nep-age New Economics Papers
on Economics of Ageing
Issue of 2020‒09‒21
24 papers chosen by
Claudia Villosio
LABORatorio R. Revelli

  1. Demographic Structure and House Prices in the United States: A Reconciliation Using Metropolitan Area Data By Jihee Ann; Cheolbeom Park
  2. Pension financing and individual retirement account By BAURIN Arno,; HINDRIKS Jean,
  3. Building an inclusive social protection system in South Africa By Falilou Fall; Andre Steenkamp
  4. Fiscal multipliers in the most aged country: Empirical evidence and theoretical interpretation By Morita, Hiroshi
  5. Use of counterfactual population projections for assessing the demographic determinants of population ageing By Murphy, Michael J.
  6. Choice of pension management fees and effects on pension wealth By BERNAL Noelia; OLIVERA Javier
  7. Cohort trends in working life expectancies at age 50 in the United States: a register-based study using social security administration data By Dudel, Christian; Myrskylä, Mikko
  8. Creating cultures of care: exploring the social organization of care delivery in long-term care homes By Caspar, Sienna; Phinney, Alison; Spenceley, Shannon; Ratner, Pam
  9. Perspectivas de la población mundial 2019: metodología de las Naciones Unidas para las estimaciones y proyecciones de población By -
  10. Utilisation of personal care services in Scotland: the influence of unpaid carers By Lemmon, Elizabeth
  11. Investment for the Demographic Window in Latin America By Rodriguez Maria Jose
  12. Building ‘implicit partnerships’? Financial long-term care entitlements in Europe By Costa-Font, Joan; Zigante, Valentina
  13. Long Life-span and Optimal Recurrent Education By Akira Momota
  14. Working and disability expectancies at older ages: the role of childhood circumstances and education By Lorenti, Angelo; Dudel, Christian; Hale, Jo Mhairi; Myrskylä, Mikko
  15. Hidden Group Time Profiles: Heterogeneous Drawdown Behaviours in Retirement By Igor Balnozan; Denzil G. Fiebig; Anthony Asher; Robert Kohn; Scott A. Sisson
  16. The impact of reforms of national health insurance on solidarity in the Netherlands: comparing health care insurance and long-term care insurance By Van der Aa, Maartje J.; Paulus, Aggie T.G.; Klosse, Saskia; Evers, Silvia M.A.A.; Maarse, Johannes A. M.
  17. State capacity in responding to COVID-19 By Serikbayeva, Balzhan; Abdulla, Kanat; Oskenbayev, Yessengali
  18. What Can Economics Say About Alzheimer's Disease? By Amitabh Chandra; Courtney Coile; Corina Mommaerts
  19. A Study of the COVID-19 Outbreak and Response in Connecticut Long-Term Care Facilities By Patricia Rowan; Rebecca Lester; Michael Levere; Jenna Libersky; Debra Lipson; Julie Robison
  20. Supply-Side Effects of Pandemic Mortality: Insights from an Overlapping-Generations Model By Etienne Gagnon; Benjamin K. Johannsen; J. David Lopez-Salido
  21. Economic Crises and Mortality Among the Elderly: Evidence from Two Russian Crises By Khvan, Margarita; Smorodenkova, Elizaveta; Yakovlev, Evgeny
  22. Support workers in community mental health teams for older people: exploring sources of satisfaction and stress By Jasper, Rowan; Wilberforce, Mark; Abendstern, Michele; Tucker, Sue; Challis, David
  23. Does perspective-taking promote intergenerational sustainability? By Mostafa Shahen; Koji Kotani; Tatsuyoshi Saijo
  24. Population Age Structure, Saving Rate impacts on Economic Growth: Myanmar Case By Lar, Ni; Taguchi, Hiroyuki

  1. By: Jihee Ann (Research Division, Korea Real Estate Research Institute, 52 Bangbaero, Seochogu, Seoul, Korea 06705); Cheolbeom Park (Department of Economics, Korea University, 145 Anamro, Seongbukgu, Seoul, Korea 02841)
    Abstract: We apply a semiparametric approach to 19 metropolitan areas in the United States (US) to relate normalized house prices to entire age distributions in each area. We find that the shape of estimated age response functions differs across areas, although most areas show a negative impact of the elderly population on house prices. We further find that the age response function is more likely to be hump shaped when the population of an area becomes more aged, which also implies a negative aging impact. These results indicate that the impact of the elderly population will be negative as the population of an economy progresses toward becoming more aged.
