nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2007‒09‒09
twenty papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
University of Verona

  1. Rural Development and Poverty Reduction; Is Agriculture Still the Key? By Gustavo Anríquez; Kostas Stamoulis
  2. The economic impact of climate change on Kenyan crop agriculture : a ricardian approach By Karanja, Fredrick K; Kabubo-Mariara, Jane
  3. Seasonal Migration and Agriculture in Vietnam By Alan De Brauw
  4. Long-Term Farming Trends. An Inquiry Using Agricultural Censuses By Gustavo Anríquez; Genny Bonomi
  5. An Assessment of the Impact of Wheat Market Liberalization in Egypt; A Multi-Market Model Approach By Gamal M. Siam; André Croppenstedt
  6. An Assessment of the Impact of Rice Tariff Policy in Indonesia; A Multi-Market Model Approach By Bambang Sayaka; Sumaryanto; André Croppenstedt; Stefania DiGiuseppe
  7. Rural Income Generating Activities; A Cross Country Comparison By Benjamin Davis; Paul Winters; Gero Carletto; Katia Covarrubias; Esteban Quinones; Alberto Zezza; Kostas Stamoulis; Genny Bonomi; Stefania DiGiuseppe
  8. The Application of Robust Regression to a Production Function Comparison – the Example of Swiss Corn By Finger, Robert; Hediger, Werner
  9. Understanding the Dynamics of Food Insecurity and Vulnerability in Himachal Pradesh By Christian Romer Lovendal
  10. Rural Household Access to Assets and Agrarian Institutions; A Cross Country Comparison By Alberto Zezza; Paul Winters; Benjamin Davis; Gero Carletto; Katia Covarrubias; Esteban Quinones; Kostas Stamoulis; Takis Karfakis; Luca Tasciotti; Stefania DiGiuseppe; Genny Bonomi
  11. Does Migration Make Rural Households More Productive? Evidence from Mexico By J. Edward Taylor; Alejandro López-Feldman
  12. Non-Traditional Exports, Traditional Constraints; the Adoption and Diffusion of Cash Crops among Smallholders in Guatemala By Calogero Carletto; Angeli Kirk; Paul Winters; Benjamin Davis
  13. European Community--Sugar : cross-subsidization and the World Trade Organization By Howse, Robert; Hoekman, Bernard
  14. Governance and Rural Public Expenditures in Latin America. The Impact on Rural Development. By Gustavo Anríquez
  15. An Environmental Input-Output Model for Ireland By Joe O'Doherty; Richard S.J Tol
  16. Addressing Food Insecurity in Fragile States; Case Studies from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Somalia and Sudan By Luca Alinovi; Günter Hemrich; Luca Russo
  17. Canada-Wheat : discrimination, non-commercial considerations, and state trading enterprises By Trachtman, Joel; Hoekman, Bernard
  18. Rural roads and poor area development in Vietnam By van de Walle, Dominique; Mu, Ren
  19. How responsive is body weight to transitory income changes? Evidence from rural Tanzania By Bengtsson, Niklas
  20. Action, Function, & Structure; Interpreting Network Effects on Behavior in Rural Malawi By Guy Stecklov; Alejandro Alexander Weinreb

  1. By: Gustavo Anríquez (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Kostas Stamoulis (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between rurality and poverty, and the role the agricultural sector can play in rural development, poverty reduction, and overall development. The historical views regarding the role of the primary sector in development are presented, and then using original data, the paper argues that there was an historical misjudgment against the primary sector that served as a foundation for anti-agricultural bias in public policy until the late 80’s. Finally, this paper explains how under certain conditions territorial/regional development strategies may prosper, but in other conditions, particularly in the least-developed countries rural space, agriculture is still necessarily the starting point for rural development.
    Keywords: rural development, agricultural growth, poverty reduction, production linkages.
