nep-age New Economics Papers
on Economics of Ageing
Issue of 2015‒08‒30
twenty-one papers chosen by
Claudia Villosio
LABORatorio R. Revelli

  1. Absenteeism, Pension Reforms and Grandmothers By Moscarola, Flavia Coda; Fornero, Elsa; Strom, Steinar
  2. Desinging Guarantee Options in Defined Contributions Pension Plans By Consiglio, Andrea; Tumminello, Michele; Zenios, Stavros A.
  3. Can Policy Facilitate Partial Retirement? Evidence from Germany By Berg, Peter B.; Hamman, Mary K.; Piszczek, Matthew; Ruhm, Christopher J.
  4. The Impact of Immigrants on Public Finances: A Forecast Analysis for Denmark By Marianne Frank Hansen; Marie Louise Schultz-Nielsen; Torben Tranæs
  5. The Role of Time Preferences and Exponential-Growth Bias in Retirement Savings By Gopi Shah Goda; Matthew R. Levy; Colleen Flaherty Manchester; Aaron Sojourner; Joshua Tasoff
  6. Seniority Wages and the Role of Firms in Retirement By Wolfgang Frimmel; Thomas Horvath; Mario Schnalzenberger; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer
  7. The Joint Labor Supply Decision of Married Couples and the Social Security Pension System By Shinichi Nishiyama
  8. The Impact of Social Security Income on Cognitive Function at Older Ages By Padmaja Ayyagari; David Frisvold
  9. How inheriting affects bequest plans By Stark, Oded; Nicinska, Anna
  10. Longevity, Age-Structure, and Optimal Schooling By Noël Bonneuil; Raouf Boucekkine
  11. Social Security’s Financial Outlook: The 2015 Update in Perspective By Alicia H. Munnell
  12. Aging in the Social Space By Klimczuk, Andrzej; Tomczyk, Łukasz
  13. How Does Occupational Access for Older Workers Differ by Education? By Matthew S. Rutledge; Steven A. Sass; Jorge D. Ramos-Mercado
  14. Fiscal Policy Effects in a Heterogeneous-Agent OLG Economy with an Aging Population By Shinichi Nishiyama
  15. Housing, Capital Taxation and Bequests in a Simple OLG Model By Gary-Bobo, Robert J.; Nur, Jamil
  16. Modeling Household Formation and Housing Demand in Denmark using the Dynamic Microsimulation Model SMILE By Jonas Zangenberg Hansen; Peter Stephensen
  17. Population ageing and prices in an OLG model with money created by credits By Fedotenkov, Igor
  18. [Standardization, a strategic tool for the Silver Economy] By Gérard-François Dumont
  19. Transmission of vocational skills at the end of career: horizon effect and technological or organisational change By Nathalie Greenan; Pierre-Jean Messe
  20. Managing the multigenerational workforce: Lessons German companies can learn from Silicon Valley By Klaffke, Martin
  21. State Trends in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Eligibility and Participation Among Elderly Individuals, Fiscal Year 2008 to Fiscal Year 2013 By Esa Eslami

  1. By: Moscarola, Flavia Coda (University of Turin); Fornero, Elsa (University of Turin); Strom, Steinar (University of Oslo)
    Abstract: Both economic and epidemiological literature have shown that perceived high strain at work and lack of social infrastructures are good predictors of sick-leave. The latter is particularly relevant in (Mediterranean) countries where facilities for children and LTC services are relatively scarce and women are frequently asked to fill the gap. The Italian 2011 pension reform, approved under the threat of a financial crisis, significantly restricted age and seniority requirements for retirement, especially for women in private employment, who still enjoyed a much more favorable treatment than men and women in public service. We investigate whether older Italian women (still in employment) reacted to the postponement of retirement by increasing their recourse to sick-leave. The empirical analysis, based on a noteworthy administrative data set provided by the Italian Social Security Agency, offers unequivocal evidence that this has indeed been the case, in particular for grandmothers. This result lends itself to interesting policy considerations.
