nep-agr New Economics Papers
on Agricultural Economics
Issue of 2005‒04‒16
24 papers chosen by
Angelo Zago
Universita degli Studi di Verona

  1. Crop Choice, Farm Income, and Political Relations in Myanmar By Takashi Kurosaki
  2. Food Insecurity in India: Causes and Dimensions By Chakravarty Sujoy; Dand Sejal A
  3. Impact of Ownership Structure on the Performance of China’s Feed Mill Sector, The By Fabiosa, Jacinto F.
  4. Labeling Regulations and Segregation of First- and Second-Generation Genetically Modified Products: Innovation Incentives and Welfare Effects By Moschini, GianCarlo; Lapan, Harvey E.
  5. Fisheries Management with Stock Uncertainty and Costly Capital Adjustment: Extended Appendix By Doyle, Matthew; Singh, Rajesh; Weninger, Quinn
  6. Why do parents their children work ? A test of peverty hypothesis in rural areas in Brukina Faso By Dumas Christelle
  7. Economic Crisis and Trade Liberalization: A CGE Analysis On The Forestry Sector By Tubagus Feridhanusetyawan; Yose Rizal Damuri
  8. Agricultural-Forestry Linkages: Development Of Timber And Tree Crop Plantations Towards Sustainable Natural Forests By Erwidodo; Satria Astana
  9. Economic Adjustment and the Forestry Sector: Does Removing the Log Export Ban Matter Much? By Arya B. Gaduh; Kurnya Roesad
  10. Livelihoods and Farm Efficiency in Rural Georgia By Kelvin_Balcombe; Dirk_Bezemer; Junior_Davis; Iain_Fraser
  11. Have Price Policies Damaged LDC Agricultural Productivity? By Lilyan E. Fulginiti; Richard K. Perrin
  12. Institutions and Agricultural Productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa By Lilyan E. Fulginiti; Richard K. Perrin; Bingxin Yu
  13. Accounting for Agricultural Decline with Economic Growth in Taiwan By Ling Sun; Lilyan E. Fulginiti; E. Wesley Peterson
  14. LDC Agriculture: Non-parametric Malmquist productivity indexes By Lilyan E. Fulginiti; Richard K. Perrin
  15. A Game Theoretical Model of Land Contract Choice By Américo Mendes
  16. Performance of Agriculture in the Changing Structure of the Orissa Economy: Issues Revisited By Manoranjan Pattanayak; Bibhu Prasad Nayak
  17. Agricultural Protectionism: Debt Problems and the Doha Round By Julio J. Nogues
  18. Forest owners’ collective action against the risk of forest fire: a game theoretical approach By Américo Mendes
  19. Issues on Agricultural Negotiations in the FTAA and Linkages With the Doha Round By Julio J. Nogues
  20. Agricultural Protection in Developing Countries By Lilyan E. Fulginiti; Jason F. Shogren
  21. Public Inputs and Productivty in the Agricultural Sector: A Dynamic Dual Approach By Alejandro Onofri; Lilyan E. Fulginiti
  22. Organic Apple Production in Washington State: An Input-Output Analysis By Pon Nya Mon; David W. Holland
  23. Intervention and Production Sector Waste in LDC Agriculture By Lilyan E. Fulginiti; Richard K. Perrin
  24. Crop Diversification in Orissa: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis By Manoranjan Pattanayak; Bibhu Prasad Nayak

  1. By: Takashi Kurosaki
    Abstract: Myanmar's agricultural economy is in transition from a planned to a market system. However, the economy does not seem to capture the full gains of productivity growth expected from such a transition. Using a micro dataset collected in 2001 and covering more than 500 households in eight villages with diverse agro-ecological environments, this paper shows that policy interventions in land use and agricultural marketing underlie the lack of income growth. Regression analyses focusing on within-village variations in cropping patterns show that the acreage share under nonlucrative paddy crops is higher for farmers who are under tighter control of the local administration.