    JEL: Q10 O10 O13
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fao:wpaper:0702&r=agr
  2. By: Karanja, Fredrick K; Kabubo-Mariara, Jane
    Abstract: This paper measures the economic impact of climate on crops in Kenya. The analysis is based on cross-sectional climate, hydrological, soil, and household level data for a sample of 816 households, and uses a seasonal Ricardian model. Estimated marginal impacts of climate variables suggest that global warming is harmful for agricultural productivity and that changes in temperature are much more important than changes in precipitation. This result is confirmed by the predicted impact of various climate change scenarios on agriculture. The results further confirm that the te mperature component of global warming is much more important than precipitation. The authors analyze farmers ' perceptions of climate variations and their adaptation to these, and also constraints on adaptation mechanisms. The results suggest that farmers in Kenya are aware of short-term climate change, that most of them have noticed an increase in temperatures, and that some have taken adaptive measures.
    Keywords: Climate Change,Environmental Economics & Policies,Common Property Resource Development,Global Environment Facility,Crops & Crop Management Systems
    Date: 2007–08–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4334&r=agr
  3. By: Alan De Brauw (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: In developing countries, when markets are incomplete migration can have multiple effects on agricultural production. In this paper, I use instrumental variables techniques to explore the effects of seasonal migration on agricultural production in rural Vietnam during the 1990s. Instrumenting migration with network variables specific to Vietnam, I find that migration shapes agricultural production is several ways. Although there are no effects of migration on aggregate production, there is weak evidence that migrant households move somewhat out of rice production and into the production of other crops. Inputs used by migrant households also decrease relative to similar non-migrant households. In exploring the mechanisms by which these changes occur, I find evidence consistent with a move from labor intensive into land intensive crops, rather than productivity changes or a shift from using labor to capital as an input.
    Keywords: Migration, Vietnam, instrumental variables, agriculture, factor demands.
    JEL: O15 Q12 J62
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fao:wpaper:0704&r=agr
  4. By: Gustavo Anríquez (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Genny Bonomi (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: This paper provides a long-term and global view at current farming trends by analyzing a specially created database of farming characteristics of 17 countries across 43 different agricultural censuses representing the different developing regions of the world. The study shows that while agricultural land appears to be a constraint in central and East Asia, it has been under expansion in Latin America, Northern Africa, and most of Sub Saharan Africa. We also estimate that 9 out of 10 farms are small (i.e. smaller than 2 ha). These farms are more specialized in staple crops than their larger counterparts, and exhibit slower productivity growth.
    Keywords: Small Farms, land distribution, agricultural census, productivity.
    JEL: Q10 Q15
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fao:wpaper:0720&r=agr
  5. By: Gamal M. Siam (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); André Croppenstedt (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: Wheat is central to the government of Egypt’s food security policy which is influenced by a concern for overdependence on imports and the need to provide subsidized bread for the poor. This paper uses a multi-market approach to assess the impact of complete wheat market liberalization, an international wheat price increase, the value of strategic stocks and the impact of investment to generate higher yields and lower transaction costs for wheat producers. Results show that wheat market liberalization implies very substantial costs for consumers and producers. The estimated income losses that these groups suffer would appear to be below the current total subsidy costs and hence a cash transfer program would, in principle, be feasible. The results show that wheat price movements impact strongly on the supply and/or demand side in particular of berseem, rice, maize, cotton and livestock which has significant implications for their net imports as well as input use. Results indicate that strategic stocks can be useful to neutralize the impact of a wheat price spike. Increasing wheat yields and reducing transportation boosts wheat self-sufficiency but does not dampen the impact of removing the wheat subsidy system on household’s welfare.
    Keywords: Egypt, agriculture sector, wheat, multi-market model, bread subsidy, policy scenario impact analysis.
