nep-age New Economics Papers
on Economics of Ageing
Issue of 2018‒03‒26
23 papers chosen by
Claudia Villosio
LABORatorio R. Revelli

  1. Sustainability and adequacy of the Spanish pension system after the 2013 reform: a microsimulation analysis. By Meritxell Solé; Guadalupe Souto; Concepció Patxot
  2. Forecasting the impact of state pension reforms in post-Brexit England and Wales using microsimulation and deep learning By Agnieszka Werpachowska
  3. Worsening Workers' Health by Lowering Retirement Age: The Malign Consequences of a Benign Reform By Ann Barbara Bauer; Reiner Eichenberger
  4. Intergenerational Cultural Programs for Older People in Long-term Care Institutions: Latvian Case By Rasnača, Liga; Rezgale-Straidoma, Endija
  5. The Impact of Life-Course Developments on Pensions in the NDC Systems in Poland, Italy and Sweden and Point System in Germany By Chłoń-Domińczak, Agnieszka; Góra, Marek; Kotowska, Irena E.; Magda, Iga; Ruzik-Sierdzińska, Anna; Strzelecki, Pawel
  6. Second Pension Pillar Participants? Behavior Over Life Cycle: Lithuanian Case By Jaroslav Me?kovski; Teodoras Medaiskis; Tadas Gudaitis
  7. How Medicaid Helps Older Americans By Steven A. Sass
  8. The Evaluation of Employment Policies for Older Adults in the Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia By Leszko, Magdalena; Bugajska, Beata
  9. R&D-Driven Medical Progress, Health Care Costs, and the Future of Human Longevity By Sebastian Böhm; Volker Grossmann; Holger Strulik
  10. Ageing Policies in Slovenia: Before and After “Austerity” By Hlebec, Valentina; Rakar, Tatjana
  11. Age and Workplace Discrimination in Lithuania By Braziene, Ruta
  12. Long-term effects of extended unemployment benefits for older workers By Kyyrä, Tomi; Pesola, Hanna
  13. Three pillars of urbanization: Migration, aging, and growth By Grafeneder-Weissteiner, Theresa; Prettner, Klaus; Südekum, Jens
  14. Identifying Age Penalty in Women's Wages: New Method and Evidence from Germany 1984-2014 By Joanna Tyrowicz; Lucas van der Velde; Irene van Staveren
  15. Supporting Decision-Making in Retirement Planning: Do Diagrams on Pension Benefit Statements Help? By Lunn, Pete; McGowan, Féidhlim
  16. Mortality data reliability in an internal model By Fabrice Balland; Alexandre Boumezoued; Laurent Devineau; Marine Habart; Tom Popa
  17. Growing pension deficits and the expenditure decisions of UK companies By Philip Bunn; Paul Mizen; Pawel Smietanka
  18. (Un)Obvious Education, or Complexities of the Polish Education Aimed at Older People By Kamińska, Krystyna
  19. Implementation of a “Self-Sufficient Ageing” Policy and Possible Challenges: Case of Turkey By Sariipek, Doga Basar; Çuhadar, Seyran Gürsoy
  20. Seductive Solutions, Inspiration, Easy-to-Remember Phrases, and Ambiguity: Why Is the Idea of Active Ageing so Successful? By Hasmanová Marhánková, Jaroslava
  21. Organization of International Educational Activities at the Universities of the Third Age By Selecký, Erik
  22. Intergenerational Education for Social Inclusion and Solidarity: The Case Study of the EU Funded Project “Connecting Generations” By Del Gobbo, Giovanna; Galeotti, Glenda; Esposito, Gilda
  23. Folk High School as an Educational Alternative for Older Adults By Felska, Angelika

  1. By: Meritxell Solé (Universitat de Barcelona); Guadalupe Souto (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona); Concepció Patxot (Universitat de Barcelona)
    Abstract: Concerns about the consequences of demographic ageing on the sustainability of the pension system has led to the adoption of reforms reducing pension expenditure. However, the impact of these reforms on pension adequacy is now coming under increasing scrutiny. Taking recent Spanish reform as an example, this paper analyses the extent to which fostering pension sustainability threatens pension adequacy. Using an extension of the DyPeS behavioural microsimulation model, results show that the introduction of mechanisms linking retirement pensions to the evolution of the social security budget balance has strong and negative effects on adequacy. The gains in sustainability are mainly driven by the significant fall in the benefit ratio (average pension to average wage), worsening the relative economic position of pensioners throughout forthcoming decades, reversing the past trend.