    Keywords: reform, food policy, transitional economies, Asia, Myanmar
    Date: 2005–03
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:hst:hstdps:d04-80&r=agr
  2. By: Chakravarty Sujoy; Dand Sejal A
    Abstract: In this study we explore causes of the widespread food insecurity that prevails in India. It has been observed that even though the proportion of the malnourished fell by about 1 percent (FAO, 2002) through the nineties in India, their absolute number increased by about 18 million. Thus the problem of food insecurity in India is not of general systemic failure that arises due to a supply shortage. It is in fact more a problem where certain sectors (mainly the rural agrarian population and the urban informal sector) suffer from a shortage of food in a general climate of increasing production. Delving deeper, we observe that the main determinants of food insecurity in India today are the shrinking of agrarian and informal sector incomes and failures (both due to policy framing as well as implementation) of support led measures to combat poverty. The latter include the near breakdown of the targeted public distribution system (TPDS) in most regions of the country. This study uses existing scholarly work in the area as well as conventional data sources in order to show the extent of food insecurity in India today and the logic of the different patterns of its causality.
    Date: 2005–04–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:iim:iimawp:2005-04-01&r=agr
  3. By: Fabiosa, Jacinto F.
    Abstract: In the decade of the 1990s, China’s feed sector became increasingly privatized, more feed mills opened, and the scale of operation expanded. Capacity utilization remained low and multi-ministerial supervision was still prevalent, but the feed mill sector showed a positive performance overall, posting a growth rate of 11 percent per year. Profit margin over sales was within allowable rates set by the government of China at 3 to 5 percent. Financial efficiency improved, with a 20 percent quicker turnover of working capital. Average technical efficiency was 0.805, as more efficient feed mills increasingly gained production shares. This study finds evidence that the increasing privatization explains the improved performance of the commercial feed mill sector. The drivers that shaped the feed mill sector in the 1990s have changed with China’s accession to the World Trade Organization. With the new policy regime in place, the study foresees that, assuming an adequate supply of soy meal and an excess capacity in the feed mill sector, it is likely that China will allow corn imports up to the tariff rate quota (TRQ) of 7.2 mmt since the in-quota rate is very low at 1 percent. However, when the TRQ is exceeded, the import duty jumps to a prohibitive out-quota rate of 65 percent. With an import duty for meat of only 10 to 12 percent, China would have a strong incentive to import meat products directly rather than bringing in expensive corn to produce meat domestically. This would be further reinforced if structural transformation in the swine sector would narrow the cost differential between domestic and imported pork.
    Date: 2005–04–04
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:isu:genres:12270&r=agr
  4. By: Moschini, GianCarlo; Lapan, Harvey E.
    Abstract: We review some of the most significant issues and results on the economic effects of genetically modified (GM) product innovation, with emphasis on the question of GM labeling and the need for costly segregation and identity preservation activities. The analysis is organized around an explicit model that can accommodate the features of both first-generation and second-generation GM products. The model accounts for the proprietary nature of GM innovations and for the critical role of consumer preferences vis-à-vis GM products, as well as for the impacts of segregation and identity preservation and the effects of a mandatory GM labeling regulation. We also investigate briefly a novel question in this setting, the choice of “research direction”when both cost-reducing and quality-enhancing GM innovations are feasible.
    JEL: O3 D0 Q1
    Date: 2005–04–11
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:isu:genres:12275&r=agr
  5. By: Doyle, Matthew; Singh, Rajesh; Weninger, Quinn
    Abstract: This Appendix is supplemntary to "Fisheries Management with Stock Uncertainty and Costly Capital Adjustment: An Application to Pacific Halibut" and "Fisheries Management with Stock Uncertainty and Costly Capital Adjustment"
    JEL: D2 Q2
    Date: 2005–04–14
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:isu:genres:12291&r=agr
  6. By: Dumas Christelle
    Abstract: This article aims at testing whether child labor is caused by poverty. Tests are designed for rural areas in a setting characterized by the absence of a labor market. A model of rural household labor supply is developed that provides testable implications of two different poverty hypotheses. We test if child labor is due to a binding subsistence constraint and if child leisure is a luxury good. We find that, in rural Burkina Faso, children provide labor mostly because of labor market imperfections and not because of household subsistence needs and that child leisure is a normal good.
