nep-age New Economics Papers
on Economics of Ageing
Issue of 2022‒08‒22
fifteen papers chosen by
Claudia Villosio
LABORatorio R. Revelli

  1. Spillover Effects of Old-Age Pension across Generations: Family Labor Supply and Child Outcomes By Katja Maria Kaufmann; Yasemin Özdemir; Han Ye
  2. ¿Qué hacer en protección económica para la vejez? By Luis Fernando Mejía; David Forero
  3. Mapping loss of autonomy among the elderly By Amélie Carrère
  4. Women and men are equally likely to be caregivers for dependent partners, but the nature of their help differs By Léa Toulemon
  5. Healthy Ageing in Pakistan By Wajid Islam
  6. Time-consistent pension policy with minimum guarantee and sustainability constraint By Caroline Hillairet; Sarah Kaakai; Mohamed Mrad
  7. The Demographic Outlook: 2022 to 2052 By Congressional Budget Office
  8. Optimal policies in an aging society By Jaimes, Richard; Westerhout, Ed
  9. The Great Demographic Reversal: Ageing Societies, Waning Inequality, and an Inflation Revival, PIDE Book Launch Webinar By Nazia Hasan
  10. Richer and healthier? Social pension and unhealthy behavior in China By Wang, Xiaobing; Lei, Xinyuan; Ren, Yanjun; Yu, Jianyu
  11. Cartographie de la perte d’autonomie des personnes âgées By Amélie Carrère
  12. Effects of Chronic Disease Diagnoses on Alcohol Consumption among Elderly Individuals—Longitudinal Evidence from China By Chen, Qihui; Hu, Yue; Zhang, Bo
  13. Association between Social Activity and Skeletal Muscle Mass (Japanese) By TABARA Yasuharu
  14. COVID-19 Private Pension Withdrawals and Unemployment Tenures By Sainsbury, Tristram; Breunig, Robert; Watson, Timothy
  15. A Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Lockdowns on Covid-19 Mortality - II By Herby, Jonas; Jonung, Lars; Hanke, Steve

  1. By: Katja Maria Kaufmann; Yasemin Özdemir; Han Ye
    Abstract: We study the impact of grandparental retirement decisions on family members’ labor supply and child outcomes by exploiting a Dutch pension reform in a fuzzy Regression Discontinuity design. A one-hour increase in grandmothers’ hours worked causes adult daughters with young children to work half an hour less. Daughters without children, with older children and sons/daughters-in-law are not affected. We show important long-run impacts on maternal labor supply and on the child penalty. Test score effects are positive for children aged 4-7 (substitution from grandparental to maternal care), and negative for children aged 11-12 (substitution from grandparental to formal childcare).
    Keywords: spillover effects, retirement, grandparental childcare, maternal labor supply, child development
    JEL: J13 J22 J26 I38 D64
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Luis Fernando Mejía; David Forero
    Abstract: Este capítulo estudia el sistema de protección para la vejez colombiano, analizando sus principales problemas, las causas de estos y las propuestas de política pública para solucionarlos.
    Keywords: Protección Económica a la Vejez, Pensiones de Jubilación, Política Pública, Retirement Pensions, Public Policy
    JEL: D02 J26 H55
    Date: 2022–06–13
  3. By: Amélie Carrère (IPP - Institut des politiques publiques, INED - Institut national d'études démographiques)
    Abstract: Understanding the differences in loss of autonomy between French departments is essential since they are the leading providers of social services to the elderly. For the first time, thanks to the combination of several data sources, it is possible to obtain a snapshot of the care needs of the elderly in each French department. This study sheds light on the differences in care that can be observed between departments from the perspective of the needs of their citizens, and can help to orient local policies to meet these needs. Unlike previous studies on the subject, it is not restricted to the population receiving benefits related to loss of autonomy (Abassi et al., 2020), it includes both the at-home and institutionalized populations (Brunel and Carrère, 2017), and it compares several measures of disability (Larbi and Roy, 2019). Moreover, it allows us to question the implications of departmental policy via two channels: (1) the way departments mobilize the criteria for assessing loss of autonomy; and (2) the supply of institutional places and the residential mobilities that may induce.
    Date: 2022–01
  4. By: Léa Toulemon (IPP - Institut des politiques publiques)
    Abstract: Respecting their wishes as to where they should be cared for, elderly people who are losing their autonomy are encouraged to remain at home, but in doing so a large part of the burden of care is implicitly placed upon their family and friends. When the elderly lose their independence, the people who live with them, especially their partners, are the first to be called upon to provide day-to-day assistance. Using detailed data on the difficulties faced by older people in their daily lives and the tasks performed by their caregivers in their homes, we examine the influence of gender on the likelihood of helping a dependent partner, as well as the type of tasks performed.