    JEL: Q11 Q18
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fao:wpaper:0715&r=agr
  6. By: Bambang Sayaka (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Sumaryanto (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); André Croppenstedt (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Stefania DiGiuseppe (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: Rice is of key importance to Indonesia’s national and household level food security. The choice of tariff policy has important implications for consumers and producers with policy makers having to decide between the trade-offs implied for the various stakeholders. In this study we use a multi-market model to assess the impact of hypothetical rice tariff changes on household welfare and other variables of interest to rice policy-makers. A reduction in the rice tariff from 30 to 0% reduces rice supply and wheat demand and stimulates rice demand and soybean supply. Rice imports increase from 0.8 to 2 million tons. Rural households except for the Java-top income group, see incomes fall. In terms of purchasing power all households gain very significantly. Eliminating rice tariffs increases crop diversification and more so in those areas and for those income groups which started off least diversified. It is clear that the higher retail rice price resulting from a 30% ad-valorem tariff rate imposes significant cost on the 90% of Indonesian households, including most of the very poor households, who are net rice buyers. The implied income gains appear relatively modest but do accrue to middle and poorer households especially in Java. On the other hand an increase in the tariff from 30 to 50% eliminates rice imports, reduces soybean output and stimulates wheat demand. Rural households, except for the Java-top income group, see incomes rise although the effect is relatively modest. In terms of purchasing power households are all worse off.
    Keywords: Indonesia, multi-market model, household welfare, rice, tariffs, crop diversification.
    JEL: Q11 Q18
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fao:wpaper:0718&r=agr
  7. By: Benjamin Davis (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Paul Winters (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Gero Carletto (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Katia Covarrubias (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Esteban Quinones (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Alberto Zezza (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Kostas Stamoulis (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Genny Bonomi (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Stefania DiGiuseppe (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: This paper uses a newly constructed cross country database composed of comparable variables and aggregates from household surveys to examine the full range of income generating activities carried out by rural households in order to determine: 1) the relative importance of the gamut of income generating activities in general and across wealth categories; 2), the relative importance of diversification versus specialization at the household level; 3) the relationship between key household assets and the participation in and income earned from these activities; and 4) the influence of rural income generating activities on poverty and inequality. Analysis of the RIGA cross country dataset paints a clear picture of multiple activities across rural space and diversification across rural households. This is true across countries in all four continents, though less so in the African countries included in the dataset. For most countries the largest share of income stems from off farm activities, and the largest share of households have diversified sources of income. Diversification, not specialization, is the norm, although most countries show significant levels of household specialization in non-agricultural activities as well. Nevertheless, agricultural based sources of income remain critically important for rural livelihoods in all countries, both in terms of the overall share of agriculture in rural incomes as well as the large share of households that still specialize in agricultural sources of income.
    Keywords: rural non farm, income diversification, household surveys.
    JEL: I32 O15 O57
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fao:wpaper:0716&r=agr
  8. By: Finger, Robert; Hediger, Werner
    Abstract: The adequate representation of crop response functions is crucial for agricultural modeling and analysis. So far, the evaluation of such functions focused on the comparison of different functional forms. In this article, the perspective is expanded by also considering an alternative regression method. This is motivated by the fact that extreme climatic events can result in crop yield observations that cause misleading results if Least Squares regression is applied. We show that such outliers are adequately treated if and only if robust regression or robust diagnostics are applied. The example of simulated Swiss corn yields shows that the application of robust instead of Least Squares regression causes reasonable shifts in coefficient estimates and their level of significance, and results in higher levels of goodness of fit. Furthermore, the costs of misspecification decrease remarkably if optimal input recommendations are based on results of robust regression. We therefore recommend the application of the latter instead of Least Squares regression for agricultural and environmental production function estimation.
    Keywords: production function estimation; production function comparison; robust regression; crop response
    JEL: D24 C67 Q1 Q12 C52 C1
    Date: 2007–09
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pra:mprapa:4740&r=agr
  9. By: Christian Romer Lovendal (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: This paper documents the main findings of the vulnerable profiling work carried out in the State of Himachal Pradesh, India, as a mean to support the planning of food security and livelihoods promoting interventions at the state level. A similar study was undertaken in Orissa, India. The paper analyses the main characteristics and causes of food insecurity and vulnerability, seeking to identify who and where the vulnerable and food insecure are, why they are at risk of becoming food insecure and what options exist to reduce this risk. Using the sustainable livelihoods framework and collecting qualitative and quantitative data collection from four selected districts, the paper looks on the vulnerability of five livelihood groups, notably subsistence farming households, marginal commercial farming households, agricultural labouring households, migratory labouring households and pastoralist tribal households. Whilst Himachal Pradesh is comparably less food insecure, the paper shows that the state do face a range of challenges related to undernourishment and malnutrition. Anthropometric measures show that close to every second child under five in HP are underweight and 41 percent of adult women are anaemic, only slightly lower than the national figure. The study finds the main causes of food insecurity and vulnerability include increased fragmentation of land, limited or no access to welfare provisions and public services related to migration, weak infrastructure and lack of accessible credit institutions. Based on the findings of the analysis, the paper identifies key interventions to address the causes of food insecurity and vulnerability in Himachal Pradesh. These include increased investment in irrigation; improved extension services; ensuring social service provision and basic human welfare; and continued assurance of high levels of investment in constructing and maintaining rural infrastructure as a prerequisite for sustainable and broad-based economic growth. Finally, the paper includes recommendations on indicators to be monitored as part of a potential Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping System (FIVIMS) in Himachal Pradesh, focusing on a core set of indicators to be monitored at state and district level.
