nep-age New Economics Papers
on Economics of Ageing
Issue of 2011‒02‒12
nine papers chosen by
Claudia Villosio
LABORatorio R. Revelli

  1. Disability and social security reforms: The French case By Luc Behaghel; Didier Blanchet; Thierry Debrand; Muriel Roger
  2. Data Sets on Pensions and Health: Data Collection and Sharing for Policy Design By Jinkook Lee
  3. Retirement Decisions in Transition: Microeconometric Evidence from Slovenia By Polanec, Sašo; Ahčan, Aleš; Verbič, Miroslav
  4. The political economy of derived pension rights By LEROUX, Marie - Louise; PESTIEAU, Pierre
  5. National Programme for the Health Care of the Elderly (NPHCE): An Approach towards Active and Healthy Ageing By Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
  6. Longevity and Saving for Retirement. By Vaz Paralta, Sara Sofia
  7. Reform on Pension Fund Governance and Management: The 1998 Reform of Korea National Pension Fund By Woochan Kim; Fiona Stewart
  8. Disability of Older Koreans: Evidence on Prevalence and the Role of Education from Five Data Sets By Jibum Kim; Jinkook Lee
  9. Determinants of Poverty in Elderly-Headed Households in the Philippines By Mapa, Dennis S.; Bersales , Lisa Grace S.; Albis, Manuel Leonard F.; Daquis , John Carlo P.

  1. By: Luc Behaghel (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris - INRA, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris); Didier Blanchet (INSEE-D3E - Département des études économiques d'ensemble - INSEE); Thierry Debrand (IRDES - Institut de recherche et documentation en économie de la santé - IRDES); Muriel Roger (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS) - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris - INRA, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris, INSEE-D3E - Département des études économiques d'ensemble - INSEE)
    Abstract: The French pattern of early transitions out of employment is basically explained by the low age at “normal” retirement and by the importance of transitions through unemployment insurance and early-retirement schemes before access to normal retirement. These routes have exempted French workers from massively relying on disability motives for early exits, contrarily to the situation that prevails in some other countries where normal ages are high, unemployment benefits low and early-retirement schemes almost non-existent. Yet the role of disability remains interesting to examine in the French case, at least for prospective reasons in a context of decreasing generosity of other programs. The study of the past reforms of the pension system underlines that disability routes have often acted as a substitute to other retirement routes. Changes in the claiming of invalidity benefits seem to match changes in pension schemes or controls more than changes in such health indicators as the mortality rates. However, our results suggest that increases in average health levels over the past two decades have come along with increased disparities. In that context, less generous pensions may induce an increase in the claiming of invalidity benefits partly because of substitution effects, but also because the share of people with poor health increases.
    Keywords: Pensions ; Social Security ; Disability ; Early Retirement ; Unemployment ; Senior
    Date: 2011–01
  2. By: Jinkook Lee
    Abstract: A growing number of countries are developing or reforming pension and health policies in response to population ageing and to enhance the welfare of their citizens. The adoption of different policies by different countries has resulted in several natural experiments. These offer unusual opportunities to examine the effects of varying policies on health and retirement, individual and family behavior, and well-being. Realizing these opportunities requires harmonized data-collection efforts. An increasing number of countries have agreed to provide data harmonized with the Health and Retirement Study in the United States. This paper discusses these data sets, including their key parameters of pension and health status, research designs, samples, and response rates. It also discusses the opportunities they offer for cross-national studies and their implications for policy evaluation and development.
    Date: 2010–11
  3. By: Polanec, Sašo; Ahčan, Aleš; Verbič, Miroslav
    Abstract: In this article, we analyse old-age retirement decisions of Slovenian men and women, eligible to retire in the period 1997-2003. In comparison to established market economies, we find relatively high hazard rates of retirement that decline with age. This unusual pattern can partly be attributed to weak incentives to work, inherent in the design of the pension system and reflected in predominantly negative values of accruals, and to transition-specific increase in wage inequality in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This is reflected in low wages and relatively high pensions of less productive (skilled) workers and vice versa. We find that the probability of retirement decreases with option value to work and net wages, although the response to the former, when controlling for the latter, is rather weak. Our results also imply that less educated individuals and individuals with greater personal wealth are more likely to retire.
