nep-age New Economics Papers
on Economics of Ageing
Issue of 2022‒11‒21
nine papers chosen by
Claudia Villosio
LABORatorio R. Revelli

  1. The Health-Consumption Effects of Increasing Retirement Age Late in the Game By Eve Caroli; Catherine Pollak; Muriel Roger
  2. Gender gap in pension savings: Evidence from Peru’s individual capitalization system∗ By Javier Olivera; Yadiraah Iparraguirre
  3. Optimal Progressive Pension Systems in a Life-Cycle Model with Heterogeneity in Job Stability By Nam, Leanne
  4. Are the Grandparents Alright?: The Health Consequences of Grandparental Childcare Provision By Eibich, Peter; Zai, Xianhua
  5. SocPen Beyond Ten: A Process Evaluation of the DSWD Social Pension (SocPen) Program for Indigent Senior Citizens amid the COVID-19 Pandemic By Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Monje, Jennifer D.; Muñoz, Mika S.
  6. The Effects of Admitting Immigrants: A Look at Japan’s School and Pension Systems By Jinno, Masatoshi; Yasuoka, Masaya
  7. Nursing homes and mortality in Europe: Uncertain causality By Xavier Flawinne; Mathieu Lefebvre; Sergio Perelman; Pierre Pestieau; Jérôme Schoenmaeckers
  8. Analyse des déterminants à la prise en charge sociale de la dépendance liée à l'âge. By Sébastien Dambrine
  9. Nota sobre el Presupuesto del Sistema de la Seguridad Social 2023 By Miguel Ángel García Díaz