    Keywords: Vulnerability, Food Insecurity, Vulnerable Groups, Livelihoods Profiling, Himachal Pradesh, India.
    JEL: Q18 Q19 O20
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fao:wpaper:0722&r=agr
  10. By: Alberto Zezza (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Paul Winters (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Benjamin Davis (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Gero Carletto (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Katia Covarrubias (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Esteban Quinones (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Kostas Stamoulis (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Takis Karfakis (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Luca Tasciotti (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Stefania DiGiuseppe (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Genny Bonomi (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: Access to assets and agrarian institutions is of critical importance to the economic viability of rural households. Understanding the extent of this access and how it links to the ability of rural households to employ different pathways out of poverty is thus vital for designing rural development policies. This paper characterizes household access to assets and agrarian institutions through the comparative analysis of datasets from 15 nationally representative household surveys from four regions of the developing world. We find that the access of rural households to a range of assets (including education, land and livestock) and institutions is in general low, though highly heterogeneous across countries, and by categories of households within countries. A large share of rural agricultural households do not use or have access to basic productive inputs, agricultural support services or output markets, and in general it is the landless and the smallest landowners who suffer significantly more from this lack of access.
    Keywords: rural non farm, assets, agrarian institutions, household surveys.
    JEL: O13 O57 Q12
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fao:wpaper:0717&r=agr
  11. By: J. Edward Taylor (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Alejandro López-Feldman (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: The migration of labor out of rural areas and the flow of remittances from migrants to rural households is an increasingly important feature of less developed countries. This paper explores ways in which migration influences incomes and productivity of land and human capital in rural households over time, using new household survey data from Mexico. Our findings suggest that a massive increase in migration to the United States increased per-capita incomes via remittances and also by raising land productivity in migrant-sending households. They do not support the pessimistic view that migration discourages production in migrant-sending economies, nor the view implicit in separable agricultural household models that migration and remittances influence household incomes but not production.
    Keywords: Migration, income, agricultural production, Mexico.
    JEL: O15 O13
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fao:wpaper:0710&r=agr
  12. By: Calogero Carletto (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Angeli Kirk (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Paul Winters (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Benjamin Davis (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: This paper uses a duration analysis based on adoption data spanning over 25 years from six communities in the Central Highlands of Guatemala to explore how household characteristics and external trends play into both the adoption and diffusion processes of non-traditional exports among smallholders. Adoption was initially widespread and rapid, which led NTX to be hailed as a pro-poor success, reaching all but the smallest landholders. However, over time, more than two-thirds of adopters eventually dropped out from NTX production. Based on the analysis, NTX production appeared to have delivered less prosperity to adopters than initially promised. Primarily better-endowed farmers were able to overcome the increasingly adverse conditions and, in the long-terms, institutions and policy interventions do not appear to have mitigated these difficulties for less-endowed farmers. While poor farmers may be enticed into entering into NTX markets when conditions are favorable, they may lack the capacity to overcome difficulties that inevitably arise in complex types of cultivations and in highly variable global agricultural markets. Governmental and non-governmental organizations can attempt to mitigate these difficulties, but market forces may overwhelm these efforts, with poorer adopters still unable to compete in global markets.
    Keywords: Non traditional exports, Guatemala, small holders, adoption, globalization.
