nep-age New Economics Papers
on Economics of Ageing
Issue of 2018‒09‒10
nine papers chosen by
Claudia Villosio
LABORatorio R. Revelli

  1. The Politics of Aging and Retirement: Evidence from Swiss Referenda By Piera Bello; Vincenzo Galasso
  2. Does social isolation affect medical doctor visits? New evidence among European older adults By David Cantarero-Prieto; Marta Pascual-Sáez; Carla Blázquez-Fernández
  3. Socio-Economic Inequalities in Tobacco Consumption of the Older Adults in China: A Decomposition Method By Si, Yafei; Zhou, Zhongliang; Su, Min; Wang, Xiao; Li, Dan; Wang, Dan; He, Shuyi; Hong, Zihan; Chen, Xi
  4. The Evolution of Longevity: Evidence from Canada By Kevin Milligan; Tammy Schirle
  5. Shocks and Transitions from Career Jobs to Bridge Jobs and Retirement: A New Approach By John Ameriks; Joseph Briggs; Andrew Caplin; Minjoon Lee; Matthew D. Shapiro; Christopher Tonetti
  6. Aging, Economics, and Agriculture By Breimyer, Harold F.
  7. Entrepreneurship and Job Satisfaction: The Role of Age By Michael Fritsch; Alina Sorgner; Michael Wyrwich
  8. Later life in the village. Services for the elderly on farms (VivAge) By Busch, Claudia
  9. Personnes âgées By Rossel, Cecilia; Filgueira, Fernando