    Keywords: Demographic structure, Population aging, House prices, Semiparametric approach
    JEL: G12 J11 R30
    Date: 2020
  2. By: BAURIN Arno, (Université catholique de Louvain); HINDRIKS Jean, (Université catholique de Louvain, CORE, Belgium; Université catholique de Louvain, CORE, Belgium)
    Abstract: In this article, we analyze the Belgium pension financing in retrospect for the period 1995-2017 and then we provide a prospective analysis based on the demographic and economic projections of the Federal Plan Bureau. In the retrospective part, we point out the growing importance of alternative financing relative to the social security contributions. The decomposition of the public pension growth over the last decade between the average pension and the number of retirees shows that three quarters of the growth is due to the increase of the average pension. In the prospective part, we simulate the contributions and pension benefits required to balance the budget, based on different rules: Defined Contribution, Defined Benefit and the Musgrave rule (keeping constant the ratio of pension benefit to wage net of contributions). We then simulate pension adjustment via the «individual retirement account» (IRA) as proposed in Devolder (2019) and Devolder & Hindriks (2019). Under the IRA, the adjustment variables are the accrual rate (which determines the new pension claims) and the indexation rate (which determines the past pension claims). Combining those adjustment variables, our simulations show that it is possible to protect past pension claims and ensure budget balance on a yearly basis. We propose a rule of adjustment so as to equate, year by year, the replacement rate across retirees of different ages.
    Keywords: social security, pension, retirement, ageing
    JEL: H55 J11 J14 J26
    Date: 2020–01–20
  3. By: Falilou Fall; Andre Steenkamp
    Abstract: South Africa has an incomplete social protection system without a mandatory pension savings scheme. Designing a universal insurance pension system would allow to reduce the important government funded pension grant system and ensure that the old-age population has decent income. Only 40% of employees are contributing to a form of saving-retirement scheme, with often a low pension. Moreover, South Africa has a dual, public and private, health care system. Half of the country’s health-care spending goes to the private sector, which covers only 16% of the population. Moreover, the health care system fails to deliver affordable quality services. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the unequal distribution of health care services between public and private health providers. Around 70% of critical care beds available were in the private health care sector. Finally, the sizeable unconditional cash transfer system though reaching a large share of the population fail to lift many children in the poorest families above the poverty line.
    Keywords: Health, Pension, Social Protection, Unemployment Insurance
    JEL: H51 H55 I13 I18 I38 J32 J65
    Date: 2020–09–18
  4. By: Morita, Hiroshi
    Abstract: This study investigates how population aging impacts the effectiveness of a government spending shock. We estimate a panel VAR model with prefectural data in Japan, the world’s fastest aging country and reveal that a government spending shock becomes less effective as the aging rate increases. Subsequently, we construct a New Keynesian model with workers and retirees, which can replicate our empirical findings. This highlights the role of the supply-side channel through which workers facing a liquidity constraint can benefit from increased disposable income, in generating the state-dependent effect of the government spending shock. Our theoretical finding may suggest that promoting labor market participation by elderly people could increase the effectiveness of a government spending shock amid a rapidly aging society.
    Keywords: Population aging, Panel VAR model, New Keynesian model, Fiscal policy
    JEL: E62 C11 C23
    Date: 2020–09
  5. By: Murphy, Michael J.
    Abstract: Counterfactual population projections have been used to estimate the contributions of fertility and mortality to population ageing, a method recently designated as the gold standard for this purpose. We analyse projections with base years between 1850 and 1950 for 11 European countries with long-run demographic data series to estimate the robustness of this approach. We link this approach with stable population theory to derive quantitative indicators of the role of fertility and mortality; consider ways of incorporating net migration; and examine the effect of using alternative indicators of population ageing. A number of substantive and technical weaknesses in the counterfactual projection approach are identified: (1) the conclusions are very sensitive to the choice of base year. Specifically, the level of base year fertility has a major influence on whether fertility or mortality is considered the main driver of population ageing. (2) The method is not transitive: results for two adjacent intervals are unrelated to results for the combined period. Therefore, overall results cannot be usefully allocated between different sub-intervals. (3) Different ageing indices tend to produce similar qualitative conclusions, but quantitative results may differ markedly. (4) Comparisons of alternative models should be with a fixed fertility and mortality projection model rather than with the baseline values as usually done. (5) The standard counterfactual projections approach concatenates the effects of initial age structure and subsequent fertility and mortality rates: methods to separate these components are derived.