    JEL: Q12 Q13 O13
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fao:wpaper:0703&r=agr
  13. By: Howse, Robert; Hoekman, Bernard
    Abstract: An important recent World Trade Organization dispute settlement case for many developing countries concerned European Union exports of sugar. Brazil, Thailand, and Australia alleged that the exports have substantially exceeded permitted levels as established by European Union commitments in the WTO. This case had major implications for both European Union sugar producers and developing countries that benefited from preferential access to the European Union market. It was also noteworthy in the use of economic arguments by the WTO dispute settlement panel, which held that the excess sugar exports were in part a reflection of illegal de facto cross-subsidization-rents from production that benefited from high support prices being used to cover losses associated with exports of sugar to the world market. Although in principle the economic arguments of the panel could apply to many other policy areas, in practice WTO provisions greatly limit the scope to bring similar arguments for trade in products that are not subject to explicit export subsidy reduction commitments of the type that were made for sugar and other agricultural commodities.
    Keywords: Economic Theory & Research,Trade Law,Tax Law,Food & Beverage Industry,Agribusiness & Markets
    Date: 2007–08–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4336&r=agr
  14. By: Gustavo Anríquez (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: In this paper we examine the effects of the composition (between private and public goods) of government expenditures in the rural world, and the effect that corruption has in the political game that determines these allocation decisions. In the first section of this paper we develop a political economy model where corruption and trade openness counteract to determine, within a political equilibrium, the amount of public funds to be devoted to the rural world, and their composition between public and private goods. In the second section we contrast the implications of the political economy model with recently released data on rural public expenditures in Latin America. We find that corruption reduces the amount of public funds that reach the rural world, but not its composition. We also find that after accounting for the endogeneity of public expenditure decisions, the composition of these expenditures significantly determines rural development (as proxied by agricultural GDP).
    Keywords: Corruption, trade openness, public spending, rural development, public goods.
    JEL: H2 H50 H41 O13 Q10
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fao:wpaper:0701&r=agr
  15. By: Joe O'Doherty (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI)); Richard S.J Tol (Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI))
    Abstract: This paper is presented in two parts. The first part demonstrates an environmental input-output model for Ireland for the year 2000. Selected emissions are given a monetary value on the basis of benefit-transfer. This modelling procedure reveals that certain sectors pollute more than others – even when normalised by the sectoral value added. Mining, agriculture, metal production and construction stand out as the dirtiest industries. On average, however, each sector adds more value than it does environmental damage. The second part uses the results of this input-output model – as well as historical data – to forecast emissions, waste and water use out to 2020. The growth in emissions of fluorinated gases and carbon monoxide and the growth of hazardous industrial waste exceed economic growth. Other emissions grow more slowly than the economy. Emissions of acid rain gases (SO2, NOx and NH3) will decrease, even if the economy grows rapidly.
    Date: 2007–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:esr:wpaper:wp178&r=agr
  16. By: Luca Alinovi (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Günter Hemrich (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Luca Russo (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: Drawing on case studies from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Somalia and Sudan, this paper focuses on policy, programming and institutional issues related to addressing food insecurity in protracted crises and fragile states, with a focus on areas afflicted by conflicts. The case studies illustrate how dysfunctional institutions are at the root of structural food insecurity and show how local people and institutions have been able, to a certain extent, to adapt and cope with the crises. However, the protracted nature of the crises has substantially eroded people’s assets and weakened the capacities of traditional safety net systems to provide protection. Against this background, mainstream humanitarian assistance – which has been the international community’s dominant response – has not been able to address the basic determinants of food security and in particular has not sufficiently supported the positive efforts of local institutions. The case studies illustrate some innovative approaches for addressing food insecurity during protracted crises. They show that while it remains indispensable to ensure neutrality for immediate responses that protect the most vulnerable, it is also crucial to take into account institutional and policy dynamics that support processes to rebuild resilience; create opportunities for strengthening the livelihoods of affected population at the very early stages of the crisis; and develop an adequate basket of interventions to address a variety of needs.
    Keywords: Food security, Institutions, Protracted crisis, Fragile states, Resilience, Livelihoods, Humanitarian assistance.