    Keywords: Pension adequacy, behavioural microsimulation, pension system reforms, pension sustainability, Spain.
    JEL: H53 H68 H55
    Date: 2018
  2. By: Agnieszka Werpachowska
    Abstract: We employ stochastic dynamic microsimulations to analyse and forecast the pension cost dependency ratio for England and Wales from 1991 to 2061, evaluating the impact of state pension reforms initiated by the Labour and continued by the Conservative governments. To fully account for the increasing trends in life expectancies, we implemented a custom extrapolation model for mortality rates, based on deep learning techniques. Our results show that the recent reforms can effectively stave off the "pension crisis" and bring back the system on a sounder fiscal footing. At the same time, increasingly more workers can expect to spend greater share of their lifespan in retirement, despite the eligibility age rises. The population ageing due to the postponement of death until advanced old age often occurs with the compression of morbidity, and thus will not, perforce, intrinsically strain healthcare costs. To a lesser degree, the future pension cost dependency ratio will depend also on the post-Brexit relations between the UK and the EU, with "soft" alignment on the free movement lowering the relative cost of the pension system compared to the "hard" one. In the long term, however, the ratio has a rising tendency.
    Date: 2018–02
  3. By: Ann Barbara Bauer; Reiner Eichenberger
    Abstract: In 2003, the retirement age of Swiss construction workers was lowered from 65 to 60. This reform has been intended to improve their health. Our study shows the opposite outcome. The human capital theory suggests that investments in employees’ productivity by the employer and the employees themselves depend on the time remaining until their retirement. Hence, we hypothesize that pension reforms that reduce employees’ working horizon decrease investments in work-related human capital, which translates into a higher prevalence of sickness absences, a longer absence duration, and worse health. By econometrically comparing pre- and post-reform cohorts of construction workers with other blue-collar workers, we find that among 56–60-year-old construction workers, their sickness absences increase from 3.2% to 5.6%, their sickness duration increases by 33%, and their probability of having health problems increases from 9% to 12.7% due to the reform.
    Keywords: Pension reform; natural experiment; construction worker; sickness absence; sickness duration; poor health
    JEL: I12 J14 J26 L74
    Date: 2018–03
  4. By: Rasnača, Liga; Rezgale-Straidoma, Endija
    Abstract: An ageing population is a global phenomenon that takes place in Latvia, too. The active ageing policy is a social response to social challenges caused by demographic changes. Growing generational gap is a challenge to all “greying societies” in Europe and Latvia in particular. The active ageing policy is oriented to provide possibilities for older adults to live independently. However, long-term care institutions (LTCIs) remain necessary, especially for those who live alone and have serious health problems. LTCIs are mostly orientated to provide primary needs and health care. People regardless of their age also need a social and cultural life, but for older people who live in LTCIs, it is insufficient. The study shows those who are residing in LTCIs settings are subject to everyday routine. LTCIs care provision is very much dependent on the authorities of the institution. The insufficient level of interaction between older people and the more active part of society prevents the finding of effective ways of achieving that the care in LTCIs is in accordance with the active ageing policy. The study aims to find out ways how intergenerational cultural programs of professional and amateur activities are implemented in LTCIs. The study uses a qualitative approach to explore how LTCIs intergenerational cultural programs are helping to keep our youngest and oldest generations connected.