    Keywords: demography; population projections; population ageing; long-term trends
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2020–09–09
  6. By: BERNAL Noelia; OLIVERA Javier
    Abstract: To shed light on the effects of individual choice on pension wealth, we study a policy change to the management fees of pension funds implemented by Peru's government in 2013. The reform established a new balance fee as a default option; this fee is calculated as a percentage of the pension balance. Each individual had the initial option of keeping the previous management fee, a load factor fee calculated as a percentage of the individual's salary. We use administrative data to simulate pension balances based on the individual's choice of fee and the corresponding counterfactual. Our results indicate that the reform has been potentially adverse to 63.1 percent of individuals, of whom 41.4 percent were assigned to the default option and 21.7 percent voluntarily chose the load fee. These results reflect both the potentially negative unintended effects of the policy and an alarming lack of financial literacy among citizens. We also detect heterogeneity in the intensity of the losses and gains due to the reform, which caused greater losses than gains. In particular, younger and poorer individuals, as well as those automatically assigned to the balance fee, experienced higher losses. Moreover, the new fee scheme is also associated with increasing inequality between individuals' pension wealth.
    Keywords: Pension savings; management fees; individual retirement accounts; pension reform; inequality; Peru
    JEL: D31 G28 J14 J32
    Date: 2020–03
  7. By: Dudel, Christian; Myrskylä, Mikko
    Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the length of working life, even though it is a key indicator for policy-makers. In this paper, we study how the length of working life at age 50 has developed in the United States from a cohort perspective. METHODS: We use a large longitudinal sample of U.S. Social Security register data that covers close to 1.7 million individuals of the cohorts born from 1920 to 1965. For all of these cohorts, we study the employment trajectories and working life expectancy (WLE) at age 50 by gender and nativity (native-born/foreign-born). For the cohorts with employment trajectories that are only incompletely observed, we borrow information from older cohorts to predict their WLE. RESULTS: The length of working life has been increasing for the native-born males and females, and the younger cohorts worked longer than the older cohorts. However, WLE might soon peak, and then stall. The gap in WLE between the native-born and the foreign-born has increased over time, although latter group might be able to catch up in the coming years. DISCUSSION: Our findings show that studying employment from a cohort perspective reveals crucial information about patterns of working life. The future development of the length of working life should be a major concern for policy-makers.
    Keywords: cohort study; continuous working history sample; foreign-born population; working life expectancy
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2020–09–01
  8. By: Caspar, Sienna; Phinney, Alison; Spenceley, Shannon; Ratner, Pam
    Abstract: Context: As a result of changing demographics, the number of older adults living in long-term care homes (LTCHs) is expected to rise dramatically. Thus, there is a pressing need for better understanding of how the social organization of care may facilitate or hinder the quality of work-life and care in LTCHs. Objectives: This study explored how the social organization of work influences the quality of work-life and care delivery in LTCHs. Method: Institutional ethnography followed by theory building provided the conceptual underpinnings of the methodological approaches. Participants included 42 care team members who were employed by one of three participating LTCHs. Data were derived from 104 hours of participant observation and 42 interviews. Findings: The resident care aides (RCAs) were found to rely on supportive work-teams to accomplish their work successfully and safely. Reciprocity emerged as a key feature of supportive work-teams. Management practices that demonstrated respect (e.g., inclusion in residents’ admission processes), recognition, and responsiveness to the RCAs’ concerns facilitated reciprocity among the RCAs. Such reciprocity strengthened their resilience in their day-to-day work as they coped with common work-place adversities (e.g., scarce resources and grief when residents died), and was essential in shaping the quality of their work-life and provision of care. Discussion: The empowerment pyramid for person-centred care model proposes that the presence of empowered, responsive leaders exerts a significant influence on the cultivation of organizational trust and reciprocating care teams. Positive work-place relationships enable greater resilience amongst members of the care team and enhances the RCAs’ quality of work-life, which in turn influences the quality of care they provide. Limitations: Whether there were differences in the experiences, opinions, and behaviour of the people who agreed to participate and those who declined to take part could not be ascertained. Further research is required to determine and understand all of the factors that support or inhibit the development of empowered leaders in LTCHs. Implications: Cultures of caring, reciprocity and trust are created when leaders in the sector have the support and capacity to lead responsively and in ways that acknowledge and respect the contributions of all members of the team caring for some of the most vulnerable people.