    Date: 2021–10
  5. By: Wajid Islam (M.Phil Scholar, PIDE)
    Abstract: Ageing is a reality and thus healthy ageing is a very important topic but it is neglected over the years in Pakistan. Being the fifth populous country in the world, Pakistan is among those 10 countries where there are more than 10 million people are old. People over 60-year age are considered old, 60 years old people don’t need to fulfill all the characteristics of old people.
    Keywords: Healthy Ageing,
    Date: 2021
  6. By: Caroline Hillairet; Sarah Kaakai; Mohamed Mrad
    Abstract: This paper proposes and investigates an optimal pair investment/pension policy for a pay-as-you-go (PAYG) pension scheme. The social planner can invest in a buffer fund in order to guarantee a minimal pension amount. The model aims at taking into account complex dynamic phenomena such as the demographic risk and its evolution over time, the time and age dependence of agents preferences, and financial risks. The preference criterion of the social planner is modeled by a consistent dynamic utility defined on a stochastic domain, which incorporates the heterogeneity of overlapping generations and its evolution over time. The preference criterion and the optimization problem also incorporate sustainability, adequacy and fairness constraints. The paper designs and solves the social planner's dynamic decision criterion, and computes the optimal investment/pension policy in a general framework. A detailed analysis for the case of dynamic power utilities is provided.
    Date: 2022–07
  7. By: Congressional Budget Office
    Abstract: In CBO’s projections, the size of the U.S. population increases from 335 million people in 2022 to 369 million people in 2052. Population growth is increasingly driven by net immigration, which accounts for all population growth in 2043 and beyond.
    JEL: J10 J11 J13 J15
    Date: 2022–07–27
  8. By: Jaimes, Richard; Westerhout, Ed (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Date: 2022
  9. By: Nazia Hasan (Ph.D. Scholar, PIDE)
    Abstract: In the advanced economies at any rate the effect of demography and some reversal globalization is going to lead to increased inflation. The main reason is that demographic development in recent decades has been remarkably favorable for the capitalist world and advanced economies.
    Keywords: Demographic Reversal, Ageing Societies,
    Date: 2021
  10. By: Wang, Xiaobing; Lei, Xinyuan; Ren, Yanjun; Yu, Jianyu
    Keywords: Health Economics and Policy, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2022–08
  11. By: Amélie Carrère (IPP - Institut des politiques publiques, INED - Institut national d'études démographiques)
    Abstract: La question des différences de perte d'autonomie entre les départements est essentielle puisque ceux-ci sont chefs de file de l'action sociale auprès des personnes âgées. Pour la première fois, grâce à la combinaison de plusieurs sources de données, il est possible d'avoir une photographie des besoins de prise en charge des personnes âgées dans chaque département de France. Cette étude permet d'éclairer les différences de prise en charge que l'on observe entre départements au prisme des besoins de leurs administrés, et peut les aider à orienter leur politique locale pour y répondre. Contrairement aux précédentes études sur le sujet, elle ne se restreint pas à la population recevant des prestations liées à la perte d'autonomie (Abassi et al., 2020), elle inclut à la fois la population à domicile et celle en établissement (Brunel et Carrère, 2017) elle compare plusieurs mesures de la perte d'autonomie (Larbi et Roy, 2019). Par ailleurs, elle permet de questionner les implications de la politique départementale via deux canaux : (1) la façon dont les départements mobilisent les critères d'évaluation de la perte d'autonomie, et (2) l'offre de places en établissement et les mobilités résidentielles qu'elle peut induire.