    Keywords: child labor, rural hoseholds, market imperfections, poverty hypothesis
    JEL: D13 I32 J22 O12 Q12
    Date: 2004–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:lea:leawpi:0411&r=agr
  7. By: Tubagus Feridhanusetyawan (Department of Economics, Centre for Strategic and International Studies); Yose Rizal Damuri (Department of Economics, Centre for Strategic and International Studies)
    Abstract: This paper uses simulations based on a GTAP model to reproduce the economic crisis in Southeast Asia, and in particular in Indonesia. The model is a static-real sector model, so the focus of the simulation is on the declining investment and the declining prices of non-traded goods during the crisis. The simulation is conducted by creating an exogenous shock on risk premium in Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia, which leads to smaller allocation of regional investment in these countries, lower stock of capital goods, and lower production. The second shock, which is the declining price of land and natural resource, opens the possibility of resource allocation between sectors in the economy. The results of the crisis simulation show that the declining overall GDP during the crisis is accompanied by declining productions of capital and labor-intensive commodities, and expansion of natural resource and land based sectors. Based on the simulation, the economic crisis is expected to lower production of forestry and forestry related manufacturing sectors, mainly because these sectors are more capital or labor intensive, rather than land or natural resource intensive. Consistent with the modeling exercise, the output of these sectors also declined in reality during the worst time of the crisis in 1997-99. The simulation results also show that the negative impact of the crisis on welfare, measured as the changes in equivalent variation, is serious. The second simulation in this study measures the impact of trade liberalization on the economy after the crisis. The results show that the potential benefit from trade liberalization is large, and larger than the welfare lost during the crisis. In other words, pursuing more progressive trade liberalization would speed up the economic recovery after the crisis by creating more opportunity to get the most benefit from the global economy.
    Keywords: Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Asian crisis, forestry sector, computable general equilibrium (CGE)
    Date: 2004–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:eab:macroe:62&r=agr
  8. By: Erwidodo (Center for Agro Socioeconomic Research); Satria Astana (Center for Socioeconomic Research on Foresty, Ministry of Forestry, Indonesia)
    Abstract: There are at least two problems left unsolved that calls for our attention, namely: (i) millions of hectare of logged over areas and most of them are degraded and others are underutilized and left unproductive, and (ii) high supply-demand gap of logs, due to a huge excess demand for logs and pulpwood. Industrial timber and estate crop plantations are considered to be the alternative way out towards reaching sustainable natural forest management. Evidence suggests that many logging companies are in fact more interested on clear-cutting timber than truly establishing the plantation. The main reason has been the need to get cheap timber for fulfilling an excess demand for pulpwood by pulp and paper industries. Many logging companies who also own estate crop plantations apply for a license to establish (timber or estate crop) plantation in the conversion area, clear the forest for logs and pulpwood, and eventually abandon the cleared land The paper presents a historical perspective of agricultural development in Indonesia, focusing on food and cash crop developments particularly in the outer islands of Indonesia. The authors explore agricultural-forestry linkage is highlighted in section present a discussion on further development of industrial timber and estate crop plantation as logical ways towards sustainable forest management in the future.