    Keywords: quality of care; nursing homes; leadership; empowerment; quality of work-life
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2020–01–20
  9. By: -
    Abstract: En este informe se ofrece un panorama detallado de la metodología utilizada para elaborar la revisión de 2019 de las estimaciones y las proyecciones oficiales de población de las Naciones Unidas preparadas por la División de Población del Departamento de Asuntos Económicos y Sociales (DAES) de la Secretaría de las Naciones Unidas. La revisión de 2019 es la 26a ronda de estimaciones y proyecciones demográficas mundiales elaborada por la División de Población desde 1951.
    Date: 2020–09–04
  10. By: Lemmon, Elizabeth
    Abstract: Context: Unpaid carers may have an influence on the formal care utilisation of the cared for. Whether this influence is positive or negative will have important implications for the costs of formal care provision. Scotland, where personal care services are free to all individuals aged 65+, provides an interesting context in which to study this relationship. Moreover, the Scottish government is unique in its collection of administrative data on all social care clients. Objective: To investigate how the presence of an unpaid carer influences personal care use by those aged 65+ in Scotland. Methods: Two-part models (2PMs) are estimated using Scotland’s Social Care Survey (SCS) for the years 2014–2016. An instrumental variable (IV) approach is also implemented to deal with endogeneity concerns. Findings: The results suggest that unpaid care complements personal care services. In particular, the presence of an unpaid carer is associated with an increase in weekly personal care hours by 1 hour and 14 minutes per week, on average, other things being equal. Limitations: Concerns are noted surrounding the generalisability of results and lack of information available on client need and unpaid carers, arising from the very nature of conducting research using administrative data. Nevertheless, the findings are robust to a variety of sensitivity checks. Implications: Complementarity between unpaid and paid care may imply that unpaid carers are encouraging service use or demanding services on behalf of the cared for. Thus, policy interventions aimed at incentivising unpaid care could in fact lead to increased personal care costs to local authorities. Having said that, the complementary relationship might suggest that unpaid carers are being supported in their role and this might reduce pressure on formal care services longer term.
    Keywords: unpaid; care; informal; formal; substitution; complementary; older people; 1511017
    JEL: I11 I12 J14
    Date: 2020–07–07
  11. By: Rodriguez Maria Jose
    Abstract: This paper studies the behavior of investment during demographic transitions. In particular, I focus on the period where the working age to population ratio reaches its maximum, namely the demographic window. I document that in Europe, Asia, and Oceania investment rates are higher 15 years before and during the window than in other periods, whereas in Latin America they are lower. To understand the relation between investment and a demographic window, I build an overlapping generations model with demographic change and variable degree of financial openness. Within this framework, I conduct several exercises and counterfactuals involving potential drivers of the investment behavior. I find that the demographic behavior in conjunction with the region-specific financial openness can explain the main pattern of investment for the demographic window in Latin America vis-a-vis Europe and Asia.
    Keywords: Investment;Demographic Window;Latin America
    JEL: F21 E22 J10 O54 F41
    Date: 2019–10
  12. By: Costa-Font, Joan; Zigante, Valentina
    Abstract: The design of public subsidies for long-term care (LTC) programmes to support frail, elderly individuals in Europe is subject to both tight budget constraints and increasing demand preassures for care. However, what helps overcoming the constraints that modify LTC entitlements? We provide a unifying explanation of the conditions that facilitate the modifcation of public fnancial entitlements to LTC. We build on the concept of ‘implicit partnerships’, an implicit (or ‘silent’) agreement, encompassing the fnancial co-participation of both public funders, and families either by both allocating time and/or fnancial resources to caregiving. Next, we provide suggestive evidence of policy reforms modifying public entitlements in seven European countries which can be classifed as either ‘implicit user partnerships’ or ‘implicit caregiver partnerships’. Finally, we show that taxpayers attitudes mirror the specifc type of implicit partnership each country has adopted. Hence, we conclude that the modifcation of long-term care entitlements require the formation of some type of ‘implicit partnership’.
