nep-age New Economics Papers
on Economics of Ageing
Issue of 2014‒04‒05
seven papers chosen by
Claudia Villosio
LABORatorio R. Revelli

  1. Reallocation of Resources Across Age in a Comparative European Setting By Bernhard Hammer; Alexia Prskawetz; Inga Freund
  2. Lower-Income Individuals Without Pensions: Who Misses Out and Why? By April Yanyuan Wu; Matthew S. Rutledge
  3. Le Bien-Vieillir Désiré : Vers une nouvelle segmentation des 50-65 ans By Senges, Eloïse; Guiot, Denis; Malas, Ziad
  4. Home Bitter Home? Gender, Living Arrangements, and the Exclusion from Home-Ownership among Older Europeans By Daniele Vignoli; Maria Letizia Tanturri; Francesco Acciai
  5. Financial Mechanisms for Integrating Funds for Health and Social Care: An Evidence Review By Anne Mason; Maria Goddard; Helen Weatherly
  6. Déficit, croissance et bien-être intergénérationnel : Comment réformer les pensions au Luxembourg ? By Muriel Bouchet; Luca Marchiori; Olivier Pierrard
  7. Reforming Human Capital and Human Resource Management: A bird's-eye view (Japanese) By TSURU Kotaro

  1. By: Bernhard Hammer; Alexia Prskawetz; Inga Freund
    Abstract: We investigate the reallocation of resources across age and gender in a comparative European setting. Our analysis is based on concepts and data from the National Transfer Accounts (NTA) project, as well as on data from income and time use surveys. We introduce the aggregate NTA life cycle deficit as a concept of an economic dependency ratio. This dependency measure allows for flexible age limits and age-specific levels of economic dependency. We then move beyond the current NTA methodology and study gender differences in the generation of income and extend our analysis by unpaid household work. We find large cross-country differences in the age- and gender-specific levels and type of production activities and consequently in the organisation of the resource reallocation across age. Our results clearly indicate that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the services produced within the households for own consumption (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning...).
    Keywords: Ageing, challenges for welfare system, demographic change, welfare state
    JEL: I38 J10
    Date: 2014–03
  2. By: April Yanyuan Wu; Matthew S. Rutledge
    Abstract: In 2010, only 19 percent of individuals ages 50-58 whose household incomes were less than 300 percent of the poverty line participated in a pension of any kind at their current jobs, compared to 56 percent of those above 300 percent of poverty. This paper investigates this pension gap. In particular, we decompose the pension participation rate into its four elements in order to compare coverage between higher- and lower-income individuals: 1) the fraction of people who are currently working (the employment rate); 2) the fraction of workers who are in firms that offer pension benefits to at least some workers (the offer rate); 3) the fraction of workers who are eligible for pension benefits, conditional on being in a firm where it is offered (the eligibility rate); and 4) the fraction of workers who enroll in a pension plan when they are eligible (the take-up rate). We find that the substantial pension gap between higher- and lower-income individuals is driven primarily by the lower-income group’s lower employment rate and the smaller probability of working for an employer that offers pensions; when lower-income workers do have a pension plan at work, their eligibility and take-up rates are nearly equivalent to higher-income workers. We also find that the factors associated with a higher value for each element of pension participation are very consistent: higher education and income, previous pension history, and job characteristics including firm size, occupation, job tenure, and union status. Together, these findings suggest that policies such as automatic enrollment that focus on pension eligibility or take-up are unlikely to close the pension coverage gap between older, lower-income individuals and their higher-income contemporaries; instead, greater pension participation requires more jobs and, in particular, more “good jobs.”
    Date: 2014–03
  3. By: Senges, Eloïse; Guiot, Denis; Malas, Ziad
    Abstract: Aging well is now a major societal issue. Applied to marketing, the relevance of Desired Aging Well criterion is tested in this paper to segment the 50-65 years old market on a sample representative of French people. A typology based on consumer behavior regarding financial investments, leisure activities and health innovations reveals four consumer segments (the wealthy far-sighted, the dissatisfied passives, the lukewarm and the well-aging) whose constitution is influenced by Desired Aging Well. Managerial recommendations based on this criterion are proposed.
    Keywords: bien vieillir; vieillissement réussi; 50-65 ans; comportements de consommation; typologie; aging well; successful aging; 50-65 years old; seniors; consumption behaviors; typology; segmentation;
    JEL: D11 D91 M31
    Date: 2014–01
  4. By: Daniele Vignoli (Dipartimento di Statistica, Informatica, Applicazioni "G. Parenti", Università di Firenze); Maria Letizia Tanturri (Dipartimento di Scienze Statistiche, Università di Padova); Francesco Acciai (Department of Sociology, Population Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University)
