nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2008‒01‒19
eleven papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. Can China continue feeding itself ? the impact of climate change on agriculture By Zhang, Lijuan; Rozelle, Scott; Huang, Jikun; Dinar, Ariel; Mendelsohn, Robert; Wang, Jinxia
  2. Distortions to agricultural incentives in Australia since world war II By MacLaren, Donald; Lloyd, Peter; Anderson, Kym
  3. A province-level analysis of economies of scale in Canadian food processing By Gervais, J.P.; Bonroy, O.; Couture, S.
  4. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam By Katleen Van den Broeck; Carol Newman; Finn Tarp
  5. The value of Sainsbury's sales data in assessing the impact of self-service methods on food retailing in postwar Britain By Bridget Williams
  6. Understanding the determinants of consumersf willingness to pay for eco-labeled products: An empirical analysis of the China Environmental Label By Junyi Shen
  7. Supermarkets, Smallholders and Livelihoods Prospects in Selected Asian Countries By Ganesh Thapa
  8. A Framework for Analyzing Tariffs and Subsidies in Water Provision to Urban Households in Developing Countries By David le Blanc
  9. Human capital, externalities and tourism: three unexplored sides of the impact of FT affiliation on primary producers By BECCHETTI LEONARDO; COSTANTINO MARCO; PORTALE ELISA
  10. The Chicken, the Factory Farm and the Supermarket: the Emergence of the Modern Poultry Industry in Britain By Andrew Godley; Bridget Williams
  11. Democratizing Luxury and the Contentious 'Invention of the Technological Chicken' in Britain By Andrew Godley

  1. By: Zhang, Lijuan; Rozelle, Scott; Huang, Jikun; Dinar, Ariel; Mendelsohn, Robert; Wang, Jinxia
    Abstract: Several studies addressing the supply and demand for food in China suggest that the nation can largely meet its needs in the coming decades. However, these studies do not consider the effects of climate change. This paper examines whether near future expected changes in climate are likely to alter this picture. The authors analyze the effect of temperature and precipitation on net crop revenues using a cross section consisting of both rainfed and irrigated farms. Based on survey data from 8,405 households across 28 provinces, the results of th e Ricardian analysis demonstrate that global warming is likely to be harmful to China but the impacts are likely to be very different in each region. The mid latitude region of China may benefit from warming but the southern and northern regions are likely to be damaged by warming. More precipitation is beneficial to Chinese farmers except in the wet southeast. Irrigated and rainfed farmers have similar responses to precipitation but not to temperature. Warmer temperatures may benefit irrigated farms but they are likely to harm rainfed farms. Finally, seasonal effects vary and are offsetting. Although we were able to measure the direct effect of precipitation and temperature, we could not capture the effects of change in water flow which will be very important in China. Can China continue feeding itself if climate changes? Based on the empirical results, the likely gains realized by some farmers will nearly offset the losses that will occur to other farmers in China. If future climate scenarios lead to significant reductions in water, there may be large damages not addressed in this study.
    Keywords: Climate Change,Crops & Crop Management Systems,Global Environment Facility,Common Property Resource Development,Rural Development Knowledge & Information Systems
    Date: 2008–01–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4470&r=agr
  2. By: MacLaren, Donald; Lloyd, Peter; Anderson, Kym
    Abstract: Australia ' s lackluster economic growth performance in the first four decades following W orld War II was in part due to an anti-trade, anti-primary sector bias in government assistance policies. This paper provides new annual estimates of the extent of those biases since 1946 and their gradual phase-out during the past two decades. In doing so it reveals that the timing of the sector assistance cuts was such as sometimes to improve but sometimes to worsen the distortions to incentives faced by farmers. The changes increased the variation of assistance rates within agriculture during the 1950s and 1960s, reducing the welfare contribution of those programs in that period. Although the assistance pattern within agriculture appears not to have been strongly biased against exporters, its reform has coincided with a substantial increase in the export orientation of many farm industries. The overall pattern for Australia is contrasted with that revealed by comparable new estimates for other high-income countries.
    Keywords: Economic Theory & Research,Rural Development Knowledge & Information Systems,Emerging Markets,Banks & Banking Reform,Labor Policies
    Date: 2008–01–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4471&r=agr
  3. By: Gervais, J.P.; Bonroy, O.; Couture, S.
    Abstract: Cost functions of three Canadian food processing sectors (meat, bakery and dairy) are estimated using provincial data. A translog functional form is used and the concavity property of the cost function is imposed locally. The Morishima substitution elasticities and scale elasticities are computed for different provinces. Inference is carried out using asymptotic theory as well as bootstrap methods. The evidence suggests that there are significant substitution possibilities between the agricultural input and other production factors in the meat and bakerysectors. Scale elasticities suggest that increasing returns to scale are present in bakery and meat industries. To account for supply management in the dairy sector, separability between raw milk and other inputs was introduced. There exists evidence of increasing returns to scale at the industry level in the small producing provinces, but decreasing returns to scale in the two largest dairy provinces (Ontario and Quebec).
    Keywords: TRANSLOG COST FUNCTION;FOOD PROCESSING INDUSTRY;RETURNS TO SCALE;DOUBLE BOOTSTAP
    JEL: D24 C30
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:gbl:wpaper:200710&r=agr
  4. By: Katleen Van den Broeck (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen); Carol Newman (Department of Economics, Trinity College Dublin); Finn Tarp (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: In most of the empirical literature on land titling, the household is regarded as unitary, and land rights are found to have ambiguous effects on land allocation, investment and productivity. Using data from 12 provinces in Vietnam, we diversify land titles, and show in a household fixed effects analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights are inefficiency decreasing, while jointly held user rights have no efficiency effects. Finally, once the gender of the head of household is controlled for, exclusively held female titles have a greater positive effect on the efficiency of the household than that of male held titles.