    Keywords: Intergenerational Solidarity, Cultural Programs, Active Ageing, Long-Term Care Institution, Generational Gap
    JEL: J14 Z1
    Date: 2017
  5. By: Chłoń-Domińczak, Agnieszka (Warsaw School of Economics); Góra, Marek (Warsaw School of Economics); Kotowska, Irena E. (Warsaw School of Economics); Magda, Iga (Warsaw School of Economics); Ruzik-Sierdzińska, Anna (Warsaw School of Economics); Strzelecki, Pawel (Warsaw School of Economics)
    Abstract: Old-age pensions in the NDC systems reflect the accumulated lifetime labour income. Interrupted careers and differences in the employment rates, particularly between men and women will have a significant impact on pension incomes in NDC countries. In the paper, we compare the labour market developments in four countries: Germany, Italy, Poland, and Sweden. There are pronounced differences in the labour market participation in the four countries: high levels of employment in Germany and Sweden are in contrast with low levels of employment in Italy and Poland. In the latter two countries, there is also a large gender gap in the labour market participation and employment pathways. Lower employment rates and gender pay gaps, as well as country-specific employment paths are important causes of differences in expected pension levels, but there are also differences due to the design of pension system and demographic developments. Prolonging working lives and reducing gender gaps in employment and pay, particularly for those at risk of interrupted careers, is key to ensure decent old-age pensions in the future. We argue that the pension systems' design modifications that weaken the link between contribution and benefits would not solve the challenge of providing adequate old-age pensions to people with interrupted careers. On the contrary, it would make the pension systems less sustainable, while the problem would be more challenging in the future.
    Keywords: NDC, old-age pensions, lifetime labour income, gender pay gap, interrupted carriers, sequence analysis, employment path
    JEL: H55 J16 J26 J31
    Date: 2018–02
  6. By: Jaroslav Me?kovski (Vilnius University); Teodoras Medaiskis (Vilnius University); Tadas Gudaitis (Vilnius University)
    Abstract: Defined contribution pension pillars often requires participants to take an active role in selecting pension fund during the whole accumulation period. It is expected that pension fund participant will select appropriate investment strategy and investment risk during different stages of the accumulation phase and years left till the retirement. In this paper, we have analyzed the behavior of second pillar pension funds? participants in Lithuania from the beginning of second pension pillar establishment (2004) till the 2016 Q3. The aim of the study is to evaluate how rational second pension pillar participants in decisions on selecting accumulation rate, appropriate pension fund (investment strategy and investment risk) and changing the pension fund over accumulation period and during different stages of development (peaks and bottoms) in the financial markets. The results show, that second pension pillar participants are rational on selecting participation rates. However, it also highlighted problems in second pension pillar. Majority of pension funds participants have selected inappropriate pension fund (investment strategy and investment risk) evaluating the accumulation period, which have left till the retirement. Participants are passive and tend not to change pension fund during accumulation period. Pension fund participants, which have changed pension fund, made irrational decisions and have chosen inappropriate pension fund (investment strategy and investment risk): in case of peak period in stock markets, majority of second pension pillar participant have changed pension funds, by switching from the fund which have lower proportion of equities to the fund which has higher proportion of equities or have change pension fund to the fund in the same investment risk category. Moreover, in case of bottom period in stock markets the majority of participants did vice versus ? switched from funds with higher proportion of equities to pension fund with lower proportion of equities.
    Keywords: Pension funds, Behavior finance, Life cycle investments.
    JEL: J32 D14 D91
    Date: 2017–10
  7. By: Steven A. Sass
    Abstract: Medicaid is generally not the first program that comes to mind when discussing government health care for older Americans. Its counterpart, Medicare, is the primary health insurance program for seniors of all income levels, while MedicaidÕs beneficiaries span a broad age range and typically have low incomes. However, Medicaid does offer critical benefits to many retirees and those approaching retirement. For eligible retirees, Medicaid provides insurance directly or pays their Medicare premiums and co-pays. It is also the single largest source of long-term care support for the elderly, covering about half of total spending on these services. Finally, in states that adopted the Medicaid expansion under the Affordable Care Act, the program insures about one out of six Americans approaching retirement. This brief offers a primer on the role of Medicaid for retirees and near-retirees. The discussion proceeds as follows. The first section reviews Medicaid benefits for the elderly, ages 65 and over. The second section reviews benefits for those approaching retirement, ages 50-64. The third section discusses how these groups, particularly those 65 and over, fit within the context of the larger Medicaid program. The final section concludes that the need for Medicaid benefits by older Americans will rise as the population ages and medical costs continue to increase faster than household incomes. Whether Medicaid meets this need depends on the outcome of the ongoing policy debate over the size and scope of the program.