    JEL: Q15 Q18 R20 R52
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fao:wpaper:0721&r=agr
  17. By: Trachtman, Joel; Hoekman, Bernard
    Abstract: Statutory marketing boards that have exclusive authority to purchase domestic production, sell for export, and set purchase and sales prices of commodities are a type of state trading enterprise that is subject to World Trade Organization disciplines. This paper assesses a recent dispute brought by the United States against Canada, alleging that WTO rules require state trading enterprises to operate solely in accordance with commercial considerations and t hat the Canadian government did not require the Canadian Wheat Board to do so. The panel and Appellate Body found that the primary discipline of the WTO regarding state trading enterprises was nondiscrimination, and that operating on the basis of " commercial considerations " was not an independent obligation. Instead, WTO disciplines regarding the pricing behavior of state trading enterprises use a " commercial considerations " test as a possible indicator of discrimination. Although a significant degree of price discrimination is observed in the case of Canadian wheat exports, there are economic arguments why this might also be pursued by a private, profit maximizing firm.
    Keywords: Trade Law,Markets and Market Access,Economic Theory & Research,Access to Markets,Access to Finance
    Date: 2007–08–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4337&r=agr
  18. By: van de Walle, Dominique; Mu, Ren
    Abstract: We assess impacts of rural road rehabilitatio n on market and institutional development at the commune level in rural Vietnam. Double difference and matching methods are used to address sources of selection bias in identifying impacts. We focus on impact heterogeneities and the geographic, community, and household factors that explain them. A key question from a policy standpoint is whether the impact-contingent factors are consistent and universal across project areas and outcome indicators. We find evidence of considerable impact heterogeneity, with a tendency for poorer areas to have conditions favoring higher impacts, although impacts are highly context specific.
    Keywords: Transport Economics Policy & Planning,Housing & Human Habitats,Poverty Monitoring & Analysis,Rural Roads & Transport,Economic Theory & Research
    Date: 2007–08–01
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4340&r=agr
  19. By: Bengtsson, Niklas (Department of Economics)
    Abstract: We use time-series of rainfall along with individual fixed effects to estimate the response of body weight to transitory changes in house-hold income and expenditure. Our data consist of a longitudinal sample of subsistence farmers in rural Tazania, representing one of the poorest populations in the world. We find that the response of body weight to transitory changes in household income is positive on average, but that the impact decreases with age and being male. For female children, a ten percent increase in household income implies an increase in body weight with about 0.4 kilo. The body weight of male adults is practically invariant to income changes.
    Keywords: Income variability; Consumption; Nutrition; sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: D13 I12 O12
    Date: 2007–08–30
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hhs:uunewp:2007_020&r=agr
  20. By: Guy Stecklov (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization); Alejandro Alexander Weinreb (Agricultural and Development Economics Division, Food and Agriculture Organization)
    Abstract: A long series of ethnographic and sociological studies on kinship systems and information flows in developing societies has portrayed networks as varying structurally, serving multiple functions, and expressing themselves in different types of interaction. Little of this earlier work has informed empirical research in demography or development-related research. In stead, the latter operationalize social networks in relatively narrow ways, allowing for little overlap between multiple networks, and focusing on a subset of potential causal mechanisms. In an effort to pull the empirical literature closer to its qualitative forbearer, we use data from the Malawi Diffusion and Ideation Change Project to test how conversation networks and transfer networks overlap. We offer some predictions regarding how these overlapping networks might individually or jointly influence distinct outcome including ownership of livestock, planning innovative crops and HIV testing. Our sample of women from Malawi, interviewed in 3 rounds across a 6-year period, also enables us to question the inter-temporal stability of network effects. Our findings highlight: (a) how networks based on different actions appear nonetheless consistent with diverse behavioral outcomes; (b) how there is relatively little overlap between conversational and transfer networks; and (c) how there is considerable instability in temporal effects of conversational networks.
    Keywords: Agricultural innovation, social networks, risk diversification, HIV testing.
    JEL: J1 O1 O3 D8 D85
    Date: 2007
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:fao:wpaper:0712&r=agr

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