in the high numbers of farmers that do not know what strategy to follow or that will maintain the same production levels despite the reform. However, a sizable percentage of farmers indicate their intentions to concentrate on the production of high quality output.
    Keywords: Scottish agriculture, single farm payment, red meat producers., Agricultural and Food Policy, Q18.,
    Date: 2008–11–14
  12. By: Mouratiadou, Ioanna; Russell, Graham; Topp, Cairistiona; Louhichi, Kamel
    Abstract: The 2003 Common Agricultural Policy Reform aimed to promote the socio-economic and environmental sustainability of agricultural systems. An important question is how far the Reform has indeed encouraged farmers to contribute to achieving broad economic and environmental goals. The economic and water resource effects of the Reform have been explored for the case study area of the Lunan catchment, which is typical of Scottish arable cropping areas. Land use data analysis, bio-physical modelling and bio-economic modelling were used in combination to identify the effects of a range of scenarios. The results indicate only small changes in the cropping pattern and associated economic and water quality indicators as a result of the Reform, with the main changes in farmers' decision making being explained by crop price changes.
    Keywords: Common Agricultural Policy, bio-economic modelling, water, land use, Scotland., Agricultural and Food Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Q10, Q18, Q25.,
    Date: 2008–11–12
  13. By: Tabeau, Andrzej; Van Leeuwen, Myrna
    Abstract: Since 2000, the two important reforms of The EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) took place. The Agenda 2000 Berlin Agreement of March 1999 aimed to increase EU agriculture market orientation and focuses on the grain, oilseed, dairy and the beef sectors. It reduced intervention prices in these sectors and lowered the set-aside requirements for crops and by implementation of non-crop specific compensatory payments. The core of The Luxembourg Agreement from June 2003 was an acceleration of decoupling of farm support initiated by the Agenda 2000 complementary payment. It introduces a system of direct payments (known as single payment scheme - SPS), which are no longer linked to the production (decoupling). This CAP reform also includes commodityspecific measures, especially in dairy sector. The Luxemburg Agreement links the direct payments to farmers with farm management practices which maintain environmental and other requirements set at EU and national levels (€؃ross-compliance€٩. The goal of this paper is twofold. First, we investigate the impact of the CAP reform on the Dutch agricultural sector in 2004 €Ӡ2007; second we examine effects of possible future CAP reform decision on the Dutch agriculture till 2020. The study is based on the AGMEMOD econometric model developed within the framework of projects financed by the European Commission. It reflects a sectoral, dynamic, partial equilibrium model, which takes into account the national specificities and is built up of models for the Member States of the EU27. The foundation for AGMEMOD is laid in the establishment of country model templates, which must achieve compatibility of the models to be built and the communality of data. The most important differences between the national models are macroeconomic assumptions, components of policies under the CAP and SAPS (in respect with the new Member States) and assumptions on the impact of direct payments on agricultural production (degree of decoupling). On the country level, commodity templates must encapsulate the modeling system to be used. Many components of these templates are based on the information and guidelines delivered by Hanrahan (2001), but then adapted to country-specific conditions. At least, they must contain issues on market and policy description, flow charts, key market and specification of the functional forms of the commodity model. The AGMEMOD model covers all important CAP commodities: grains, oilseeds, potatoes, sugar and sugar beets, livestock products, milk and dairy products. We will investigate the CAP impact on the Dutch agriculture by mean of policy simulations with the Dutch AGMEMOD model. To isolate policy effect in the historical period 2000 - 2007, counterfactual simulations for 2000 - 2007 will be run. To simulate the response of the Dutch agriculture on different policy changes in 2008 - 2020, the no-policy change baseline scenario will be developed and several policy experiments will be conducted: milk quota abolition, biofuel directive implementation and animal premiums decoupling. To indentify the policy effects the policy scenarios will be compared with the baseline.