    Date: 2018–03
  8. By: Leszko, Magdalena; Bugajska, Beata
    Abstract: Adults aged 65 and above comprise the fastest growing sector of the world’s population. In the context of increasing numbers of older adults, employment policies have become a prominent issue. Governments recognize the importance of increasing participation in working age population and providing them with equal workplace opportunities. Yet, it appears that policies raising employment rates of older adults have become a slogan that governments use for election purposes, but the reality is different. In the groundbreaking report “Working Better with Age: Poland” prepared by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) (2015), Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia belong to a group of countries where the increase in the employment rate of older adults is well below the OECD average. The objective of our critical review is to evaluate current employment policies for older adults, including but not limited to healthy work conditions, age management strategies, employment services for older workers, and strategies implemented to prevent age discrimination, in these three countries. This article also discusses the reasons for the reduction in the employment of older adults, the current barriers in employing older adults that require governments’ attention, and suggests solutions for creating an age-friendly labor market that can effectively make use of older adults’ competencies. Employment rates for people of different ages are significantly affected by government policies with regard to higher education, pensions, and retirement age.
    Keywords: Age Management, Employment Policies, Protection Programs
    JEL: J08 J14
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Sebastian Böhm; Volker Grossmann; Holger Strulik
    Abstract: In this paper we set up an overlapping generations model of gerontological founded human aging that takes the interaction between R&D-driven medical progress and access to health care into account. We use the model to explore potential futures of human health and longevity. For the baseline policy scenario of health care access, the calibrated model predicts substantial future increases in health and life expectancy, associated with rising shares of health expenditure in GDP. Freezing the expenditure share at the 2020 level by rationing access to health care severely reduces potential gains in health, longevity and welfare. These losses are greatest in the long run due to reduced incentives for medical R&D. For example, rationing is predicted to reduce potential gains of life-expectancy at age 65 by about 4 years in the year 2050. Generally, and perhaps surprisingly, young individuals (i.e. those who save the most health care contributions through rationing) are predicted to suffer the greatest losses in terms of life expectancy and welfare.
    Keywords: longevity, medical R&D, morbidity, health care, rationing
    JEL: H50 I10 C60 O11
    Date: 2018
  10. By: Hlebec, Valentina; Rakar, Tatjana
    Abstract: Similarly, to other European countries, Slovenia is facing ageing of the population. The European Year for Active Ageing and Solidarity between Generations in 2012 (EY2012) and the recent economic crisis have influenced social policy in the area of ageing and care for older people. While the EY2012 has raised awareness about issues related to the ageing of the population, the economic crisis after 2008 has put pressure on the welfare system. The purpose of the chapter is to examine the influences of the EY2012 together with the changes in social policies, i.e., austerity measures, which were the results of economic crisis. We analyzed the dominant trends in the development of the care for older people (including both institutional care and home care services), starting from 1992, when Slovenia gained independence, until the recent economic crisis. We have confirmed the main thesis, claiming that the EY2012 had beneficial effects in raising the awareness about population ageing in general population, but was not followed by the policy development, which would be useful for older people. Moreover, the social policy development was marked by results of austerity measures, which significantly worsen the quality of life of older people and their families.