    Keywords: Indonesia, forestry, agriculture, timber, estate crop, sustainable forestry
    Date: 2004–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:eab:microe:59&r=agr
  9. By: Arya B. Gaduh (Department of Economics, Centre for Strategic and International Studies); Kurnya Roesad (Department of Economics, Centre for Strategic and International Studies)
    Abstract: For most of the 1980s and 1990s, Indonesia’s forest industry was characterized by protectionist policies. The combination of a log-export ban and the enforcement of artificially low prices of logs by APKINDO had fostered the inefficient domestic wood-panel producers, while potentially killed off more efficient wood-panel producers abroad. The removal of APKINDO and the log export ban, as major parts of the IMF – led economic reform agenda since 1998 was expected to improve allocative efficiency in the wood – processing sector. However, the removal of these policies likely increased pressure on Indonesia’s forests. An artificially low price of logs reduces their supply, and henceforth, relieves pressures off forests. Taking away the ban gradually moves the prices back to the international level, hence increasing the rate of wood extraction. As such, absent other forms of intervention, we face a trade-off between economic efficiency and environmental sustainability of the log export ban policy. This paper is an attempt to describe, and quantify when possible, this trade-off empirically. It asks whether the log export ban has encouraged less efficient use of domestic logs and whether it has helped to reduce the rate of round wood extraction. The empirical study suggests that the former did occur during the LEB and APKINDO regime of 1985-1997, while the latter cannot be shown empirically.
    Keywords: Indonesia, log ban, crisis, adjustment, forestry sector.
    Date: 2004–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:eab:microe:66&r=agr
  10. By: Kelvin_Balcombe (Imperial College); Dirk_Bezemer (University of Groningen); Junior_Davis (University of Greenwich); Iain_Fraser (Imperial College)
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the literature on the role of on rural livelihood strategies in rural growth and poverty reduction. It distinguishes between livelihood diversity strategies that contribute to sustainable growth in household incomes, and those that mainly have a 'coping' function. It suggests that typically, the contribution of livelihood diversity to growing household income is through relaxing dependence on credit for access to capital. In this scenario, livelihood diversity would lead to higher technical efficiency in agriculture via investment and thereby to higher household incomes. Survey data from Georgia are introduced and used to test these hypotheses using a Bayesian stochastic frontier approach. The findings are relevant to defining more clearly the scope and aims of policies to stimulate the rural non-farm economy in developing and transition countries.
    Keywords: Livelihoods analysis; survey data; incomes; efficiency; Bayesian stochastic frontier approach
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2005–02–10
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wpa:wuwpdc:0502005&r=agr
  11. By: Lilyan E. Fulginiti (University of Nebraska); Richard K. Perrin (University of Nebraska)
    Abstract: This paper examines agricultural policies in 18 developing countries over the period 1961-1985. We measure productivity with both a nonparametric Malmquist index and a production function, confirming previous findings of declining agricultural productivity, but with sufficident inconsistencies as to raise concern about the adequacy of the methods. We nontehless find considerable support for the hypothesis that unfavorable price policies have damaged agricultural performance in these countries.
    Keywords: Agricultural productivity, developing countries, price policies
    JEL: O4 Q1
    Date: 2005–02–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wpa:wuwpdc:0502020&r=agr
  12. By: Lilyan E. Fulginiti (University of Nebraska); Richard K. Perrin (University of Nebraska); Bingxin Yu (University of Nebraska)
    Abstract: Agricultural productivity in 41 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries from 1960 to 1999 is examined by estimating a semi-nonparametric Fourier production frontier. Over the four decades the estimated rate of productivity change was 0.83% per year, although the average rate from 1985-99 was a strong 1.90% per year. Former UK colonies exhibited significantly higher productivity gains than others, while Liberia and countries that had been colonies of Portugal or Belgium exhibited net reductions in productivity. We measure a significant reduction in productivity during political conflicts and wars, and a significant increase in productivity among those countries with higher levels of political rights and civil liberties.
    Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa, agricultural productivity, institutions, stochastic frontier, Fourier functional form.