    Keywords: pension reform, sick-leave, child-care
    JEL: J26 J13 C33
    Date: 2015–08
  2. By: Consiglio, Andrea (University of Palermo); Tumminello, Michele (University of Palermo); Zenios, Stavros A. (University of Cyprus)
    Abstract: The shift from defined benefits (DB) to defined contributions (DC) is pervasive among pension funds, due to demographic changes and macroeconomic pressures. In DB all risks are borne by the provider, while in plain vanilla DC all risks are borne by the beneficiary. For DC to provide income security some kind of guarantee is required. A minimum guarantee clause can be modeled as a put option written on some underlying reference portfolio of assets and we propose a discrete model that optimally selects the reference portfolio to minimise the cost of a guarantee. While the relation DB-DC is typically viewed as a binary one, the model setup can be used to price a wide range of guarantees creating a continuum between DB and DC. Integrating guarantee pricing with asset allocation decision is useful to both pension fund managers and regulators. The former are given a yardstick to assess if a given asset portfolio is fit-for-purpose; the latter can assess differences of specific reference funds with respect to the optimal one, signalling possible cases of moral hazard. We develop the model and report extensive numerical results to illustrate its potential uses.
    Date: 2015–02
  3. By: Berg, Peter B. (Michigan State University); Hamman, Mary K. (University of Wisconsin, La Crosse); Piszczek, Matthew (University of Wisconsin, Oshkosh); Ruhm, Christopher J. (University of Virginia)
    Abstract: In 1996, Germany introduced the Altersteilzeit (ATZ) law, which encouraged longer working lives through partial retirement incentives. Using matched pension system and establishment survey data, we estimate changes in part-time employment and retirement after ATZ. We find the policy induced growth in part-time work for men and extended men's expected duration of employment by 1.8 years. As the policy evolved to include an abrupt retirement option, the worklife gain for men fell to 1.2 years. Among women, part-time employment grew less and employment duration changed little initially but later declined by 0.2 years when abrupt retirement became available.
    Keywords: partial retirement, Germany
    JEL: J26
    Date: 2015–08
  4. By: Marianne Frank Hansen (Danish Rational Economic Agents Model, DREAM); Marie Louise Schultz-Nielsen (Rockwool Foundation Research Unit and IZA); Torben Tranæs (Rockwool Foundation Research Unit and IZA)
    Abstract: All over Europe, ageing populations threaten nations’ financial sustainability. In this paper we examine the potential of immigration to strengthen financial sustainability. We look at a particularly challenging case, namely that of Denmark, which has extensive tax-financed welfare programmes that provide a high social safety net. The analysis is based on a forecast for the entire Danish economy made using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model with overlapping generations. Net contributions to the public purse are presented both as cross-sectional figures for a long time horizon and as average individual life-cycle contributions. The main conclusion is that immigrants from richer countries have a positive fiscal impact, while immigrants from poorer countries have a large negative one. The negative effect is caused by both a weak labour market performance and early retirement in combination with the universal Danish welfare schemes.
    Keywords: immigration, public finances, forecasting, denmark
    Date: 2015–02
  5. By: Gopi Shah Goda; Matthew R. Levy; Colleen Flaherty Manchester; Aaron Sojourner; Joshua Tasoff
    Abstract: There is considerable variation in retirement savings within income, age, and educational categories. Using a broad sample of the U.S. population, we elicit time preference parameters from a quasi-hyperbolic discounting model, and perceptions of exponential growth. We find that present bias (PB), the tendency to value utility in the present over the future in a dynamically inconsistent way, and exponential-growth bias (EGB), the tendency to neglect compounding, are prevalent and distinct latent variables. PB, EGB, and the long-run discount factor are all highly significant in predicting retirement savings, even while controlling for measures of IQ and general financial literacy as well as a rich set of demographic controls. We find that lack of self-awareness of these biases has an additional independent negative impact on retirement savings. We assess potential threats to a causal interpretation of our results with a hypothetical choice experiment and several robustness exercises. Finally, we explore potential mechanisms for our findings. If the relationship we estimate is causal, our estimates suggest that eliminating PB and EGB would be associated with an increase in retirement savings of 12%, or as high as 70% using estimates that account for classical measurement error.