    Keywords: Austerity, Care Services, Economic Crisis, Long-Term Care
    JEL: I11 J14
    Date: 2017
  11. By: Braziene, Ruta
    Abstract: This paper aims to disclose an expression of age and workplace discrimination in the Lithuanian labor market. The paper is discussing theoretical aspects of age discrimination and presents the results of the sociological survey research results carried out in 2014. The purpose of this paper is to disclose age and workplace discrimination at the Lithuanian labor market. Analysis of scientific literature and quantitative research results allows to state that older adults are experiencing discrimination because of, among others, their age, gender, and stereotypes. Research results revealed that age and workplace discrimination is increasing with the age of the respondents, e.g., the expression in older age groups is more intensive. For the age group of 40-50, age discrimination is lower than the full sample average. Age discrimination is exposing for the age group of 56-60 and is the most intensive for persons 60 years old and older. The research results revealed that older employees have obstacles for career and future perspectives; older people are more often facing discriminative behavior, lacking social justice, insufficient personal respect labor relations, and are more often experiencing pressure to leave the job or facing unreasonable dismissal.
    Keywords: Age Discrimination, Labor Market, Older Workers
    JEL: J14 J71
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Kyyrä, Tomi; Pesola, Hanna
    Abstract: This paper examines the long-term effects of extended unemployment benefits that older unemployed can collect until retirement in Finland. We consider a reform that increased the age threshold of this scheme from 55 to 57 for people born in 1950 or later. Our regression discontinuity estimates show that postponing eligibility by two years increased employment over the remaining working career by seven months. Despite the corresponding reduction in unemployment, we find no evidence of significant effects on mortality or receipt of disability and sickness benefits, nor on the spouse's labor supply. We also compute the fiscal impact of the reform taking into account income taxes and social security contributions paid and benefits received. The reform increased net income transfers by 15,000 Euros over the 10-year period for an average individual.
    Keywords: impact assessment of policy measures, unemployment, unemployment benefit, unemployment duration, Social security, taxation and inequality, Labour markets and education, J26, J63, J64, J65,
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Grafeneder-Weissteiner, Theresa; Prettner, Klaus; Südekum, Jens
    Abstract: Economic development in industrialized countries is characterized by rising per capita GDP, increasing life expectancy, and an ever larger share of the population living in cities. We explain this pattern within a regional innovation-driven economic growth model with labor mobility and a demographic structure of overlapping generations. The model shows that there is a natural tendency for core-periphery structures to emerge in modern knowledge-based economies.
    Keywords: agglomeration,migration,innovation,growth,demography,urbanization,core-periphery structure,regional inequality
    JEL: J10 O30 O41 R23
    Date: 2018
  14. By: Joanna Tyrowicz; Lucas van der Velde; Irene van Staveren
    Abstract: Given theoretical premises, gender wage gap adjusted for individual characteristics is likely to vary over age. We extend DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996) semi-parametric technique to disentangle year, cohort and age effects in adjusted gender wage gaps. We rely on a long panel of data from the German Socio-Economic Panel covering the 1984-2015 period. Our results indicate that the gender wage gap increases over the lifetime, for some birth cohorts also in the post-reproductive age.
    Keywords: gender wage gap, age, cohort, decomposition, non-parametric estimates, Germany
    JEL: J31 J71
    Date: 2017
  15. By: Lunn, Pete; McGowan, Féidhlim
    Date: 2018
  16. By: Fabrice Balland (AXA GRM - AXA Group Risk Management); Alexandre Boumezoued (R&D, Milliman, Paris - Milliman); Laurent Devineau (R&D, Milliman, Paris - Milliman); Marine Habart (AXA GRM - AXA Group Risk Management); Tom Popa (AXA GRM - AXA Group Risk Management)
    Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the impact of some mortality data anomalies on an internal model capturing longevity risk in the Solvency 2 framework. In particular, we are concerned with abnormal cohort effects such as those for generations 1919 and 1920, for which the period tables provided by the Human Mortality Database show particularly low and high mortality rates respectively. To provide corrected tables for the three countries of interest here (France, Italy and West Germany), we use the approach developed by Boumezoued (2016) for countries for which the method applies (France and Italy), and provide an extension of the method for West Germany as monthly fertility histories are not sufficient to cover the generations of interest. These mortality tables are crucial inputs to stochastic mortality models forecasting future scenarios, from which the extreme 0,5% longevity improvement can be extracted, allowing for the calculation of the Solvency Capital Requirement (SCR). More precisely, to assess the impact of such anomalies in the Solvency II framework, we use a simplified internal model based on three usual stochastic models to project mortality rates in the future combined with a closure table methodology for older ages. Correcting this bias obviously improves the data quality of the mortality inputs, which is of paramount importance today, and slightly decreases the capital requirement. Overall, the longevity risk assessment remains stable, as well as the selection of the stochastic mortality model. As a collateral gain of this data quality improvement, the more regular estimated parameters allow for new insights and a refined assessment regarding longevity risk.