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2005–02–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wpa:wuwpdc:0502021&r=agr
  13. By: Ling Sun (Providence University); Lilyan E. Fulginiti (University of Nebraska); E. Wesley Peterson (University of Nebraska)
    Abstract: In this paper we propose an empirical model to decompose the evolution of the agricultural GDP share of Taiwan into three components: price changes, factor endowment changes and technological change. The full sample period is 1967 to 1997. The data were first tested to assess whether the time series are nonstationary and cointegrated. After confirming their nonstationarity and cointegrated relation- ship, we then employ an error correction model (ECM) in the empirical estimation to capture the dynamic as well as long-run equilibrium relationship among those economic variables. The results suggest that relative prices have a positive influence on the share of agriculture in GDP in both the long-run and the short-run. An increase in capital per unit of labor, on the other hand, is associated with a smaller agricultural share. This result is consistent with the Rybczynski Theorem. Technical change has been biased in favor of this sector. The strong negative impact of the change in factor endowments seems to dominate any possible positive effect of relative prices and technical change. This result makes a strong case for a Heckscher-Ohlin type model as a basis of understanding the development of the Taiwanese economy.
    Keywords: Taiwan, productivity growth, GDP function, error correction,
    JEL: O4 Q1
    Date: 2005–02–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wpa:wuwpdc:0502022&r=agr
  14. By: Lilyan E. Fulginiti (University of Nebraska); Richard K. Perrin (University of Nebraska)
    Abstract: This paper examines changes in agricultural productivity in18 developing countries over the period 1961-1985. We use the nonparametric, output- based Mamquist index to examine whether the results from such approach confirm results from other methods that have indicated declining agricultural productivity in less developed countries.
    Keywords: Journal of Development Economics, vol. 53 (1997), 373-390
    JEL: O4 Q1
    Date: 2005–02–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wpa:wuwpdc:0502025&r=agr
  15. By: Américo Mendes (Portuguese Catholic University Porto - Faculty of Economics & Management)
    Abstract: In most of the land tenancy literature the type of contract is exogenous. Also even though these contracts vary a lot among farms, between regions and over time, the theoretical literature has not always acknowledged this idiosyncrasy. Building on the strategic bargaining theory initiated by Rubinstein, this model not only makes the type of contract endogenous, but also provides the surplus sharing rules and the conditions giving rise to each type of contract, showing how the type and terms of the contract are tailored to fit the characteristics of the parties and their economic environment. Pairwise bargaining is embedded into a market context by putting “competitive pressure” on the players through the opportunity they have to break up bargaining and look for alternative partners. Because of this threat of opting out, the outcome of the bargaining process depends not only on the characteristics of the players, but also on events outside their match and the information they have about them. The model departs from price-taking assumptions. Type and terms of the contract result from negotiation and are shaped by the “relative bargaining powers” of the players whose relevant components are identified in a precise way in the model.
    Keywords: land tenancy, contract choice, game theory
    JEL: C7 D8
    Date: 2005–03–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wpa:wuwpga:0503001&r=agr
  16. By: Manoranjan Pattanayak (Jawaharlal Nehru University); Bibhu Prasad Nayak (Jawaharlal Nehru University)
    Abstract: The economy of Orissa is characterized by the dominance of agricultural sector. Agriculture continues to be the mainstay of the state's economy with contribution about 28.13 percent to net state domestic product during 2001-2002. The agriculture alone provides direct and indirect employment to around 65 percent of the total workforce of the state as per 2001 provisional census. Nevertheless, the sector is continues to be characterized by low productivity.Although the contribution of agriculture to state income has significantly declined, the percentage of work force engaged in agriculture has remained somewhat unchanged. This implies that there has been an overcrowding in agriculture without any perceptible increase in production. Therefore, agricultural growth holds the key to the overall development of the state by way of creating employment, generating income, providing raw materials to the industrial sector and last but not the least ensuring self-reliance in food production and food security to the deprived sections. In this paper, we have studied the pattern of structural change in the last two decades. It is observed that, while the share of Primary sector has gone down drastically in gross state domestic product in 90's vis-a- vis 80's, the secondary or manufacturing sectors share is hovering around 17 percent throughout last fifty years. The only substantial change is occurred in service sector. In 1980, the share of service sector in GSDP was 30 percent. In 2000, it is reached at 45 percent. The issue at hand is that, while the share of primary sector has gone down in state income, it is not showing any trend of releasing labour force. In 1951, 72.86 percent of total workforce was engaged in primary sector, also in 1991, 72.9 percent is workforce is engaged there. Hence, whatsoever developmental effort has been undertaken by state, the fruit is unequally distributed as per capita income of service sector worker is much higher than primary sector. In this scenario, we have gone to explore the productivity in agriculture district wise. It is found that inter district variation in agricultural productivity is very high. Also, the input use in agriculture is skewed across the districts. In the plain and coastal land, the high productivity is explained by higher use of input. It is a vicious circle. Poverty reduces purchasing power i.e. in our case low application of input, and this again leads to poverty due to low agricultural productivity. This gives a strong message. That is Orissa which is a typical rural based agrarian economy, any developmental effort without due consideration for agricultural improvement will be proved nullified. It is also shown that over the years, the plan outlay on agriculture has gone down which reflects the priority of state government. Finally, we have tried to explain the role of several input in explaining agricultural productivity and concluded the paper with few suggestions.