    JEL: H0
    Date: 2015–08
  6. By: Wolfgang Frimmel; Thomas Horvath; Mario Schnalzenberger; Rudolf Winter-Ebmer
    Abstract: In general, retirement is seen as a pure labor supply phenomenon, but firms can have strong incentives to send expensive older workers into retirement. Based on the seniority wage model developed by Lazear (1979), we discuss steep seniority wage profiles as incentives for firms to dismiss older workers before retirement. Conditional on individual retirement incentives, e.g., social security wealth or health status, the steepness of the wage profile will have different incentives for workers as compared to firms when it comes to the retirement date. Using an instrumental variable approach to account for selection of workers in our firms and for reverse causality, we find that firms with higher labor costs for older workers are associated with lower job exit age.
    Keywords: retirement, seniority wages, firm incentives
    JEL: J14 J26 J31 H55
    Date: 2015–07
  7. By: Shinichi Nishiyama
    Abstract: The current U.S. Social Security program redistributes resources from high-wage workers to low-wage workers through its progressive benefit schedule and from two-earner couples and singles to one-earner couples through its spousal and survivors benefits. This paper extends a standard general-equilibrium overlapping-generations model with uninsurable wage shocks to analyze the effect of the spousal and survivors benefits on the labor supply of married households and the overall economy. The heterogeneousagent model calibrated to the current U.S. economy predicts that, in the long run, removing spousal and survivors benefits would increase the female labor participation rate by 1.4%, the total working hours of women by 1.6–1.7%, and the total output of the economy by 0.5–0.6%. Under the balanced-budget assumption, a phased-in cohort-by-cohort removal of these benefits would make all age cohorts, on average, better off, although the policy change would make a majority of young married households worse off in the short run.
    Keywords: dynamic general equilibrium, heterogeneous agents, overlapping generations, female labor supply
    JEL: D91 E62 H55
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Padmaja Ayyagari; David Frisvold
    Abstract: Prior literature has documented a positive association between income and cognitive function at older ages, however, the extent to which this association represents causal effects is unknown. In this study, we use an exogenous change in Social Security income due to amendments to the Social Security Act in the 1970s to identify the causal impact of Social Security income on cognitive function of elderly individuals. We find that higher benefits led to significant improvements in cognitive function and that these improvements in cognition were clinically meaningful. Our results suggest that interventions even at advanced ages can slow the rate of decline in cognitive function.
    JEL: H55 I12
    Date: 2015–08
  9. By: Stark, Oded; Nicinska, Anna
    Abstract: We present and test the idea that bequest planning is linked with the experience of inheriting. We consider “a family tradition of bequeathing” as a channel through which the intention to bequeath is molded by and is positively correlated with the experience of inheriting. We use data from the Survey on Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) to test whether, other things held constant, inheriting has a positive influence on the intention to bequeath. We find that the experience of inheriting enhances the intension to bequeath as predicted by the family tradition model, independently of the positive impact of wealth. We also find that the expectation of inheriting has a positive impact on the intention to bequeath, controlling for the expected increase in wealth on account of future inheritances. Apparently, it is not the financial means that inheritance provides which account for its impact on the intention to bequeath; it is rather the family tradition of bequeathing instilled through inheriting.
    Keywords: Intergenerational transfers, Bequest behavior, Experience of inheriting, Expectation of inheriting, Intention to bequeath, Family tradition, Consumer/Household Economics, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, D02, D03, D19, D64, H31,
    Date: 2015–08
  10. By: Noël Bonneuil (EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales, INED - Institut national d'études démographiques); Raouf Boucekkine (AMSE - Aix-Marseille School of Economics - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) - Ecole Centrale Marseille (ECM) - AMU - Aix-Marseille Université, IUF - Institut Universitaire de France - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche)
    Abstract: The mechanism stating that longer life implies larger investment in human capital, is premised on the view that individual decision-making governs the relationship between longevity and education. This relationship is revisited here from the perspective of optimal period school life expectancy, obtained from the utility maximization of the whole population characterized by its age structure and its age-specific fertility and mortality. Realistic life tables such as model life tables are mandatory, because the age distribution of mortality matters, notably at infant and juvenile ages. Optimal period school life expectancy varies with life expectancy and mortality. Applications to stable population models and then to French historical data from 1806 to nowadays show that the population age structure has indeed modified the relationship between longevity and optimal schooling
    Date: 2015–02
  11. By: Alicia H. Munnell
    Abstract: The timing of the release of the Social Security Trustees Report is becoming more unpredictable. It used to come out in the spring, but in the last two years it has been released in late July. It is hard to know whether the delay reflects internal controversy or simply the inability to get six people (the Social Security Commissioner, the Secretaries of Treasury, of Health and Human Services, and of Labor, and two public trustees) in a room at the same time to sign the document. One logical reason for the delay this year is the time required to incorporate the important Medicare legislation passed in April and the desire to release the Social Security and Medicare reports at the same time. While the release date has become more unpre­dictable, the message has not. The program faces a 75-year deficit, the Old-Age, Survivors and Dis­ability Insurance (OASDI) program trust funds are scheduled for exhaustion in the early 2030s, and the Disability Insurance trust fund will run out of money next year. The specifics for 2015 show a little improvement: the 75-year deficit declined from 2.88 percent in 2014 to 2.68 percent in 2015 and the date of trust fund exhaustion moved from 2033 to 2034. But the story remains unchanged: the trust funds are going to run out of money, forcing substantial benefit cuts. Congress needs to act both to restore confi­dence in the nation’s major social insurance program and to give people time to adjust to needed changes. This brief updates the numbers and puts the current report in perspective. It also discusses the projected exhaustion of the Disability Insurance Trust Fund in 2016 and replacement rate data that remain missing from the Trustees Report.