    Date: 2018–02–28
  17. By: Philip Bunn; Paul Mizen; Pawel Smietanka
    Abstract: Large deficits have opened up on defined benefit pension schemes in the UK since 2007, and at the same time investment expenditure has been subdued; this is a common phenomenon in other countries too. We use privileged access to a unique new dataset from The Pensions Regulator and two identification schemes to investigate the effects of deficits and deficit recovery plans on UK companies’ dividends, investment, wages and cash holdings. Identification is based on the close relationship between low long-term interest rates and pension deficits; and the external regulation of pension schemes by The Pensions Regulator. We show that firms with larger pension deficits voluntarily pay lower dividends, but they do not invest less. However, firms that are required to make deficit recovery contributions by the regulator have lower dividend and investment expenditure compared to other firms, and more so if they are financially constrained. These effects are large for some individual companies, but macro-economically small compared to the stimulus offered by the Bank of England’s quantitative easing policy.
    Keywords: pension deficits, investment, dividends, cash holdings, monetary policy
    Date: 2018
  18. By: Kamińska, Krystyna
    Abstract: The contemporary combination of information infrastructure with the commonly experienced transformation of knowledge created, in relation to education especially for older adults, an entirely new area of activeness. In accordance with the social awareness, education became an accessible good regardless of age. In this context, the maximal extending of the potential group of education receivers means, on the one hand, meeting the real social expectations towards so-called educational services. On the other hand, it is another challenge which the contemporary education faces. Unfortunately, the system of permanent education was not created in Poland since what is missing is both the strategy and some practical resolutions enabling old people the access to education with regards to their educational. Presently, the University of the Third Age is the only solution in the educational offer. In order to change the present status quo, what is needed is the re-definition of education and the modern perception of education and then perhaps, there will appear, the expected, by the senior citizens, module educational solutions providing them not only with the competencies but also the acknowledged certificate confirming their knowledge.
    Keywords: Ageism, Culture, Old Age, Education of Older Adults
    JEL: I24 J14
    Date: 2017
  19. By: Sariipek, Doga Basar; Çuhadar, Seyran Gürsoy
    Abstract: The policies of socioeconomic protection of older adults in most parts of the world are being redesigned in the scope of value-added targets, such as active ageing, successful ageing, or creative ageing. The main purpose here is, of course, enabling older adults self-sufficient and beneficial both for themselves and their social environment, instead of being simply the passive beneficiaries of the public support mechanisms. Turkey has a population which is still young but ageing very rapidly and will reach to the same point as Europe today in a relatively much shorter time. However, the country still seems to be away from conducting systematic and holistic measures, except for a few ineffective strategy papers and legal regulations. Therefore, Turkey must immediately design a new policy agenda in conformity with its traditional and historical advantages. Revitalizing the intergenerational solidarity bonds, in this regard, may be the best cost-effective solution to complement formal measures in the provision of social protection and in the process of active ageing. However, this traditional protection net is under attack of increasingly transforming socioeconomic conditions. Consequently, as one of the most rapidly ageing countries in the world, Turkey should immediately stimulate studies and debates over a healthy, functional, and effective ageing period and caring issues. Otherwise, governments will be blindsided by the socioeconomic, psychological, cultural, and physiological problems related to the ageing process. In the light of these facts, the main purpose of this study is to discuss policy recommendations to create a self-sufficient ageing period for older adults in the context of Turkish case.