    Keywords: CAP, CAP Reform, Dutch agriculture, Agricultural and Food Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Q10, Q18,
    Date: 2008–11–13
  14. By: Kiresur, V.R.; Melinamani, V.P.
    Abstract: Nearly 72 per cent of India€ٳ population and 75 per cent of the country€ٳ poor are in rural areas. A large chunk of the Indian population still depends on agriculture for its livelihood. The level of agricultural research investment has serious implications on agricultural productivity in India which, in turn, has a bearing on rural poverty. The present study attempts to analyse the inter-linkages amongst agricultural research investment, agricultural productivity and poverty at the national level. The results revealed that rural poverty was significantly and negatively influenced by the agricultural productivity at macro level. Agricultural research investment per ha and gross cropped area influenced the productivity of agricultural sector in the country positively and significantly. Therefore, the agricultural research investment in India, which accounts for less than one per cent of the GDP in agriculture, should be increased at least to one per cent if not to two per cent, as demanded by the R&D organisations in the country from time to time. Owing to positive relationship between gross cropped area and GDP in agriculture per ha, efforts should be directed towards increasing the cropping intensity mainly through crop diversification and creating irrigation infrastructure. Low agricultural productivity is the root cause of rural poverty. Hence, an effective poverty alleviation programme should aim at increasing agricultural productivity in the long run through transfer of productive assets instead of consumer goods to the farmers.
    Keywords: research investment, productivity, poverty, Productivity Analysis, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies,
    Date: 2008
  15. By: Hubert, Marie-Helene; Chakravorty, Ujjayant; van Kooten, G. Cornelis
    Abstract: In the context of ever-increasing petroleum prices combined with concerns about climate change, timing of adoption and rate of diffusion of land-based fuels and backstop technologies for transportation use are examined in this paper. A global model of land allocation joined with a Hotelling model has been developed. Using this framework, effects of climate and energy policies on world agricultural and energy markets have been explored. Further, their regional impacts are also analyzed. Whereas mandatory blending bio-fuels have substantial effects on world food prices and do not succeed in curbing down carbon emissions fluxes, carbon targets are expected to speed up date of adoption of backstop technologies. Then, sensitivity scenarios with regards to technological parameters reveal that higher is the rate of technological change, earlier backstop technologies are adopted and lower is the stock of carbon accumulated into the atmosphere. Finally, interplay between land-based fuels and deforestation has been studied. Results show that land-based fuels production speeds up world deforestation and causes substantial carbon emissions due to conversion of forests into agricultural lands.
    Keywords: Ricardian rents, land use, biofuels, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
    Date: 2008
  16. By: Tomasz, Siudek
    Abstract: In Poland, farmers rely primarily on cooperative banks for agricultural credit. Therefore, the paper attempt is to examine the impact of agricultural credits disbursed by the cooperative banks on regional development of agricultural sector in Poland over 1997- 2006. Sources of data include financial statements of the banks (1373 observations) providing credit-related information and sectoral background data for agriculture from Central Statistical Office of Poland. The levels of agricultural development were assessed using a nation-level and regional-level composite indicators constructed by the author by the use of factor analysis. Additionally, one-factor ANOVA, Pearson correlations and linear regression were applied. There was found, that the most prosperous agricultural regions include wielkopolskie, zachodniopomorskie and warminsko-mazurskie, the least prosperous malopolskie, podkarpackie, slaskie and swietokrzyskie voivodships. Results of econometric analysis suggest also that region of bank€ٳ activity has statistically significant impact both on agricultural credit and agricultural development levels. In Poland as a whole, farm credits provided by cooperative banks stimulate development of agriculture but only in two of sixteen regions (voivodships) their impact was positive and statistically significant. The average farm size and agricultural employment were found to be strongest in influencing agricultural development.
    Keywords: cooperative banks, agriculture, regional development, Agricultural Finance,
    Date: 2008
  17. By: Gomez-Limon, Jose A.; Riesgo, Laura
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to carry out a comparative analysis of alternative methods on constructing composite indicators to measure global sustainability of the agricultural sector. This comparison is implemented empirically on the irrigated agriculture of the Duero basin (Spain) as a case study. For this purpose, this research uses a dataset of indicators previously calculated for different farm-types and policy scenarios. The results allow to establish a hierarchy of the policy scenarios on the basis of the level of sustainability achieved. Furthermore, analyzing the heterogeneity of different farms-types in each scenario, is also possible to determine the main features of the most sustainable farms in each case. All this information is useful in order to support agricultural policy design and its implementation, trying to increase the sustainability of this sector.