    Date: 2015–07
  12. By: Klimczuk, Andrzej; Tomczyk, Łukasz
    Abstract: A publication called Aging in the Social Space is a compilation of studies, which deal with theoretical understanding and empirical solutions, learning about problem spheres, specifying content parallels of social, legal, economic, moral and ethical views on senior issues in society, which are closely related to each other and are interconnected. This publication focus on the case study of Poland. It is supposed to provide a multidimensional view of old age issues and issues related to aging and care for old people in society. We believe that it is natural also to name individual spheres, in which society has some eff ect, either direct or indirect, within issues concerning seniors. Learning about these spheres is the primary prerequisite for successful use of social help to seniors in society.
    Keywords: aging, ageing, older people, gerontology, active ageing, Poland
    JEL: J14 J18 Z18
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Matthew S. Rutledge; Steven A. Sass; Jorge D. Ramos-Mercado
    Abstract: Changing jobs after age 50 has become increasingly common. To assess the employment opportunities available to these job-changers, this study examines how the range of occupations in which they find jobs narrows as they age and whether this pattern differs by socioeconomic status, using education as a proxy. The results indicate that workers in their early 50s who change jobs find employment in a reasonably similar set of occupations as do prime-age workers but that the opportunities increasingly narrow as they enter their late 50s and early 60s. These results vary by educational attainment. Interestingly, while job opportunities narrow as workers age, the number of opportunities available to older workers at any given age has improved significantly between the late 1990s and early 2010s – though the gains have gone primarily to better-educated older workers. Consistent with previous research, the study also finds: 1) employer policies that emphasize employee training, respect for seniority, and “hiring from within” create barriers to the hiring of older job-seekers; 2) older workers are less likely to be hired in jobs requiring strong cognitive skills; but 3) physical demands and adverse working conditions are not serious impediments.
    Date: 2015–08
  14. By: Shinichi Nishiyama
    Abstract: This paper incorporates the aging population projected by the U.S. Social Security Administration to a heterogeneous-agent OLG model with idiosyncratic wage shocks and analyzes its effects on individual households, the government budget, and the overall economy. The fiscal gap caused by the demographic change is 2.94% of GDP under the intermediate projection. The effect of the aging population is large by itself and depends significantly on how the government finances the cost of the demographic change. There is a strong trade-off between efficiency and equity, and this paper quantitatively assesses the pros and cons of stylized fiscal reform plans.
    Keywords: dynamic general equilibrium, heterogeneous agents, overlapping generations, aging population, fiscal policy
    JEL: D91 E62 H31
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Gary-Bobo, Robert J.; Nur, Jamil
    Abstract: We study the allocation of housing capital in an overlapping generations economy with competitive property and housing rental markets. In this economy, consumers inherit property from their parents when they retire. Agents have paternalistic bequest motives. All agents are identical and there is no redistribution problem. The stationary competitive equilibrium of such a model is inefficient, since old agents consume too much perishable goods and too much housing. We then show that the golden rule stationary optimum can be achieved by means of a simple system of proportional taxes. The optimal allocation is characterized by the fact that the young agents rent their homes and that the old agents own the entire stock of housing capital. An optimal tax system has the following features: the young agents' rents must be subsidized. Housing capital and rents are both taxed. But bequests must be subsidized. Bequest and rent subsidies are financed by labor income tax and property tax revenues. Rent subsidies are financed by the tax on rents. The government's budget is balanced. The negative tax on bequests can be interpreted as a pension benefit, paid out of a public pension fund, based on the market value of the housing-capital stock.
