New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2008‒05‒31
five papers chosen by

  1. Food Supply in Java during War and Decolonisation, 1940-1950 By van der Eng, Pierre
  2. A Consistent Measure of Real Poverty: A Reply to Ravallion By Thomas Pogge
  3. Food Stamps, Unemployment Insurance, and the Safety Net By Daniel G. Schroeder
  4. The Cost Effectiveness of Environmental Policy Instruments in the Presence of Imperfect Compliance By Sandra Rousseau; Stef Proost
  5. Economic Growth, inequality and environment quality: An empirical analysis applied to developing and transition countries By Matthieu CLEMENT (GREThA-GRES); André MEUNIE (GREThA-GRES)

  1. By: van der Eng, Pierre
    Abstract: It is readily assumed that the average level of living in Indonesia deteriorated during the hectic period 1940-1950. Much of the evidence on economic change during this period is anecdotal. It is difficult to distil a general impression from it. Per capita food consumption is an important indicator of the average standard of living. For that reason this paper monitors the changes in food production, distribution and supply in the densely populated core island of Java in Indonesia. Food supply was adequate in Indonesia when the Japanese attack on the country started in 1941. During 1944-1948 per capita food supply was at a very low level in Java. In the years 1943-1945 the low level was caused by the restrictions imposed by the Japanese authorities on the domestic trade of food products, and by the coercive system of purchasing rice for distribution. Both created disincentives for farmers to produce a food surplus. Similar reasons explain the situation during the years 1946-1948. Moreover, the controversy between the returning colonial government and the government of the nationalist Republic of Indonesia impeded free shipments of food between the food deficient urban areas and the food producing rural areas. Food supply recovered during 1948-1950, with the economic re-integration of most of Indonesia.
    Keywords: Food supply; Java; Indonesia; war; decolonisation
    JEL: N55 N35 Q18
    Date: 2008–05
  2. By: Thomas Pogge (Australian National University)
    Abstract: In 1961, the United States Department of Agriculture published an Economy Food Plan carefully designed ?as a nutritionally adequate diet for short-term or emergency use? for poor people. This diet was updated and later re-branded as the Thrifty Food Plan. The lowest cost stated for this minimal diet was $80.40 per person per month in 1999. (...)
    Keywords: A Consistent Measure of Real Poverty: A Reply to Ravallion
    Date: 2008–05
  3. By: Daniel G. Schroeder
    Abstract: Food Stamps (FS) and cash assistance were reformed in 1996 and later to emphasize work as a route out of poverty. When employment opportunities were plentiful, as they were during the late 1990s, many families were able to transition off program rolls and into jobs. However, when the employment situation reversed starting in 2000, social supports were needed. This study attempts to determine whether Unemployment Insurance (UI) was a significant source of support for these families, as might be expected because many former welfare recipients should have developed work histories that would have made them eligible for UI benefits. In particular, the study asks whether UI was able to replace or complement food stamps for unemployed, welfare-eligible families.
    Keywords: food stamp, welfare, unemployment insurance
    Date: 2007–05
  4. By: Sandra Rousseau; Stef Proost
    Abstract: We aim to integrate information, monitoring and enforcement costs into the choice of environmental policy instruments. We use a static partial equilibrium framework to study different combinations of regulatory instruments (taxes, standards…) and enforcement instruments (criminal fine, administrative fine…). The firms’ compliance decisions depend on the instrument combination selected by the government. The model is used to compare the welfare effects of different instrument combinations for the textile industry in Flanders. We find that administrative, implementation, enforcement and monitoring costs are important to decide on the necessity of an environmental policy. Moreover, we show that emission taxes are not necessarily the most cost-effective instrument. This result holds even if we include industry heterogeneity. The decision of whether to pursue an environmental policy or not depends crucially on the formulation of an appropriate monitoring and enforcement policy.
    Keywords: K32 Environmental Law, K42 Illegal behaviour and enforcement of law, Q28 Government policy
    Date: 2008–03
    Abstract: This article aims at examining the relationship between social inequalities and pollution. On the one hand, it proposes a survey which shows that from a theoretical point of view, a decrease in inequality has an undetermined effect on environment. On the other hand, on the basis of these theoretical considerations, we propose an econometric analysis based on panel data for developing and transition countries during the period 1988-2003. More precisely, we examine the effect of income inequalities on the degree of local pollution (sulphur dioxide emissions and organic water pollution) by integrating Gini index in the formulation of environmental Kuznets curve. Then, two effects may be tested: (i) a direct effect of inequalities on pollution; (ii) an indirect effect by which the degree of inequality influence pollution by his negative impact on political freedoms.
    Keywords: pollution; inequality; environmental Kuznets curve; panel data
    JEL: C23 Q01 Q53 Q5
    Date: 2008

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