nep-age New Economics Papers
on Economics of Ageing
Issue of 2014‒06‒14
nine papers chosen by
Claudia Villosio
LABORatorio R. Revelli

  1. Early retirement and post retirement health By Hallberg, Daniel; Johansson, Per; Josephson, Malin
  2. Social interactions and the retirement age By Niels Vermeer; Daniel van Vuuren; Maarten van Rooij (DNB/Netspar)
  3. Delaying the normal and early retirement ages in Spain: behavioural and welfare consequences for employed and unemployed workers By Alfonso R. Sánchez; J. Ignacio García-Pérez; Sergi Jiménez-Martín
  4. Outliving Our Savings: Registered Retirement Income Funds Rules Need a Big Update By William Robson; Alex Laurin
  5. Employment in Long-term Care. Report on Poland By Stanislawa Golinowska; Ewa Kocot; Agnieszka Sowa
  6. Evolution of outpatient healthcare expenditure due to ageing in 2030, a dynamic micro-simulation model for France By Grégoire De Lagasnerie; Charlotte Geay; Makram Larguem
  7. Trends in Life Expectancy by Income and the Role of Specific Causes of Death By Hederos Eriksson, Karin; Jäntti, Markus; Lindahl, Lena; Torssander, Jenny
  8. Are Public Sector Workers Different? Cross-European Evidence from Elderly Workers and Retirees By Tonin, Mirco; Vlassopoulos, Michael
  9. L'Europe vieillit : une seconde jeunesse pour la campagne ? By Dominique Vollet; Carl Gaigné; Catherine Guchet; Jean-Yves Pineau; Marc Mousli; Magali Talandier