  1. By: Piera Bello; Vincenzo Galasso
    Abstract: Aging creates financial troubles for PAYG pension systems, since the share of retirees to workers increases. An often advocated policy response is to increase retirement age. Ironically, however, the political support for this policy may actually be hindered by population aging. Using Swiss administrative voting data at municipal level (and individual survey data) from pension reforms referenda, we show in fact that individuals close to retirement tend to oppose policies that postpone retirement, whereas young and elderly individuals are more favorable. The current process of population aging, and the associated increase in the size of the cohort of individuals close to retirement, may partially explain why a pension reform, which increased retirement age for females, was approved in two referenda in 1995 and 1998, while a reform, which proposed a similar increase in female retirement age, was defeated in a 2017 referendum.
    Keywords: social security reforms, voting behavior, retirement age
    JEL: H55 D72 J18
    Date: 2018
  2. By: David Cantarero-Prieto; Marta Pascual-Sáez; Carla Blázquez-Fernández
    Abstract: We have used panel data (2004-2015) from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to examine the impact of social isolation on general practitioner health care use. Socio-demographic, health and social isolation measures are analysed. Differences by welfare regimes have been also considered. Using two definitions of social isolation (Alone and Help), we have found that a sizeable proportion of those aged 50 years and older in Europe reported social isolation. Differences by welfare regimes are highlighted. Our findings provide several implications in current debates on the sustainability of welfare states.
    Keywords: Europe; aging; social isolation; health care utilization; SHARE; count data models.
    JEL: I10 I19
    Date: 2018–08
  3. By: Si, Yafei (Xi’an Jiaotong University); Zhou, Zhongliang (Xi’an Jiaotong University); Su, Min (Xi’an Jiaotong University); Wang, Xiao (Xi’an Jiaotong Liverpool University); Li, Dan (Xi’an Jiaotong University); Wang, Dan (Xi’an Jiaotong University); He, Shuyi (Xi’an Jiaotong Liverpool University); Hong, Zihan (Xi’an Jiaotong Liverpool University); Chen, Xi (Yale University)
    Abstract: In China, tobacco consumption is a leading risk factor for non-communicable diseases, and understanding the pattern of socio-economic inequalities of tobacco consumption will, thus, help to develop targeted policies of public health control. Data came from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study in 2013, involving 17,663 respondents aged 45 and above. Tobacco use prevalence and tobacco use quantities were defined for further analysis. Using the concentration index (CI) and its decomposition, socio-economic inequalities of tobacco consumption grouped by gender were estimated. The concentration index of tobacco use prevalence was 0.044 (men 0.041; women −0.039). The concentration index of tobacco use quantities among smokers was 0.039 (men 0.033; women 0.038). The majority of the inequality could be explained by educational attainment, age, area, and economic quantiles. Tobacco consumption was more common among richer compared to poorer people in China. Gender, educational attainments, age, areas, and economic quantiles were strong predictors of tobacco consumption in China. Public health policies need to be targeted towards men in higher economic quantiles with lower educational attainment, and divorced or widowed women, especially in urban areas of China.
    Keywords: tobacco consumption, inequality, concentration index, decomposition, China
    JEL: I12 I14 J14
    Date: 2018–07
  4. By: Kevin Milligan; Tammy Schirle
    Abstract: We find a steep earnings-longevity gradient using fifty years of administrative data from Canada, with men in the top ventile of earnings living eight years (11 percent) longer than those in the bottom ventile. For women, the difference is 3.6 years. Unlike the United States, this longevity gradient in Canada has shifted uniformly through time, with approximately equal gains across the earnings distribution. We compare our results using cross-sectional and cohort-based methods, finding similar trends but a steeper gradient when using cohorts. For middle-aged men, we find a cessation of mortality improvements in recent years, comparable to changes observed in the United States. Changes in income do not explain cross-time or cross-country differences.
    JEL: I14 J11 J14
    Date: 2018–08
  5. By: John Ameriks (The Vanguard Group, Inc.); Joseph Briggs (Federal Reserve Board); Andrew Caplin (New York University and NBER); Minjoon Lee (Carleton University); Matthew D. Shapiro (University of Michigan and NBER); Christopher Tonetti (Stanford University and NBER)
    Abstract: This research provides new empirical evidence on late-life labor market activities of American households from a new survey implemented under the Vanguard Research Initiative. The survey features following innovations: It measures detailed job characteristics not only of a career job but also of post-career bridge jobs; it examines reasons of leaving a career job and whether households would have changed their decisions under counterfactual situations; it examines post-career job search behavior of households. The research finds that, even though a direct transition from a career job to full retirement is still the most common pattern, a significant fraction of older Americans reveal interest in working beyond the career job. Within this sample of older Americans with positive financial assets, 38% of had a post-career bridge job and another 7% of them looked for a post-career employment opportunity. Low health or bad business conditions were the not the main reason for leaving the career job. Yet, for the minority of those who did leave career jobs owing to low health or bad economic conditions, had they counterfactually had better health or economic conditions, they likely would have decided to work longer. Those who work longer on their career job or have a post-career bridge job tend to work fewer hours, have a flexible schedule, and receive lower hourly wages.
    Date: 2018–02
  6. By: Breimyer, Harold F.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy
  7. By: Michael Fritsch (FSU Jena); Alina Sorgner (John Cabot University Rome); Michael Wyrwich (University of Groningen)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship between job satisfaction and age for self-employed persons as compared to paid employees. While, on average, there are higher levels of job satisfaction in self-employment as compared to paid employment, we find that an individual's age is an important moderator in this relationship. Specifically, the probability of the self-employed to experience high levels of job satisfaction is quite similar across all age cohorts, but the job satisfaction of paid employees varies significantly with age. The degree to which self-employed people are more satisfied with their work than paid employees, therefore, is affected by the age of the individuals involved. We find that only those paid employees at the final stage of their working life have the same probability of experiencing a high level of job satisfaction as a self-employed person with comparable individual characteristics.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship, well-being, job satisfaction, age
    JEL: L26 I31 J10 D91
    Date: 2018–09–05
  8. By: Busch, Claudia
    Abstract: The need of elder people especially in small villages might be covered by offering services on farms creating profits on both sides: the opportunity for an additional income for farmers, and a lively surrounding including certain effects of horticultural or animal-assisted therapies for the elderly. As part of the project VivAge an explorative study was conducted to get a first overview on possibilities and obstacles in the connection of these two separated branches. Results show that especially housing offers are demanded and economical while there are certain difficulties and different solutions to establish those on farms. The quality of services for the elderly, however, seems to depend less on an agricultural environment than on integration in everyday life and the kind of social contacts. Nevertheless, farms have good chances to offer these aspects. Moreover, especially animals seem to be useful in interactions with dementia patients.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development
    Date: 2017–08–15
  9. By: Rossel, Cecilia; Filgueira, Fernando
    Date: 2018–07

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