    Abstract: Home-ownership is the most important asset among the elderly in Europe, but in this domain very little is known about gender differences. This paper aims at exploring the link between gender, living arrangements, monetary poverty and home tenure among older Europeans, in order to identify the profiles of the elderly at a higher risk of being excluded from home-ownership. The analysis is based on the fourth wave of SHARE, and includes a sub-sample of about 56,000 individuals aged 50 or over, living in 16 European countries: Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. Our findings show that women are generally more likely to be excluded from homeownership than men. However, a closer look suggests that the gender gap in home ownership is essentially generated by compositional differences between men and women, with the most relevant factor being the type of living arrangement.
    Keywords: Home tenure; older Europeans; gender; living arrangement, poverty
    JEL: J10 J12
    Date: 2014–03
  5. By: Anne Mason (Centre for Health Economics, University of York, UK); Maria Goddard (Centre for Health Economics, University of York, UK); Helen Weatherly (Centre for Health Economics, University of York, UK)
    Abstract: Integrated care is often perceived as a solution for some of the major challenges faced by health and social care systems. In these systems, 20% of the population accounts for 80% of the expenditure on care [1]. These ‘high users’ are typically people with one or more long-term conditions and who have complex needs that straddle health and social care boundaries; the population includes, but is not limited to, older people. By coordinating care at the level of the individual, decision makers should in theory identify problems earlier in the care pathway and shift care closer to home, improve the patient experience, prevent or reduce avoidable hospital admissions and delayed discharges, improve health outcomes and reduce unnecessary duplication of care. However, empirical studies of integrated care systems suggest that the reality falls far short of these high expectations. While some evaluations have identified cost savings or improved outcomes, most find no significant benefits, and in those that do identify improvements, the effects are small.
    Keywords: Payment systems, pooled budgets, joint commissioning, integrated care, systematic review
    Date: 2014–03
  6. By: Muriel Bouchet; Luca Marchiori; Olivier Pierrard
    Abstract: Outre au problème de vieillissement de la population, le Luxembourg devra faire face au départ à la retraite de larges contingents de travailleurs non-résidents ainsi qu?à l?essoufflement attendu de l?immigration et de l?arrivée de futurs frontaliers. Le financement des systèmes de pensions par répartition devrait s?avérer plus difficile que dans d?autres pays. Nos précédentes études, basées sur le modèle macroéconomique LOLA, montrent que les changements démographiques vont sérieusement hypothéquer la santé des finances publiques et que la récente réforme des pensions - même si elle va dans la bonne direction - n?est pas suffisante pour régler le problème des pensions et maintenir des finances publiques saines. Dans cette étude, nous proposons et évaluons une réforme globale, appelée LOLA. Cinq conclusions majeures ressortent de notre analyse. Premièrement, la ?réforme LOLA? permet de contenir le problème des finances publiques à moyen terme (jusqu?en 2060) en maintenant le déficit public hors soins de santé aux alentours de 3%du PIB. Deuxièmement, elle préserve la croissance économique et limite la perte de bien-être des générations actuelles. Troisièmement, elle assure une plus grande équité intergénérationnelle que la récente réforme des pensions. Quatrièmement, ces conclusions se vérifient pour différents cas de figure - optimistes et pessimists - d?évolution de la démographie et du travail frontalier. Finalement, nous montrons comment mettre en oeuvre la ?réforme LOLA? en pratique et de façon complémentaire à la récente réforme.
    Keywords: Générations imbriquées, Projections de long-terme, Pensions, Luxembourg
    JEL: D91 E24 E62 F41 J11
    Date: 2014–03
  7. By: TSURU Kotaro
    Abstract: Amid the rapid aging of its society and intensifying global competition, utilizing its human resources is a significant key for Japan, a nation which lacks relatively in natural resources, to maintain and strengthen its economic dynamism and increase its growth potential. This paper provides a multifaceted and comprehensive view on measures to strengthen human capital and human resource capabilities, from a full lifecycle perspective. It is important to clarify the concrete image of workers' talents or abilities that are demanded by industry and to examine an appropriate educational system that is able to cultivate such abilities. During the course of the employment years, promoting mutual trust inside firms and a long-term commitment to skill development will lead to developing a new work style that can open the door to a bright future for workers. Moreover, elderly human resources should be utilized to promote the skills of young people in their companies or local communities.
    Date: 2014–03

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