    Date: 2022–01
  12. By: Chen, Qihui; Hu, Yue; Zhang, Bo
    Keywords: Health Economics and Policy, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Consumer/Household Economics
    Date: 2022–08
  13. By: TABARA Yasuharu
    Abstract: Because frailty in older adults is a strong risk factor for functional disability, early intervention for individuals who are at-risk of becoming frailty is important in preventing them from becoming bedridden and dying. Sarcopenia, a complex phenotype defined by loss of muscle mass, weak muscle strength, and decreased physical performance, is the primary cause of frailty. Typical risk factors for sarcopenia identified to date include aging, low body weight, malnutrition, and reduced daily activity. In addition, decreased social activity may also be a risk factor for sarcopenia, although few studies have examined the association between them. In this study, we aimed to investigate the possible involvement of social activity in sarcopenia in a community-dwelling of older adults. A total of 2,212 participants of the Nagahama study, a longitudinal study based on community residents living in the Nagahama City, Shiga Prefecture, Japan, was included in the analysis. Social activity was queried using a structured questionnaire. The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) measured using bioimpedance analysis was used as an index of skeletal muscle mass. The mean age of the study participants was 71.0 ± 4.1 years, and 43.0% were male. SMI was significantly lower in women, and positively correlated with body mass index in both sexes. Individuals who had been engaged in agriculture, forestry, or fisheries had significantly higher SMI independently of age and body mass index. The degree of neighborliness was also significantly related to SMI, with significantly lower SMI for those who had limited or infrequent neighborhood contacts. In addition, SMI was higher in individuals who engaged in frequent social activities, such as community activities, sports/hobbies/recreational activities, and volunteer/non-profit organizations/civic activities. This paper concludes that higher social activity is a protective factor for the development of sarcopenia.
    Date: 2022–07
  14. By: Sainsbury, Tristram (Australian National University); Breunig, Robert (Australian National University); Watson, Timothy (Australian National University)
    Abstract: This is the first study to evaluate the effects of early pension withdrawal policies on tenures on unemployment payments in the COVID-19 context. We use a novel set of linked whole-of-population administrative records to examine more than half-a-million Australians who found themselves newly on an unemployment payment in the initial months of the COVID-19 pandemic. We estimate that receiving a lump sum of up to A$10,000 from superannuation accounts at the most acute phase of the pandemic, between April and June 2020, resulted in a 32 per cent lower exit rate from unemployment benefits inside the first six months of a spell on benefits, and 14 per cent inside a year of spell. Receiving a lump sum during the second window of opportunity – mostly in July and August 2020 and as a labour market recovery was underway – resulted in a 34 per cent lower exit from unemployment benefits inside the first nine months of spell, and 14 per cent inside fifteen months of spell. The jobseeking deterrence is ultimately temporary but it took close to eighteen months for an estimated convergence between withdrawers and those that didn't withdraw. 162,000 withdrawers with completed spells on average spent an additional 7 weeks on unemployment payments, translating to 8 million additional days in aggregate, and implying A$580 million in additional pandemic fiscal expenditure.
    Keywords: unemployment, crisis management, fiscal policy, government expenditure, unemployment benefits, welfare programs, private pensions
    JEL: E24 H12 H30 H53 J32
    Date: 2022–06
  15. By: Herby, Jonas; Jonung, Lars; Hanke, Steve
    Abstract: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the effect of lockdowns on COVID-19 mortality based on available empirical evidence. Lockdowns are defined as the imposition of at least one compulsory, non-pharmaceutical intervention (NPI). We employ a systematic search and screening procedure in which 19,646 studies are identified that could potentially address the purpose of our study. After three levels of screening, 32 studies qualified. Of those, estimates from 22 studies could be converted to standardized measures for inclusion in the meta-analysis. They are separated into three groups: lockdown stringency index studies,shelter-in-place-order (SIPO) studies, and specific NPI studies. Stringency index studies find that the average lockdown in Europe and the United States in the spring of 2020 only reduced COVID19 mortality by 3.2%. This translates into approximately 6,000 avoided deaths in Europe and 4,000 in the United States. SIPOs were also relatively ineffective in the spring of 2020, only reducing COVID-19 mortality by 2.0%. This translates into approximately 4,000 avoided deaths in Europe and 3,000 in the United States. Based on specific NPIs, we estimate that the average lockdown in Europe and the United States in the spring of 2020 reduced COVID-19 mortality by 10.7%. This translates into approximately 23,000 avoided deaths in Europe and 16,000 in the United States. In comparison, there are approximately 72,000 flu deaths in Europe and 38,000 flu deaths in the United States each year. When checked for potential biases, our results are robust. Our results are also supported by the natural experiments we have been able to identify. The results of our meta-analysis support the conclusion that lockdowns in the spring of 2020 had little to no effect on COVID-19 mortality. This result is consistent with the view that voluntary changes in behavior, such as social distancing, did play an important role in mitigating the pandemic.
    Keywords: COVID-19, lockdown, non-pharmaceutical interventions, mortality, systematic review, meta-analysis
    JEL: D1 D19 I1 I18 I3 I38
    Date: 2022–05

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