    Keywords: implicit partnership; user partnership; caregiver partnership; partial insurance; cost sharing; long-term care; financial sustainability; family; Europe; Springer
    JEL: E6
    Date: 2020–09–07
  13. By: Akira Momota (Ritsumeikan University)
    Abstract: This paper theoretically investigates the effect of increased longevity on the years of schooling and work. We consider a situation in which individuals have opportunities for recurrent education by assuming that the transition from schooling to work is reversible. We find that setting aside a period of time for recurrent education is optimal for individuals when the life-span is longer than a certain threshold number of years. As the life-span increases, the total schooling years and the retirement age increase. However, when the life-span becomes so long that recurrent education takes place, the effect of an increase in the active life by one year on the lifetime income is significantly smaller than in the situation where the life-span is less long.
    Keywords: Human capital, Life-cycle model, Longevity, Recurrent education.
    JEL: I29 J24 J26
    Date: 2020–09
  14. By: Lorenti, Angelo; Dudel, Christian; Hale, Jo Mhairi; Myrskylä, Mikko
    Abstract: The ability to work at older ages depends on health and education. Both accumulate starting very early in life. We assess how childhood disadvantages combine with education to affect working and health trajectories. Applying multistate period life tables to data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) for the period 2008–2014, we estimate how the residual life expectancy at age 50 is distributed in number of years of work and disability, by number of childhood disadvantages, gender, and race/ethnicity. Our findings indicate that number of childhood disadvantages is negatively associated with work and positively with disability, irrespective of gender and race/ethnicity. Childhood disadvantages intersect with low education resulting in shorter lives, and redistributing life years from work to disability. Among the highly educated, health and work differences between groups of childhood disadvantage are small. Combining multistate models and inverse probability weighting, we show that the return of high education is greater among the most disadvantaged.
    Keywords: childhood adversities; DLE; inequality; inverse probability weighting; life course; multistate models; social stratification; WLE; Max Planck Society
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2020–07–25
  15. By: Igor Balnozan; Denzil G. Fiebig; Anthony Asher; Robert Kohn; Scott A. Sisson
    Abstract: This article investigates retirement decumulation behaviours using the Grouped Fixed-Effects (GFE) estimator applied to Australian panel data on drawdowns from phased withdrawal retirement income products. Behaviours exhibited by the distinct latent groups identified suggest that retirees may adopt simple heuristics determining how they draw down their accumulated wealth. Two extensions to the original GFE methodology are proposed: a latent group label-matching procedure which broadens bootstrap inference to include the time profile estimates, and a modified estimation procedure for models with time-invariant additive fixed effects estimated using unbalanced data.
    Date: 2020–09
  16. By: Van der Aa, Maartje J.; Paulus, Aggie T.G.; Klosse, Saskia; Evers, Silvia M.A.A.; Maarse, Johannes A. M.
    Abstract: Context: Throughout Europe, the financial risks of health and long-term care are covered to varying degrees through models of national (health) insurance. Such insurance draws upon the principle of solidarity. Much is unknown on the solidarity-effects of reforms in national insurance schemes. Objective: To present an empirical analysis of the effects of recent reforms in national health insurance on solidarity in one country. Methods: We conducted a comparative analysis of the 2006 health care insurance reform and the 2015 long-term care insurance reform in the Netherlands. A multidimensional analytical framework of solidarity was developed to study the solidarity-effects of both reforms. Findings: Reforms of health care and long-term care insurance in the Netherlands had some solidarity effects, but they should not be overstated. We found evidence for increased and decreased solidarity. Health care insurance seems more ‘immune’ to reductions in solidarity than long-term care insurance. Limitations: The present case study involves reforms in the Netherlands. The solidarity framework is specifically designed for the study of solidarity-effects of reforms on national health and long-term care insurance. Effects on informal arrangements for care are beyond the scope of this study. More detailed and quantitative research is required to investigate how the reforms played out for specific groups, for instance the frail elderly, people with a disability and people with rare conditions. Similarly, long-term effects require further investigation. Implications: Given the limited scope of our analysis, more comparative research (including on an international scale) is required to develop systematic insight into the solidarity-effects of reforms in national health and long-term care insurance.