    Keywords: bequests; capital taxation; housing; overlapping generation; real estate; rents
    JEL: H2 H3 H6
    Date: 2015–08
  16. By: Jonas Zangenberg Hansen (Danish Rational Economic Agents Model, DREAM); Peter Stephensen (Danish Rational Economic Agents Model, DREAM)
    Abstract: We utilize the newly developed dynamic microsimulation model SMILE (Simulation Model for Individual Lifecycle Evaluation) to make a long-term forecast of detailed housing demand both in terms of key aggregate figures and compositional features of future Danish housing demand. SMILE simulates the life course of the full Danish population with respect to three main types of events: demographic, socioeconomic, and housing-related events. Demographic events include ageing, births, deaths, migration, leaving home, and couple formation and dissolution - all of which are key indirect drivers of future housing demand. Socioeconomic events such as education attendance and attainment, and labor market events are also important indirect drivers of housing demand because they are closely linked to the timing and direction of households' moving patterns. Finally, households move spatially and between dwelling types based on historically observed moving patterns and estimated transition probabilities by using the tree-based classification model. The key results from the simulations are: changing patterns of cohabitation with a decreasing average household size is projected to increase the number of households by roughly one-third above what the general increase in population indicates. Increasing urbanization leads to an increasing demand for multi-dwelling houses. An ageing population is expected to pent-up the demand for smaller dwellings, especially rental housing.
    Keywords: population projections, education, household projections, housing demand, microsimulation
    Date: 2013–12
  17. By: Fedotenkov, Igor
    Abstract: This paper provides an explanation of why population ageing is associated with deflationary processes. For this reason, we create an overlapping-generations model (OLG) with money created by credits (inside money) and intergenerational trade. In other words, we combine a neoclassical OLG model, with post-Keynesian monetary theory. The model links demographic factors, such as fertility rates and longevity, to prices. We show that lower fertility rates lead to a smaller demand for credits, and lower money creation, which causes a decline in prices. Changes in longevity affect prices via real savings and capital market. Furthermore, we address a few links between interest rates and inflation, which arise in the general equilibrium, and are not thoroughly discussed in the literature. Long-run results are derived analytically; short-run dynamics is simulated numerically.
    Keywords: Population ageing, inflation, OLG model, inside money, credits
    JEL: E12 E31 J10
    Date: 2015–07–10
  18. By: Gérard-François Dumont (ENEC - Espaces, Nature et Culture - UP4 - Université Paris-Sorbonne - CNRS)
    Abstract: [Generational demographic effects and increased life expectancy: the two combined phenomena, unprecedented in the history of humanity, facing with many challenges. In 2014, France has 16 million people aged 60 or over. According to the average projection, they would be 20 million in 2030. How to respond to their needs? The question is at the heart of Silver economy sector aimed at encouraging innovations to accompany advancing age and reduce loss of autonomy. A real potential in terms of economic benefits and employment for many sectors of activities. Voluntary standards exist but gaps are identified as penalizing the structuring of the sector. Areas such as basic needs (food, displacement capacity...), the living environment (environment, local shops...) or health (access to care, prevention) represent high potential markets. Nine key areas are identified: food, transport, housing, workplace, health and social Action, financial services, leisure and sports tourism, consumer goods and information technologies. This expression comes from elsewhere needs of older workers themselves and their caregivers, according to the national survey presented in this report, place the food, health and new technologies in the top three of their service expectations . In the area of the Silver Economy, voluntary standards and private standards already exist, but many gaps remain. These deficiencies penalize the structuring of the sector. For an entrepreneur, consult a voluntary standard allows to save time and deploy its activity in optimal conditions, which meet the needs and requirements of the sector. The findings of the report encourage all economic actors involved in the growth of the sector (service providers, industry, SMEs, start-ups, ...) to become involved in developing, together, voluntary standards that meet the needs of the market.]