    Keywords: Structural Change, Agricultural Productivity, Orissa Economy, Panel data
    JEL: N55 O13
    Date: 2005–02–26
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wpa:wuwpgt:0502073&r=agr
  17. By: Julio J. Nogues (Universidad Di Tella)
    Abstract: Through financial channels, agricultural protectionism imposes costs on efficient producers that are higher than those associated with negative allocative effects and export losses usually estimated. The link between protectionism and finance has a direct relationship with the WTO Marrakech Agreement of establishing coherence between international trade and financial matters. Here, I call attention to the fact that for efficient agricultural exporters there is little if any coherence between the trading system and the international financial system that they face. I also present some numbers on the export losses from agricultural protectionism; describe the channels through which this protectionism increases financial costs; and analyze dynamic and poverty effects.
    Keywords: WTO, Coherence Agricultural Protectionism, Debt Problems
    JEL: F3 F4
    Date: 2005–02–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wpa:wuwpif:0502005&r=agr
  18. By: Américo Mendes (Portuguese Catholic University - Porto, Faculty of Economics & Management)
    Abstract: This paper is a follow up on a earlier one (Mendes, 1998) where I proposed a series of models for forest owners associations represented as organisation made up of two groups of strategically interacting players: the forest owners who are members of the association and the board of directors they have elected. The directors decide on the amount of services provided by the association which can be public goods (collective representation of the members, promotion of their common interests, diffusion of general information about forest programmes and best forest management practices, etc.) and private goods and services (silvicultural works preventive of forest fires, technical advice, etc.). The models were set up as games in strategic form with complete information and no payoff uncertainty. Here I pick up the second of, what is called in that previous paper, the 'Portuguese' models and extend it in the following directions: - there is payoff risk for the forest owners due to exogenous hazards (forest fires or others); - forest owners can buy private services from the owners which contribute to reduce the losses resulting from those hazards. The main focus in this paper is to derive the comparative static results about the demand of these private services by the forest owners.
    Keywords: forest owners’ associations, public and private goods joint supply, game theory
    JEL: L
    Date: 2005–03–13
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wpa:wuwpio:0503005&r=agr
  19. By: Julio J. Nogues (Universidad Di Tella)
    Abstract: An FTAA that provides gains to all participants remains a major challenge for LA. Given the demanding pre-conditions required in these and other negotiations with industrial countries, I am unsure whether all LA countries will be able to confront this challenge successfully. It is of paramount importance that Governments can document clear net gains to their societies, because otherwise a few years down the road, regional relations may become soured by an under-performing FTAA.