    Keywords: solidarity; health care insurance; long-term insurance; Netherlands
    JEL: E6
    Date: 2019–11–04
  17. By: Serikbayeva, Balzhan; Abdulla, Kanat; Oskenbayev, Yessengali
    Abstract: This study investigates the link between state capacity and deaths from Covid-19. We examine the effects on the Covid-19 case fatality rate of state capacity of countries with an ordered probit estimation controlling for the level of democracy, government policy responses, the share of the elderly population, and health system resource capacity indicators. The study presents strong evidence for the critical role of state capacity in achieving positive policy outcomes. The effect of government effectiveness on the Covid-19 death level is consistently negative and statistically significant, suggesting that increased government effectiveness is significantly associated with decreased Covid-19 fatality rates. The findings show that in the models controlling for government effectiveness and the testing and stay at home requirements policies, non-free countries are more likely to have lower death levels than free countries. The effects of the testing and stay at home requirements policies have expected negative signs. Higher health system capacity represented by higher numbers of hospital beds and doctors is more likely to lower a country’s case fatality rate. A higher proportion of the elderly population is associated with higher death levels from Covid-19.
    Keywords: COVID-19, state capacity, government effectiveness, democracy, policy responses, fatality rate, health system capacity, testing policy
    JEL: H51 H83 I18 J18
    Date: 2020–07–01
  18. By: Amitabh Chandra; Courtney Coile; Corina Mommaerts
    Abstract: Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) affects one in ten people aged 65 or older and is the most expensive disease in the United States. We describe the central economic questions raised by AD. While there is overlap with the economics of aging, the defining features of the ‘economics of Alzheimer’s Disease’ is an emphasis on cognitive decline, choice by cognitively impaired patients, and a host of issues where dynamic contracts between patients and caregivers are hard to enforce. There is enormous scope for economists to contribute to our understanding of AD-related issues, including drug development, efficient care delivery, dynamic contracting within the family and with care providers, long-term care risk, financial decision-making, and public programs for AD. These topics overlap with many areas of economics -- labor economics, health economics, public finance, behavioral economics, experimental economics, family economics, mechanism design, and the economics of innovation -- suggesting the presence of a rich research program that should attract many economists.
    JEL: I11 I13 J14 J22 O31
    Date: 2020–08
  19. By: Patricia Rowan; Rebecca Lester; Michael Levere; Jenna Libersky; Debra Lipson; Julie Robison
    Abstract: This report details Mathematica’s preliminary assessment of the COVID-19 outbreak in Connecticut long-term care facilities, as well as a set of short-term recommendations to help Connecticut and long-term care facilities prepare for a potential second wave of COVID-19.
    Keywords: nursing home, COVID-19, assisted living facilities, Connecticut
  20. By: Etienne Gagnon; Benjamin K. Johannsen; J. David Lopez-Salido
    Abstract: We use an overlapping generation model to explore the implications of mortality during pandemics for the economy's productive capacity. Under current epidemiological projections for the progression of COVID-19, our model suggests that mortality will have, in itself, at most small effects on output and factor prices. The reason is that projected mortality is small in proportion to the population and skewed toward individuals who are retired from the labor force. That said, we show that if the spread of COVID-19 is not contained, or if the ongoing pandemic were to follow a mortality pattern similar to the 1918-1920 Great Influenza pandemic, then the effects on the productive capacity would be economically significant and persist for decades.
    Keywords: Pandemics; Potential output; Real wage; Equilibrium real interest rate; Demographics; COVID-19
    JEL: E21 E27 E43
    Date: 2020–08–19
  21. By: Khvan, Margarita (New Economic School, Moscow); Smorodenkova, Elizaveta (New Economic School, Moscow); Yakovlev, Evgeny (New Economic School, Moscow)
    Abstract: We assess the short-term effects of the two recent economic crises, the Great Recession and the collapse of the USSR, on the elderly mortality in Russia. According to our study, crises have led to an increase in mortality with quantitatively similar elasticities of death with respect to GDP fall for both events. Further analysis of the Great Recession suggests that income depreciation, limited access to medical services, and an increase in alcohol consumption are responsible for the rise in mortality. While increases at a higher rate compared to overall mortality, alcohol-related mortality explains a relatively small part of total mortality rise.