    Abstract: Effets démographiques générationnels et augmentation de l’espérance de vie : ces deux phénomènes combinés, inédits dans l’histoire de l’Humanité, confrontent la société française à de nombreux défis. En 2014, la France compte 16 millions de personnes âgées de 60 ans ou plus. Selon la projection moyenne, elles seraient 20 millions en 2030. Comment répondre à leurs besoins ? La question est au cœur de la Silver économie, filière qui vise à encourager les innovations pour accompagner l’avancée en âge et faire reculer la perte d’autonomie. Un vrai potentiel en termes de retombées économiques et d’emploi pour de très nombreux sec-teurs d’activités. Des normes volontaires existent, mais des manques sont identifiés comme pénalisant la structuration de la filière. Les domaines comme les besoins fondamentaux (alimentation, ca-pacité de déplacement...), le cadre de vie (environnement, proximité de commerces...) ou la santé (accès aux soins, prévention) représentent des marchés à fort potentiel. Neuf secteurs clés sont identifiés : agroalimentaire, transports, habitat, lieu de travail, santé et action so-ciale, services financiers, sports loisirs et tourisme, biens de consommation et technologies de l’information. Cette expression de besoins provient d’ailleurs des seniors eux-mêmes et de leurs aidants qui, selon l’enquête nationale présentée dans ce rapport, placent l’alimentation, la santé et les nouvelles technologies dans le trio de tête de leurs attentes de services. Dans le domaine de la Silver économie, des normes volontaires et référentiels privés exis-tent déjà, mais de nombreux manques persistent. Ces lacunes pénalisent la structuration de la filière. Pour un entrepreneur, consulter une norme volontaire permet de gagner du temps et de déployer son activité dans des conditions optimales, qui répondent aux besoins et aux exigences du secteur. Les conclusions de ce rapport encouragent tous les acteurs écono-miques concernés par la croissance de la filière (prestataires, industriels, PME, start-ups,...) à s’impliquer pour élaborer, ensemble, des normes volontaires qui correspondent aux be-soins du marché.
    Date: 2015–02
  19. By: Nathalie Greenan (CEE - Centre d'études de l'emploi - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé, TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - CNRS); Pierre-Jean Messe (CEE - Centre d'études de l'emploi - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé, TEPP - Travail, Emploi et Politiques Publiques - UPEM - Université Paris-Est Marne-la-Vallée - CNRS, GAINS - Groupe d'Analyse des Itinéraires et des Niveaux Salariaux - UM - Université du Maine)
    Abstract: The main contribution of this paper is to study empirically how the horizon effect and the technological or organisational changes interact to explain the probability of being an internal trainer at the end of career. We use data from a French matched employer-employee survey on Organisational Changes and Computerisation (COI) conducted in 2006. It contains information both on employees’ knowledge transmission practices and employers’ technological or organisational changes. We find that the shorter the horizon of a worker aged 50 and over, the higher is her probability of being an internal trainer, but only in firms that did not experience any changes. In changing firms, we find the same effect provided that the older worker benefited from a training session to update her skills.
    Date: 2014–10
  20. By: Klaffke, Martin
    Abstract: Germany is undergoing a dramatic demographic change that requires its organizations to make workforce talent of all ages a strategic priority. Practitioners in Germany focus largely on Generation Y employees, because this young employee cohort expresses new and different work-related values. However, diverse attitudes and behaviours of employees of different age groups can poten­tially lead to conflict and have an overall negative impact on orga­nizational performance. Given US labour legislation and media pressure, managing workforce diversity has been on the agenda of U.S. organizations for many years. Consequently, it can be assumed that there are areas in which German organizations can learn best practices from the U.S. experience. Although data collected from Silicon Valley organizations suggest that taking specific action for managing the multi-generational workforce is currently not a pressing issue in the tech industry, setting up innovative workplaces is an action field in which Germany can learn from its U.S. counterparts.
    Keywords: Business, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Germany, Demographics, Diversity, Generation Management, Silicon Valley
    Date: 2015–04–01
  21. By: Esa Eslami
    Abstract: he research described in this report provides policymakers and researchers with detailed information on state SNAP eligibility and participation over time.
    Keywords: elderly SNAP participation, elderly SNAP eligibility, characteristics of elderly SNAP participants, elderly SNAP participation rates
    JEL: I0 I1
    Date: 2015–07–30

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