  1. By: Hallberg, Daniel (Uppsala Center for Labor Studies); Johansson, Per (Uppsala Center for Labor Studies); Josephson, Malin (the Swedish Social Insurance Inspectorate (ISF))
    Abstract: This paper studies empirically the consequences of retirement on health. We make use of a targeted retirement offer to army employees 55 years of age or older. Before the offer was implemented in the Swedish defense, the normal retirement age was 60 years of age. Estimating the effect of the offer on individuals’ health within the age range 56-70, we find support for a reduction in both mortality and in inpatient care as a consequence of the early retirement offer. Increasing the mandatory retirement age may thus not only have positive government income effects but also negative effects on increasing government health care expenditures
    Keywords: Health; mortality; inpatient care; retirement; health care; pensions; occupational pensions
    JEL: I18 J22 J26
    Date: 2014–06–04
  2. By: Niels Vermeer; Daniel van Vuuren; Maarten van Rooij (DNB/Netspar)
    Abstract: In this study, we gauge the impact of social interactions on individual retirement preferences. A survey including self-assessments and vignette questions shows that individual preferences are affected by preferences and actual retirement behavior of the social environment. Retirement from paid work depends on the retirement age of relatives, friends, colleagues and acquaintances. Information and advice provided by the social environment play a role in the retirement decision. A majority of respondents would postpone retirement when their social environment retires later. A one year increase in the social environment’s retirement age leads to an average increase of three months in the individual retirement age. In addition, people tend to stick more to the state pension age than to other retirement ages, which suggests a norm about retirement at the state pension age.
    JEL: J26 J14 Z13
    Date: 2014–06
  3. By: Alfonso R. Sánchez; J. Ignacio García-Pérez; Sergi Jiménez-Martín
    Abstract: In this paper, we explore the links between pension reform, early retirement, and the use of unemployment as an alternative pathway to retirement. We use a dynamic rational expectations model to analyze the search and retirement behaviour of employed and unemployed workers aged 50 or over. The model is calibrated to reproduce the main reemployment and retirement patterns observed between 2002 and 2008 in Spain. It is subsequently used to analyze the effects of the 2011 pension reform in Spain, characterized by two-year delays in both the early and the normal retirement ages. We find that this reform generates large increases in labour supply and sizable cuts in pension costs, but these are achieved at the expense of very large welfare losses, especially among unemployed workers. As an alternative, we propose leaving the early retirement age unchanged, but penalizing the minimum pension (reducing its generosity in parallel to the cuts imposed on individual pension benefits, and making it more actuarially fair with age). This alternative reform strikes a better balance between individual welfare and labour supply stimulus.
    Date: 2014–05
  4. By: William Robson; Alex Laurin
    Abstract: Many retirees face dramatic erosion of their savings due to outdated government rules, says a new C.D. Howe Institute report. In “Outliving Our Savings: Registered Retirement Income Funds Rules Need a Big Update,” authors Alexandre Laurin and William Robson urge the government to re-visit its rules requiring mandatory minimum withdrawals from registered retirement income funds (RRIFs) and similar accounts, to protect Canadians from outliving their savings.
    Keywords: Governance and Public Institutions, Pension Papers
    JEL: D91 J32
  5. By: Stanislawa Golinowska; Ewa Kocot; Agnieszka Sowa
    Abstract: The report discusses the formal long-term care workforce in Poland. It presents past and future trends in the development of LTC employment. Authors collected scattered statistical information, estimated lacking data and projected future growth in the number of employed in care services. Performed analysis includes employment in the health and social sector and across various types of care. Projections of the demand for care and supply of the LTC workforce were based on the demographic prognosis of the population size and changes in the age structure taking into account different scenarios for demographic development. Results show the growing gap between demand and supply in the LTC employment. The policy towards aging in Poland will must take up the challenge of growing care needs, family changes and lower opportunities for provision of informal care.
    Keywords: Long-term Care, Employment in Long-term Care, Employment Projections, Labour Resources in Long-term Care, Medical and Care Professions
    JEL: H51 H53 H75 I18
    Date: 2014–06
  6. By: Grégoire De Lagasnerie (Sciences Po LIEPP); Charlotte Geay (INSEE); Makram Larguem (Université Panthéon-Assas - Paris II)
    Abstract: Population ageing will be a major challenge in Europe in the coming decades. This phenomenon will raise the question of the sustainability of public spending with increasing healthcare provision costs. This paper presents a dynamic micro-­‐simulation model for outpatient healthcare expenditure in France, which projects healthcare costs in the long run. Like all the dynamic micro-­‐simulation models, the model projects the population structure over time. The projections are run using a transition process between three states: two non-­‐absorbing (good-­‐health or ill-­‐health) and one absorbing state (death). The outpatient healthcare expenditure is estimated on data between 2002 and 2008 through a two-­‐part model. While healthcare spending of 25 years old and more represent 3.9% of GDP in 2008, they would reach 4.6% in the baseline scenario in 2032 (+0.7 percentage point of GDP or +17.5%). A difference in the share of expenditure in GDP appears between scenarios with different evolutions of health status during the projection period. Outpatient healthcare spending represents 4.6% of GDP in the central scenario in 2032, against 4.4 % in the most optimistic scenario and 4.7% in a pessimistic scenario.
    Date: 2014–05
  7. By: Hederos Eriksson, Karin (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University); Jäntti, Markus (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University); Lindahl, Lena (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University); Torssander, Jenny (Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University)
    Abstract: -
    Keywords: Life expectancy; income distribution; socio-economic gradient;
    Date: 2014–06–02
  8. By: Tonin, Mirco (University of Southampton); Vlassopoulos, Michael (University of Southampton)
    Abstract: The public sector employs a large share of the labor force to execute important functions (e.g. regulation and public good provision) in an environment beset by severe agency problems. Attracting workers who are motivated to serve the public interest is important to mitigate these problems. We investigate whether public and private sector employees differ in terms of their public service motivation, as measured by their propensity to volunteer, using a representative sample of elderly workers from 12 European countries. To overcome potential identification difficulties related to unobservable differences in working conditions (e.g. working time, required effort, job security, career incentives), we also look at retired workers. We find that public sector workers, both those currently employed and those already retired, are significantly more prosocial; however, the difference in prosociality is explained by differences in the composition of the workforce across the two sectors, in terms of (former) workers' education and occupation. Looking across industries and within occupations, we find that former public sector workers in education are more motivated, while there are no differences across the two sectors when considering broad occupational categories. We also investigate other dimensions and find no differences in terms of trust, while there is evidence of some differences in risk aversion, political preferences, life and job satisfaction.
    Keywords: public sector, public service motivation, risk aversion, trust, life satisfaction, volunteering
    JEL: D64 H83 J45
    Date: 2014–06
  9. By: Dominique Vollet (Mutations des Activités, des Espaces et des Formes d'Organisation dans les Territoires Ruraux, INRA); Carl Gaigné (Structures et Marchés Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires); Catherine Guchet (Université Pierre Mendès-France (Grenoble 2)); Jean-Yves Pineau (Association Collectif Ville Campagne); Marc Mousli (Laboratoire d'innovation, de prospective stratégique et d'organisation (LIPSOR), Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers); Magali Talandier (Université Joseph Fourier)
    Abstract: Alors que le vieillissement constitue l’un des phénomènes les plus marquants affectant les espaces ruraux, ses conséquences économiques, sociales et politiques encore peu explorées, sont envisagées dans cette contribution de synthèse. Cette approche multidisciplinaire permet d’envisager sous forme de scénarii diversifiés l’évolution des espaces ruraux et autorise à penser le vieillissement des populations et des territoires ruraux en termes de nouvelles potentialités de développement économique et social.
    Abstract: Ageing is now one of the most significant issues in rural settings and this paper seeks to provide an overview of its under-explored economic, social and political consequences. This multidisciplinary approach offers a variety of scenarios regarding the changes taking place in rural areas and provides a basis for considering the ageing of country populations and territories in terms of fresh potential for economic and social development.
    Keywords: europedémographie de population, population ruralevieillissementterritoire rural, développement socioéconomique
    Date: 2013

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