    Keywords: mortality, crises
    JEL: J1 H1 I1
    Date: 2020–07
  22. By: Jasper, Rowan; Wilberforce, Mark; Abendstern, Michele; Tucker, Sue; Challis, David
    Abstract: Context: Support workers play an essential role in multidisciplinary community mental health teams for older people (CMHTsOP) in England. However, little is known about how they perceive their role or the impact this has on their levels of stress, wellbeing and job satisfaction. Objectives: To compare CMHTsOP support workers’ perceptions of the psychosocial characteristics of their work with those of registered CMHTsOP practitioners. Methods: A postal survey of CMHTsOP staff in nine mental health trusts. Information was collected about job demands, controls and support using the Job Content Questionnaire. Additional data was collected on other psychosocial features of CMHTsOP working using job satisfaction and intention-to-quit measures and a set of bespoke statements which were supplemented by a subset from the Occupational Stress Indicator. Findings: Responses were received from 43 support workers and 166 registered practitioners. Support workers reported significantly lower job demands and better co-worker support than registered practitioners. They were also significantly more satisfied with their jobs and more likely to believe that their skills and strengths were used appropriately. The majority of both groups were positive about their team’s climate and their value and identity within it. Limitations: Although the study explored the psychosocial characteristics of work that contribute to wellbeing, it did not directly measure stress. Implications: Given the growing number of CMHTsOP support workers and their diverse roles, future research might usefully explore the specific tasks which contribute most to individual satisfaction and wellbeing.
    Keywords: support workers; job satisfaction; stress; community mental health teams; older people; well-being
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2019–09–11
  23. By: Mostafa Shahen (School of Economics and Management, Kochi University of Technology); Koji Kotani (School of Economics and Management, Kochi University of Technology); Tatsuyoshi Saijo (Research Institute for Future Design, Kochi University of Technology)
    Abstract: The intergenerational sustainability dilemma (ISD) is a situation of whether or not a person sacrifices herself for future sustainability. To examine the individual behaviors, one-person ISD game (ISDG) is instituted with strategy method where a queue of individuals is organized as a generational sequence. In ISDG, each individual chooses unsustainable (or sustainable) option with her payoff of X (X - D) and an irreversible cost of D (zero cost) to future generations in 36 situations. Future ahead and back (FAB) mechanism is suggested as resolution for ISD by taking the perspective of future generation whereby each individual is first asked to take the next generation’s standpoint and request what she wants the current generation to choose, and, second, to make the actual decision from the original position. Results show that individuals choose unsustainable option as previous generations do so or X/D is low (i.e., sustainability is endangered). However, FAB prevents individuals from choosing unsustainable option in such endangered situations. Overall, the results suggest that some new institutions, such as FAB mechanisms, which induce people to take the perspective of future generations, may be necessary to avoid intergenerational unsustainability, especially when intergenerational sustainability is highly endangered.
    Keywords: Intergenerational sustainability dilemma, future ahead and back mechanism, intergenerational sustainability index
    Date: 2020–09
  24. By: Lar, Ni; Taguchi, Hiroyuki
    Abstract: This paper is trying to examine the impacts of the dependency rate on per capita GDP growth of Myanmar for the period of 1970-2018. Under VAR model framework, the impacts of population age structure (young and old dependency ratio) and saving rate (% of GDP) on economic growth of Myanmar has been searched. Any short run relationship among variables cannot be shown by Granger causality test. In the long run, VEC model has proved that population age structure and saving rate have negatively and positively on per capita GDP growth of Myanmar economy during study period. But its negative age structure effect is bigger than positive saving rate and therefore, Myanmar saving policy should be associated with age structure change. However, Myanmar has still a population bonus needed to utilize efficiently before it ends so that Myanmar could not face the problem of unemployment, and rural poverty
    Keywords: Myanmar , Dependency Ratio , Saving Rate , Per Capita GDP growth ,Unit Roots , Cointegration , VAR
    JEL: J10 J11 O40
    Date: 2020–08–12

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