    Keywords: Latin America, FTAA negotiations, Agricultural protectionism
    JEL: F1 F2
    Date: 2005–02–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wpa:wuwpit:0502006&r=agr
  20. By: Lilyan E. Fulginiti (Iowa State University); Jason F. Shogren (Iowa State University)
    Abstract: The present paper explores why farmers are taxed in poor countries and subsidized in rich countries. Using the economic theory of contests to come to an understanding of the incentives for agricultural protectionism, we first sketch a framework for an excludable and rivalrous rent. We then apply this framework to agricultural protectionism in developing countries.
    Keywords: Agricultural protection, public choice, collective action, excludable and rivalrous rent, developing countries
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2005–02–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wpa:wuwpot:0502010&r=agr
  21. By: Alejandro Onofri (University of Nebraska); Lilyan E. Fulginiti (University of Nebraska)
    Abstract: This paper introduces a dynamic model of productivity measurement based on recent endogenous growth theories. The model presented in this study is based on dynamic duality theory and incorporate public goods (public capital and R&D) as external factors to the firms. It also rationalizes the provision of public inputs by a benevolent social planner that internalizes the effects of them. Moreover, the Le Chatelier principle is extended for this dynamic duality modelin which the public factors are quasi-fixed for the firm and all firm-specific inputs can be adjusted in the long run. Therefore, increasing returns to scale over all inputs can still be tested at the long-run equilibrium perceived by the firm. Additionally, this model permits deriving testable hypotheses related to the two conditions of endogenous growth theory mentioned above. The model is tested with data for the U.S. agricultural sector.
    Keywords: endogenous growth, dynamic productivity, public goods, duality, U.S. agriculture
    JEL: H54 O13 Q16
    Date: 2005–02–28
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wpa:wuwpot:0502011&r=agr
  22. By: Pon Nya Mon (Washington State University); David W. Holland (Washington State University)
    Abstract: This paper provides an Input-Output (I/O) based economic impact analysis for organic apple production in Washington State. The intent is to compare the economic “ripple” effect of organic production with conventional production. The analysis is presented in two scenarios: first we compare the economic impact of organic versus conventional apple production for a l demand increase of one million US$ as measured in sales. The second analysis looks at the economic impact of organic and conventional apple production in terms of given unit of land (405 hectares of production). Both state-wide output (sales) and employment (jobs) impacts are estimated under each scenario. Results are presented in terms of direct, indirect, and induced economic impact. Organic apple production was more labor intensive than conventional production. While, the organic apple sector used less intermediate inputs per unit of output than conventional production it also produced higher returns to labor and capital. As a result, the indirect economic effect was lower for the organic sector than the conventional sector, but the induced economic effect was higher for organic. Given the organic price premium, the economic impact (direct, indirect and induced) was larger for organic apple production than conventional apple production.
    Keywords: conventional and organic apple production, multiplier effects, output, and employment effects, IMPLAN
    JEL: D58 R11
    Date: 2005–03–22
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wpa:wuwpot:0503009&r=agr
  23. By: Lilyan E. Fulginiti (University of Nebraska); Richard K. Perrin (University of Nebraska)
    Abstract: This study uses the quantity-based Allais-Debreu measure of loss to measure the waste, in output or resources, induced by interventions in the agricultural sector in 18 developing countries.
    Keywords: Allais-Debreu, deadweight loss, LDC's, agricultural taxation
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2005–03–02
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wpa:wuwppe:0503001&r=agr
  24. By: Manoranjan Pattanayak (Jawaharlal Nehu University); Bibhu Prasad Nayak (Jawaharlal Nehu University)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyze the crop diversification and crop concentration in Orissa in the last one and half decade. It is pursued through measuring crop diversification and crop concentration index. We have used Herphindal and Entropy measure for crop diversification and locational quotient measure has been used to measure crop concentration. The result shows that in all most all districts, crop specialization is taking place and more so in the last phase of our study. Then employing an ordinary least square we have figured out the major determinants of crop diversification.
    Keywords: Crop Diversification, Orissa agriculture, crop concentration, spatio-temporal analysis
    JEL: N55 Q10
    Date: 2005–02–26
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:wpa:wuwpur:0502004&r=agr

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