    JEL: D13 O12 Q12
    Date: 2007–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:tcd:tcduee:tep1207&r=agr
  5. By: Bridget Williams
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rdg:wpaper:em-dp2007-49&r=agr
  6. By: Junyi Shen (OSIPP,Osaka University)
    Abstract: This study applies data from a web-based survey conducted in mainland China to examine the determinants of consumersf willingness to pay (WTP) for seven different product categories awarded with China Environmental Label and compare the mean WTP estimates among these categories. The Interval Regression method is used for estimation. The results indicate that Chinese consumers who regard environmental conservation as being more important than life convenience, who believe purchasing the eco-labeled products is good for the environment, and who have the experience in purchasing eco-labeled products are willing to pay more for those products with environmental label or eco-label. In addition, socio-demographic characteristics such as gender, age, education and household income are found to be important factors to affect Chinese consumersf WTP amounts. Finally, the results of pair-wise comparison among the mean WTP estimates of various eco-labeled products indicate that most of them are different, which implies that the degrees of Chinese consumersf willingness to pay extra money for China Environmental Label are different based on the types of products.
    Keywords: China Environmental Label, Eco-labeled products, Interval regression, Payment card, Willingness to pay
    JEL: D12 Q28 Q51
    Date: 2008–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:osp:wpaper:08e001&r=agr
  7. By: Ganesh Thapa
    Abstract: Recent literature has drawn attention to the speedy rise of supermarkets in different regions of the developing world and forecast their rapid spread. The emergence of supermarkets has transformed agri-food markets, but at different rates and to a different extent across regions and countries. This transformation is a challenge for smallholders. While the risk of their exclusion is real, it is argued that there are opportunities as well. Indeed, contrary to assertions, the demise of smallholders as a consequence of the growth of supermarkets and dramatic changes in the food supply chain is neither likely nor unavoidable.
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pas:asarcc:2007-12&r=agr
  8. By: David le Blanc
    Abstract: This paper aims to present a basic conceptual framework for understanding the main practical issues and challenges relating to tariffs and subsidies in the water sector in developing countries. The paper introduces the basic economic notions relevant to the water sector; presents an analytical framework for assessing the need for and evaluating subsidies; and discusses the recent evidence on the features and performance of water tariffs and subsidies in various regions, with a special focus on Africa. The discussion is limited to the provision of drinking water to urban households in developing countries.
    Keywords: water, access to water, tariffs, subsidies, urban development
    JEL: D42 D61 H71 L95
    Date: 2008–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:une:wpaper:63&r=agr
  9. By: BECCHETTI LEONARDO; COSTANTINO MARCO; PORTALE ELISA
    Abstract: We evaluate the impact of fair trade (FT) affiliation on a sample of around 250 producers from two different fair trade projects which widely differ in terms of average FT affiliation and local standard of living. On the descriptive side we find evidence of two types of externalities (FT affiliates have higher bargaining power also with local intermediaries and, in one project but not in the other, FT improves conditions also of local non FT affiliates). The FT price premium (difference between FT and traditional importers price) is substantial even though “ethical travelers” pay a price even higher than FT importers. On the econometric side we observe that, in both projects, producers’ income, weekly food consumption expenditure, the non food consumption share on total income, self evaluated relative standard of living and professional self esteem are significantly and positively correlated with affiliation years. Through its impact on consumption share and relative standard of living fair trade is also shown to have indirect significant effects on producers’ life satisfaction. We also find weaker but significant effects of fair trade affiliation on last year savings, while we do not observe significant differences between the treatment and control sample in terms of wealth proxies. Finally, with backast panel data we reconstruct farmers yearly decisions to send their children to school and find that FT affiliation has a significant and positive effect on them when children are between 15 and 18. The effect is stronger in the project in which producers have higher standard of living.
    Date: 2007–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rtv:ceiswp:262&r=agr
  10. By: Andrew Godley (Department of Management, University of Reading); Bridget Williams
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rdg:wpaper:em-dp2007-50&r=agr
  11. By: Andrew Godley (Department of Management, University of Reading)
    Abstract: In 1950 poultry was a rare luxury in Britain, only one per cent of the total meat consumption. But over the next thirty years chicken consumption grew at the remarkable (compound) rate of 10 per cent per annum, while the overall consumption of meat remained stagnant from the 1950s to the 1980s. By then poultry had become the single most important source of meat, with a quarter of the total share of the market, replacing former favourites like beef, mutton and bacon in the British diet. This transformation was made possible by the emergence of intensive rearing in poultry farming. This was a dramatic change in production, dependent on technological innovations across several otherwise unrelated sectors: in pharmaceuticals and feedstuffs production, in refrigeration, slaughtering and packaging. The widespread distribution of cheap chicken led to its mass adoption throughout the country. But such a transformation in meat eating habits was not without its controversies. Contemporary concerns emerged from the late 1950s over the possible long term dangers to human health from the technological transformation inherent in intensive rearing regimes. The paper emphasises that it was the leading retailers, in particular J. Sainsbury, who acted as a key intermediary in this contested market, reconciling consumer uncertainty by attaching their own reputation to product quality, and then furthermore by intervening in the quality standards employed in its supply chain.
    Date: 2007–12
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:rdg:wpaper:em-dp2007-54&r=agr

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