nep-age New Economics Papers
on Economics of Ageing
Issue of 2022‒06‒13
eight papers chosen by
Claudia Villosio
LABORatorio R. Revelli

  1. Burden of Diseases among Elderly in Pakistan By Saima Bashir; Saman Nazir
  2. Does Schooling Improve Cognitive Abilities at Older Ages: Causal Evidence from Nonparametric Bounds By Vikesh Amin; Jere R. Behrman; Jason M. Fletcher; Carlos A. Flores; Alfonso Flores-Lagunes; Hans-Peter Kohler
  3. Employment Effects of Incentivized Gradual Retirement Plans By Rutten, Albert; van Vuuren, Daniël; Knoef, Marike
  4. The Design of Defined Contribution Plans By Vivek Bhattacharya; Gastón Illanes
  5. Научные представления о финансовой грамотности населения// Humanitarian and Socio-Economic Sciences Journal ISSN 2733-0931, no. 6(17) (November 30, 2021)/ Chief Editor V. Klevtcov /Open European Academy of Public Sciences : Tallinn, Estonia, 2021. P.91-101. By Kudryashov, Alexander
  6. Multi-population analysis reveals spatial consistency in drivers of population dynamics of a declining migratory bird By Nater, Chloé Rebecca; Burgess, Malcolm D.; Coffey, Peter; Harris, Bob; Lander, Frank; Price, David; Reed, Mike; Robinson, Rob
  7. An application: Pension systems and transitions By Vîntu, Denis
  8. Amor, trabajo y (des)protección social. Una aproximación al cuidado no remunerado de personas mayores en la ciudad de Mar del Plata, Argentina By Cutuli, Romina; Camou, Rosario; Colombo, Antonella; Vinitzky, Marianella

