New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2007‒12‒19
five papers chosen by

  1. Agricultural Sector and Competition in Colombia By Ricardo Arguello; María Clara Lozano
  2. The Downside of Domestic Substitution of Oil with Biofuels: Will Brazil Catch the Dutch Disease? By James A. Giesecke; J. Mark Horridge; José A. Scaramucci
  3. Assessing the functioning of land rental markets in Ethiopia By Alemu, Tekie; Ali, Daniel Ayalew; Deininger, Klaus
  4. Upgrading in Agricultural Value Chains: The Case of Small Producers in Honduras By Ingrid Fromm
  5. Scaling Up Malaria Control in Africa: An Economic and Epidemiological Assessment By Awash Teklehaimanot; Gordon C. McCord; Jeffrey D. Sachs

  1. By: Ricardo Arguello; María Clara Lozano
    Abstract: In this chapter we provide a summary description of Colombian Competition Policy with an emphasis on the agricultural sector. Key developments and recent changes in institutional arrangements affecting competition policy, as it applies to the agricultural sector, are highlighted. Illustrative case studies are depicted to show the richness and complexity of policy developments and enforcement. Some general conclusions are drawn from this examination.
    Date: 2007–11–26
  2. By: James A. Giesecke; J. Mark Horridge; José A. Scaramucci
    Abstract: In response to oil price rises and carbon emission concerns, policies promoting increased ethanol usage in gasoline blends are being implemented by many countries, including major energy users such as USA, EU and Japan. As a result, Brazil, as the largest ethanol producer and exporter in the world, can expect growing foreign demand for ethanol exports. Also, the introduction of flex-fuel vehicles in Brazil is causing domestic sales of ethanol to increase steadily. In this paper, we investigate the regional and industrial economic consequences of rapid growth in Brazilian ethanol consumption and exports. For this, we use a disaggregated multi-regional computable general equilibrium (CGE) model with energy industry detail. Our modelling emphasises a number of features of ethanol production in Brazil which we expect to be important in determining the adjustment of its regional economies to a substantial expansion in ethanol production. These include regional differences in ethanol and sugar production technologies, sugarcane harvesting methods and the elasticity of land supply to sugarcane production.
    Keywords: CGE models, energy, ethanol, Brazil
    JEL: D58 Q13 Q42 R11 R49
    Date: 2007–12
  3. By: Alemu, Tekie; Ali, Daniel Ayalew; Deininger, Klaus
    Abstract: Although a large theoretical literature discusses the possible inefficiency of sharecropping contracts, the empirical evidence on this phenomenon has been ambiguous at best. Household-level fixed-effect estimates from about 8,500 plots operated by households that own and sharecrop land in the Ethiopian highlands provide support for the hypothesis of Marshallian inefficiency. At the same time, a factor adjustment model suggests that the extent to which rental markets allow households to attain their desired operational holding size is extremely limited. Our analysis points towards factor market imperfections (no rental for oxen), lack of alternative employment opportunities, and tenure insecurity as possible reasons underlying such behavior, suggesting that, rather than worrying almost exclusively about Marshallian inefficiency, it is equally warranted to give due attention to the policy framework within which land rental markets operate.
    Keywords: Rural Land Policies for Poverty Reduction,Land Use and Policies,Labor Policies,Municipal Housing and Land,Economic Theory & Research
    Date: 2007–12–01
  4. By: Ingrid Fromm (the Small Enterprise Promotion and Training Program, University of Leipzig)
    Abstract: Local producers, in their interaction with local processors or exporters and international retailers have the possibility to acquire new skills and knowledge. The type of trust relationship and coordination pattern can determine how information flows and how firms upgrade. In addition, the implementation and compliance with standards provides opportunities for learning and acquiring skills and knowledge. Focusing on this kind of interactions, the study explains how local producers in Honduras engage in upgrading and whether this had an impact on the sales of those firms. The majority of the producers in the sample upgraded their products and internal processes. A limited number of producers engaged in functional upgrading. Most of the producers were aware of the important role of standards. They affirmed that in the process of implementing and complying with standards, they have gained new knowledge and were convinced that they succeeded in securing at better position in the value chain.
    Keywords: Coordination, governance, standards, upgrading, value chain analysis, Honduras
    Date: 2007–12
  5. By: Awash Teklehaimanot; Gordon C. McCord; Jeffrey D. Sachs
    Abstract: This paper estimates the number of people at risk of contracting malaria in Africa using GIS methods and the disease's epidemiologic characteristics. It then estimates yearly costs of covering the population at risk with the package of interventions (differing by level of malaria endemicity and differing for rural and urban populations) for malaria as recommended by the UN Millennium Project. These projected costs are calculated assuming a ramp-up of coverage to full coverage by 2008, and then projected out through 2015 to give a year-by-year cost of meeting the Millennium Development Goal for reducing the burden of malaria by 75% We conclude that the cost of comprehensive malaria control for Africa is US$3.0 billion per year on average, or around US$4.02 per African at risk.
    JEL: I18
    Date: 2007–11

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