    Keywords: Sustainability, Composite Indicators, Irrigated agriculture, Scenarios, Agricultural policy, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2008
  18. By: Herzfeld, T.; Drescher, L.S.; Grebitus, C.
    Abstract: Privately initiated food quality standards are currently important elements in the marketing of food and agricultural products. At the same time, they stand in the centre of a discussion about potential negative effects on small farmers and farmers in developing countries. This study aims at analysing the adoption of two private food standards, BRC Technical Food Standard and GlobalGAP, at an aggregated cross-country level. The results of the econometric analysis reveal some (potential) barriers for developing countries to access this type of organisational innovation. Certificates seem to be issued more probably in larger and wealthier countries, countries with a better institutional quality, better infrastructural conditions and in former UK colonies.
    Keywords: standards, food quality, adoption, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety,
    Date: 2008
  19. By: Helin, Janne
    Abstract: Agricultural primary production is extensively influenced by policies and regulation. On the level of European Union the common agricultural policy (CAP), frames the production environment. This study analyses the conflict of environmental and income policies in the context of CAP reform, eutrophication, the Water Framework Directive and Finnish policies. As targets of the policies do not coincide and often conflict, the environmental problems of farming have not been solved in the past decades. The comparative analysis is conducted quantitatively under static non-linear optimisation framework of representative farms of cereal and milk production regions of Finland. The results indicate that the decoupling of subsidies from production has enabled more efficient abatement policy. The current policies are still far away from the first best abatement solution. According to the results, main policy failures lie in uniform instruments, which even on a national level ignore the heterogeneous farm structures and environmental conditions. Instead of providing tailored instruments for nutrient load problems, the reform of Finnish agri-environmental subsidy scheme fails to respond to growth trends of nutrient loads on animal intensive regions.
    Keywords: nutrient, abatement cost, non-point source pollution, agriculture, CAP, Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2008
  20. By: Arnoult, M.H.; Jones, P.J.; Tranter, R.B.; Tiffin, R.; Traill, W.B.
    Abstract: Household food consumption data is used to estimate likely changes in diet under healthy eating guidelines, and the consequences this would have on the agricultural sector in England and Wales. The first step entails imposing nutrient restrictions on food consumption following dietary recommendations. The resulting diet is then used as a proxy for demand in agricultural commodities, to test the impact of such a scenario on agricultural land use and production. Results of the diet optimisation indicate a severe drop in foods rich in saturated fats and sugar, essentially cheese and sugar-based products, along with lesser cuts in fat and meat products Conversely, consumption of fruit & vegetables, cereals, and flour would increase to meet dietary fibre recommendations. Such a shift in demand would dramatically affect production patterns: the margin of England and Wales agriculture would rise, due to increased production of high market value and high margin crops. Some regions would however be negatively affected, mostly those regions dependent on beef and sheep production that could not benefit from an increased demand for cereals. The effects of these changes would also be felt in upstream industries such as feed suppliers.
    Keywords: Dietary guidelines, land use, agricultural production, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2008
  21. By: Bryden, John; Arandia, Amaia; Johnson, Tom
    Abstract: The TOP-MARD project is a 3-year, 11 country, project supported by the EU€ٳ Framework 6 Programme for Research and Technology Development1. The aim of the research project was to build a policy model of multifunctional agriculture and rural development which would link the multiple functions of agriculture with the development and quality of life of rural regions, and explore the influence of different policies on rural development outcomes. In order to deal with both market and non-market outputs, and to explore dynamics over time, a systems modelling approach was adopted.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2008
  22. By: Toth, Aniko; Forgacs, Csaba
    Keywords: Marketing,
    Date: 2008
  23. By: Peerlings, Jack; Polman, Nico
    Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to analyse land allocation between competing agri-environmental contracts taking into account institutional issues and farm household and farm characteristics. We consider a Biodiversity Protection Contract, Landscape Management Contract and a Restriction on Intensive Practises Contract. The paper shows that it is important to study the choice for an agrienvironmental contract in combination with the choice for other agri-environmental contracts. The reasons being that a unit of land can only be allocated to one contract (although a farm can select more than one contract) and perceived relative marginal costs of contracts can change if institutional settings and farm household and farm characteristics alter. The model uses a two stage method. In the first step the probability of contract choice is determined. In the second stage these probabilities are linked to ex ante costs (including transaction costs) and optimal contract choice is determined.
    Keywords: Agri-environmental contracts, transaction costs, contract choice, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2008

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