  1. By: Saima Bashir (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics); Saman Nazir (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics)
    Abstract: The world is aging, and so is Pakistan. Almost every country in the world is experiencing growth in the elderly population (aged 60 or above). It results from declining fertility and mortality, resultantly increasing life expectancy, known as the demographic transition. Pakistan’s older population is growing in both absolute and relative terms. The number of Pakistani aged 60 and older is estimated to nearly double from 7 percent (14 million) in 2019 to14 percent by 2050 (Zaidi, et al. 2019). Due to improvements in hygiene, the introduction of vaccinations, and the application of newer diagnostic and treatment technologies, the world has experienced a significant increase in life expectancy. However, this demographic phenomenon, i.e., the increase in the share of older people in the total population, has increased pressure on healthcare systems due to complicated health problems and disabilities among the elderly population across the world.
    Keywords: Burden, Diseases, Elderly, Pakistan
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Vikesh Amin (Central Michigan University); Jere R. Behrman (University of Pennsylvania); Jason M. Fletcher (University of Wisconsin-Madison, NBER, and IZA); Carlos A. Flores (California Polytechnic State University); Alfonso Flores-Lagunes (Syracuse University, IZA, and GLO); Hans-Peter Kohler (University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: We revisit the much-investigated relationship between schooling and health, focusing on cognitive abilities at older ages using the Harmonized Cognition Assessment Protocol in the Health & Retirement Study. To address endogeneity concerns, we employ a nonparametric partial identification approach that provides bounds on the population average treatment effect using a monotone instrumental variable together with relatively weak monotonicity assumptions on treatment selection and response. The bounds indicate potentially large effects of increasing schooling from primary to secondary but are also consistent with small and null effects. We find evidence for a causal effect of increasing schooling from secondary to tertiary on cognition. We also replicate findings from the Health & Retirement Study using another sample of older adults from the Midlife in United States Development Study Cognition Project.
    Keywords: Schooling, Cognition, Bounds, Aging, Partial Identification
    JEL: I10 I26 J14
    Date: 2022–05–20
  3. By: Rutten, Albert (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management); van Vuuren, Daniël (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management); Knoef, Marike (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Vivek Bhattacharya; Gastón Illanes
    Abstract: Defined contribution (DC) plans are a major vehicle for retirement savings in the US, holding almost $10 trillion in assets under management. In recent years, the quality and availability of these plans has been the subject of active policy attention and of several major lawsuits. This paper studies how employers and plan providers (recordkeepers) design these plans. We argue that low plan quality and limited provision can come from two sources. First, employer willingness to pay may be misaligned with that of workers or of regulators. Second, the market for recordkeeping may be imperfectly competitive. We propose a model of plan design and estimate that while both frictions are at play, significant changes to plan quality require modifying employer preferences. Accordingly, we evaluate proposed policies and conclude that only direct quality regulation can lead to significant quality improvements. Recent proposals can increase plan provision but have negligible quality effects.
    JEL: C78 J32 L51
    Date: 2022–04
  5. By: Kudryashov, Alexander (Open European Academy of Public Sciences)
    Abstract: За последнее десятилетие финансовая грамотность населения стала важным вопросом для правительства Российской Федерации. Финансовая грамотность имеет решающее значение для граждан, как эффективное знание для преодоления будущих последствий демографических изменений, прежде всего таких, как старение и низкие темпы воспроизводства населения, что, в свою очередь, находит отражение этого тренда и в развитых странах. Необходимость владения минимальными знаниями в области управления личными финансами также связано с усложнением финансовых рынков и распространением новых финансовых технологий. Финансовая грамотность является необходимым требованием обеспечения финансовой доступности, способствуя стимулированию экономического роста и улучшения благосостояния населения.Over the past decade, the financial literacy of the population has become an important issue for the government of the Russian Federation. Financial literacy is crucial for citizens as effective knowledge to overcome the future consequences of demographic changes, primarily such as aging and low reproduction rates of the population, which, in turn, is reflected in this trend in developed countries. The need to have minimal knowledge in the field of personal finance management is also associated with the complication of financial markets and the spread of new financial technologies. Financial literacy is a necessary requirement for financial inclusion, helping to stimulate economic growth and improve the well-being of the population.
    Date: 2021–11–23
  6. By: Nater, Chloé Rebecca; Burgess, Malcolm D.; Coffey, Peter; Harris, Bob; Lander, Frank; Price, David; Reed, Mike; Robinson, Rob
    Abstract: Many migratory species are in decline across their geographical ranges. Single-population studies can provide important insights into drivers at a local scale, but effective conservation requires multi-population perspectives. This is challenging because relevant data are often hard to consolidate, and state-of-the-art analytical tools are typically tailored to specific datasets. We capitalized on a recent data harmonization initiative (SPI-Birds) and linked it to a generalized modeling framework to identify the demographic and environmental drivers of large-scale population decline in migratory pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding across Britain. We implemented a generalized integrated population model (IPM) to estimate age-specific vital rates, including their dependency on environmental conditions, and total and breeding population size of pied flycatchers using long-term (34-64 years) monitoring data from seven locations representative of the British breeding range. We then quantified the relative contributions of different vital rates and population structure to changes in short- and long-term population growth rate using transient life table response experiments (LTREs). Substantial covariation in population sizes across breeding locations suggested that change was the result of large-scale drivers. This was supported by LTRE analyses, which attributed past changes in short-term population growth rates and long-term population trends primarily to variation in annual survival and dispersal dynamics, which largely act during migration and/or non-breeding season. Contributions of variation in local reproductive parameters were small in comparison, despite sensitivity to local temperature and rainfall within the breeding period. We show that both short- and longer-term population changes of British-breeding pied flycatchers are likely linked to factors acting during migration and in non-breeding areas, where future research should be prioritized. We illustrate the potential of multi-population analyses for informing management at (inter)national scales and highlight the importance of data standardization, generalized and accessible analytical tools, and reproducible workflows to achieve them.
    Date: 2022–04–21
  7. By: Vîntu, Denis
    Abstract: The classical IS-LM model does not have inflation and inflation expectation in it; it is exogenous. The LM curve shifts as the price level changes and subsequently the real money supply changes assuming the money stock stays the same. The decreasing interest rate pressure on the private sector translates into an accelerating rise in investments. Suppose an economy is at unemployment equilibrium. Inflation is stable so the central bank has no price-caused reason to intervene. To stimulate the economy, the central bank cuts (nominal) interest rate horizon. One type frequently discussed is when expansionary fiscal policy reduces investment spending by the private sector. The government spending is "crowding out" investment because it is demanding more loanable funds and thus causing increased interest rates and therefore reducing investment spending. This basic analysis has been broadened to multiple channels that might leave total output little changed or even smaller. As Keynesian economics, the Phillips curve provided a menu of tradeoffs for policy-makers: They could use demand management policies to increase output and decrease unemployment, but this could only be done at the expense of higher inflation.
    Keywords: IS-LM model; dynamic general equilibrium (DGE); Monetary Policy, Policy Design and Consistency; discrete regression; prices; econometric methods; IS-LM model; dynamic general equilibrium (DGE); Monetary Policy, Policy Design and Consistency; discrete regression; prices; econometric methods
    JEL: C13 E21 E41 E44
    Date: 2022–05
  8. By: Cutuli, Romina; Camou, Rosario; Colombo, Antonella; Vinitzky, Marianella
    Abstract: En este artículo se analizan las condiciones de familiarización y feminización del cuidado de personas mayores en la ciudad de Mar del Plata, Argentina. En el país, la organización social del cuidado y las normativas que la regulan están signadas por un marcado familiarismo, lo que restringe las oportunidades de autonomía de las personas cuidadoras y limita el acceso a cuidados de calidad y bienestar material a las personas mayores. El Estado se hace presente en situaciones de extrema gravedad o ausencia de redes familiares, imponiendo la tensión entre el abandono y la resignación del proyecto de vida propio. La investigación que se recupera en este artículo se inició en un contexto anterior a la declaración de la pandemia y continuó, con adaptaciones metodológicas, en los primeros dos meses de pandemia. Recuperamos, a través de entrevistas y un cuestionario autoadministrado, la experiencia de mujeres cuidadoras no remuneradas de personas mayores, su perspectiva sobre el impacto del cuidado no remunerado en sus proyectos de vida y las representaciones subjetivas en torno a la labor que realizan.
    Keywords: Trabajo; Género; Cuidado de Personas Mayores; Adultos Mayores; Actividad no Remunerada;
    Date: 2021

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