  1. By: Eve Caroli (LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IZA - Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit - Institute of Labor Economics); Catherine Pollak (DREES - Centre de Recherche du DREES - Ministère de l'Emploi et de la Solidarité, LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris Dauphine-PSL - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Muriel Roger (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LIEPP - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d'évaluation des politiques publiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: Using the differentiated increase in retirement age across cohorts introduced by the 2010 French pension reform, we estimate the health-consumption effects of a 4-month increase in retirement age. We focus on individuals who were close to retirement age but not retired yet by the time the reform was passed. Using administrative data on individual sick-leave claims and nonhospital health-care expenses, we show that the probability of having at least one sickness absence increases for all treated groups, while the duration of sick leaves remains unchanged. Delaying retirement does not increase the probability of seeing a GP, except for men in the younger cohorts. In contrast, it raises the probability of having a visit with a specialist physician for all individuals, except men in the older cohorts. Delaying retirement also increases the probability of seeing a physiotherapist among women from the older cohorts. Overall, it increases health expense claims, in particular in the lower part of the expenditure distribution.
    Keywords: pension reform,retirement age,health,health-care consumption
    Date: 2022–10
  2. By: Javier Olivera (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.); Yadiraah Iparraguirre (Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú.)
    Abstract: We study the gender gap in pension funds in Peru, a country where the main pension system is based on individual retirement accounts. We exploit randomly selected samples of administrative pension fund individual registers collected between 2005 and 2019 and find a gender gap in favour of men at each percentile of the distribution of pension funds. The unconditional gender gap decreases along the percentiles until it reaches a sort of “glass ceiling” around the 85th percentile, and then it increases substantially. We also detect heterogeneity by birth cohorts, indicating that older cohorts show higher gender gaps in pension saving because of the capitalization process. Moreover, we find that awareness about pension fund risk management –a proxy for financial literacy– increases the dispersion of pension savings over the distribution and, therefore, increases inequality and the gender gap. This situation is aggravated by the fact that Peru has very low levels of financial literacy JEL Classification-JE: D31, G23, J16, J32.
    Keywords: Gender gap, Pension savings, Financial literacy, Unconditional quantile, Peru.
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Nam, Leanne
    JEL: E24 H21 H55 J64
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Eibich, Peter; Zai, Xianhua
    Abstract: This paper examines the causal effect of childcare provision on grandparents' health in the US. We propose the sex ratio among older adults' children as a novel instrument for grandparental childcare provision. Our instrument is rooted in the demographic literature on grandparenthood and exploits that parents of daughters transition to grandparenthood earlier and invest more in their grandchildren than parents of sons. We estimate 2SLS regressions using data from the Health and Retirement Study. The results suggest that childcare provision is not beneficial for grandparents' health and may even be detrimental for physical functioning and subjective health. Specically, grandparenting worsens functional limitations of IADL by 26 percent and subjective health by 9.5 percent.
    Keywords: Grandparents, Childcare provision, Instrumental variables, Health
    Date: 2022–11–07
  5. By: Albert, Jose Ramon G.; Monje, Jennifer D.; Muñoz, Mika S.
    Abstract: Since 2011, the government, through the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD), has implemented the Social Pension (SocPen) Program which gives a noncontributory monthly pension of PHP 500 to qualified seniors, i.e., indigent Filipinos aged 60 and above. Initially, the DSWD had sought to provide assistance to 1.2 million indigent senior citizens identified by the Listahanan, on a PHP 8.71 billion budget allocation. Insufficient funds had prompted the department to realistically target only 138,960 seniors at program inception, though the actual served were 140,576 senior citizens with an actual budget of PHP 843.5million. Budget allocation for the SocPen has increased exponentially since program inception to over PHP 23.4 billion in 2021. With this 2,540 percent jump of a budget in a span of 10 years, the 2021 physical target has also increased to 3,835,066 senior citizens, a 2,634 percent increase. The 2020 physical target for SocPen is nearly two-fifths (37.8%) of senior citizens. This study describes the SocPen’s design and current implementation processes, especially in the wake of Covid-19, and attempts to increase the financial assistance and coverage of beneficiaries. The examination will also look into the recent experience of DSWD with the Social Amelioration program, which included cash transfers for SocPen beneficiaries and other vulnerable populations. While overall the program is well-intentioned and is welcomed by seniors, and the SocPen has undergone some changes in response to criticisms of several external evaluations, implementation deficits persist. These need to be addressed, especially as the SocPen is currently one of the largest social protection programs of the government, and has the potential to significantly impact the lives of elderly indigent beneficiaries. Comments to this paper are welcome within 60 days from the date of posting. Email
    Keywords: process evaluation; social pension; senior citizens; indigent; SocPen; vulnerable population; social protection
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Jinno, Masatoshi; Yasuoka, Masaya
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of admitting immigrants to Japan on the welfare of native Japanese residents. The paper considers the imperfect substitutability between native and immigrant laborers in line with the pension and education systems. It is argued that immigration may have indirect negative effects, for example, imposing the additional burden of educating immigrant children who require additional support to master the Japanese culture, customs, and language. This research uses numerical data analysis of Japan. The findings indicate that admitting immigrants, even when they are not perfectly complementary, might increase the wage level and the utility of the natives. There are also direct implications on the type of pension system that is available for natives and immigrants. This study recommends that the defined replacement rate pension system is preferable for natives when there is a relatively substitutable relationship between natives and immigrants.
    Keywords: Immigrants, Burden of schooling, Pension, Substitutability, Complementarity.
    JEL: H52 H55 J61
    Date: 2022–10–27
  7. By: Xavier Flawinne (Université de Liège); Mathieu Lefebvre (AMSE - Aix-Marseille Sciences Economiques - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - AMU - Aix Marseille Université - ECM - École Centrale de Marseille - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Sergio Perelman (Université de Liège); Pierre Pestieau (Université de Liège, PSE - Paris School of Economics - UP1 - Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - ENS-PSL - École normale supérieure - Paris - PSL - Université Paris sciences et lettres - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement); Jérôme Schoenmaeckers (Université de Liège, CIRIEC-Belgium)
    Abstract: The current health crisis has particularly affected the elderly population. Nursing homes have unfortunately experienced a relatively large number of deaths. On the basis of this observation and working with European data (from SHARE), we want to check whether nursing homes were lending themselves to excess mortality even before the pandemic. Controlling for a number of important characteristics of the elderly population in and outside nursing homes, we conjecture that the difference in mortality between those two samples is to be attributed to the way nursing homes are designed and organized. Using matching methods, we observe excess mortality in Sweden, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Czech Republic and Estonia but not in the Netherlands, Denmark, Austria, France, Luxembourg, Italy and Spain. This raises the question of the organization and management of these nursing homes, but also of their design and financing.
    Keywords: mortality,nursing homes,propensity score matching,SHARE
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Sébastien Dambrine (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université Paris Nord - LABEX ICCA - UP13 - Université Paris 13 - Université Sorbonne Nouvelle - Paris 3 - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UPCité - Université Paris Cité - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - Université Sorbonne Paris Nord)
    Abstract: Cette étude a pour but de comprendre les facteurs pouvant expliquer les variations de recours à l'aide humaine chez les personnes âgées de 75 ans et plus. Afin d'avoir un regard éclairé sur la question de la dépendance liée à l'âge, nous considérons importante l'étude statistique des différents déterminants du recours à l'aide humaine. Cette étude se situe dans un esprit de compréhension des mécanismes qui pourraient entrainer une prédisposition à la dépendance. Nous pourrons, ainsi apporter un regard éclairé sur les éventuelles lacunes du système de financement de la dépendance et ainsi proposer des pistes d'amélioration. Nous situerons notre recherche à l'échelle départementale selon une double contrainte de disponibilité des données, mais également d'un nombre d'observations suffisantes pour la robustesse des conclusions. Notre recherche se concentre sur une partie de la population susceptible d'être en situation de dépendance liée à l'âge. Pour faire cette distinction nous utiliserons les résultats de l'enquête Vie Quotidienne et Santé et nous intéresserons à la population qui déclare recevoir de l'aide dans les actes de la vie quotidienne. Tout d'abord nous allons nous intéresser à la notion de dépendance et en particulier les critères permettant de définir une personne comme dépendante. Nous rechercherons ensuite les différentes modalités de prise en charge qu'elles soient collectives ou individuelles ainsi que leurs modes de financement.
    Date: 2022–10–05
  9. By: Miguel Ángel García Díaz
    Abstract: Esta nota analiza las principales novedades del proyecto de presupuesto del Sistema de Seguridad Social 2023, entre las que destacan, además de la fuerte subida de las pensiones, una mejora de las dotaciones del Ingreso Mínimo Vital y la Atención a la Dependencia.
    Date: 2022–10

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