    Keywords: Ageing, Third Age, Fourth Age, Older Persons Care, Turkey, Informal Care
    JEL: J14 N3
    Date: 2017
  20. By: Hasmanová Marhánková, Jaroslava
    Abstract: The idea of active ageing has become one of the most influential perspectives in modern gerontology, social work, and social policy. This paper discusses factors that helped to establish active ageing as a successful theoretical concept that has significantly influenced contemporary social representations of ageing and has a practical impact on social work and policy. The perspective of the philosophy of social science is employed to explain what makes the idea of active ageing so attractive despite the remaining confusions concerning what “activity” and “ageing actively” means. The paper aims to answer the following question: What makes the concept of active ageing so successful? It draws upon the work of Murray Davis (1986) and her insight into the key aspects that make sociological theory “seductive.” The paper analyzes in what ways the concept of active ageing fulfills the specific features that, according to Davis, determine the success of social theories. Simultaneously, the paper critically evaluates the ways the idea of active ageing is translated into ageing policy. The case of Czech Republic is used to illustrate the problematic aspect of active ageing policies as well as the specific rhetoric that makes the idea of active ageing so attractive for a broad spectrum of disciplines as well as for social policy.
    Keywords: Active Ageing, Policy Ideas, Sociological Theory
    JEL: J14 J18
    Date: 2017
  21. By: Selecký, Erik
    Abstract: The organization of an international education activity has its specifics compared to a national one. It is very important to know the differences in the very organization as well as the opinions of the individual participants. We can find differences not only in the management of education but also in the leisure activities, the nourishment, and the accommodation. Based on experiences with the organization of international events and taking part in international projects in the field of educating older adults, we put together a questionnaire to investigate some important questions related to the organization of an international event. We distributed this questionnaire at two international educational activities. We compiled the questions and answer clearly, which is going to be an asset particularly for the professional community.
    Keywords: International Cooperation, Lifelong Learning, University of the Third Age
    JEL: I21 J14
    Date: 2017
  22. By: Del Gobbo, Giovanna; Galeotti, Glenda; Esposito, Gilda
    Abstract: This paper reflects on lessons learned from a validated model of international collaboration based on research and practice. During the European Year for Active Ageing (2012), a partnership of seven organizations from the European Union (EU) plus Turkey implemented the Lifelong Learning Programme partnership “Connecting Generations” which involved universities, non-governmental organizations, third age Universities and municipalities in collaboration with local communities. Reckoning that Europe has dramatically changed in its demographic composition and is facing brand new challenges regarding intergenerational and intercultural solidarity, each partner formulated and tested innovative and creative practices that could enhance better collaboration and mutual understanding between youth and senior citizens, toward a more inclusive Europe for all. Several innovative local practices have been experimented, attentively systematized and peer-valuated among the partners. On the basis of a shared theoretical framework coherent with EU and Europe and Training 2020 Strategy, an action-research approach was adopted throughout the project in order to understand common features that have been replicated and scaled up since today.
    Keywords: Intergenerational Relationships Learning, Intergenerational Solidarity, Lifelong Learning
    JEL: H75 I24
    Date: 2017
  23. By: Felska, Angelika
    Abstract: There is just one challenge for a twenty-first century person, and it is an omnipresent change. In order to exist successfully and effectively in such a reality, one should constantly develop and take part in an educational process (formal and informal). A huge number of places directing their educational offer to seniors and use this alternative education, which is, on the other hand, often thought to be directed to children. In the author’s opinion, a form of alternative education for adults and seniors is a folk high school in its contemporary version. That thesis is being discussed in this chapter.
    Keywords: Alternative Education, Folk High Schools, Lifelong Learning
    JEL: H75 I21
    Date: 2017

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