    Keywords: option value; retirement decisions; transition
    JEL: H55 J26 J20
    Date: 2010–12
  4. By: LEROUX, Marie - Louise (Université catholique de Louvain, CORE, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium); PESTIEAU, Pierre (University of Liege, CREPP; Université catholique de Louvain, CORE, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; PSE and CEPR)
    Abstract: Derived pension rights exist in most Social Security systems but with variable generosity. They are mainly targeted towards non-working wives and widows and are viewed as a means to alleviate poverty among older women living alone. The purpose of this paper is to explain how they can emerge from a political economy process when the Social Security is a combination of Bismarckian and Beveridgian pillars. It also shows that derived rights tend to encourage stay-at- home wives thus revealing an unpleasant trade-o§ between female labor participation and poverty alleviation.
    Keywords: social security, derived pension rights, majority voting, individualisation of pension rights
    JEL: D72 D78 H55
    Date: 2010–07–01
  5. By: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare
    Abstract: The National Programme for the Health Care for the Elderly (NPHCE) is an articulation of the International and national commitments of the Government as envisaged under the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD), National Policy on Older Persons (NPOP) adopted by the Government of India in 1999 & Section 20 of “The Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007†dealing with provisions for medical care of Senior Citizen.
    Keywords: health care, elderly, NPHCE, older persons, persons, disabilities, India, senior citizen, welfare, parents,
    Date: 2011
  6. By: Vaz Paralta, Sara Sofia
    Abstract: Epargner pour la retraite est une décision qui dépend du revenu disponible comme du revenu espéré futurement, de la composition des ménages et les âges des individus, de la richesse nette accumulée et, finalement, de la longévité durant l’âge actif et pendant la période de la retraite. La théorie du cycle de vie explique les décisions de consommation et l’épargne en fonction des phases de la vie de l’individu. Dans une première phase, (en occurrence l’enfance), l’individu consomme et reçoit son éducation. Dans une seconde phase, (l’activité professionnelle), l’individu produit, consomme et épargne. Dans une troisième phase, celle de la retraite, l’individu utilise sa richesse nette accumulée pendant la période d’activité incluant la richesse provenant de la sécurité sociale pour financer sa consommation du cycle de vie. Les modèles sociaux assurent le remplacement du revenu et l’accès à des prestations dans toutes les phases de la vie de l’individu et influencent les décisions de consommation et d'épargne. Dans cette thèse, le comportement de l’épargne est analysé en prenant en compte la longévité dans les différents pays représentatifs des modèles sociaux européens, notamment, la Suède (Modèle Nordique), la France (Modèle Continental), le Portugal (Modèle Méditerranéen) et le Royaume-Uni (Modèle Anglo-Saxon).
    Abstract: Saving for retirement is a decision that depends on many factors. Firstly, it depends on the disposable income and future expected income. Secondly, the composition of households and the ages of individuals are determinant. Thirdly, it depends on the composition of net wealth and, finally, longevity during working life and retirement period. The life-cycle theory explains the consumption and saving decisions in function of the different phases in life. During childhood, the individual consumes and receives his education. In a second stage, the individual actively consumes, produces and saves. In a third phase, the individual uses his accumulated net wealth, including the amount of social security wealth, to finance his consumption of life-cycle during retirement. The social models ensure a substitution income and access to benefits in every stage of life, causing an impact on consumption and saving decisions. In this dissertation, saving behaviour is analysed by considering the impact of longevity in different countries representative of the various European Social Models, i.e. Sweden (Nordic Model), France (Continental Model), Portugal (Mediterranean Model) and the UK (Anglo-Saxon Model).
    Keywords: Modèles Sociaux; Longevité; Consommation; Epargne; Social Models; Longevity; Consumption; Saving;
    JEL: J14 H55 H53 J11 I31 E21
    Date: 2010–05
  7. By: Woochan Kim; Fiona Stewart
    Abstract: This paper provides a detailed chronological account of the governance-cum-management reform of National Pension Fund in Korea and analyzes its success factors, drawing lessons for other countries. A review of the current governance structures with the fund versus OECD guidelines and international good practice is also provided, along with suggestions for further reform.
    Keywords: governance, OECD, Korea, National Pension Fund, public pension reserve funds
    JEL: G18 G23 G28
    Date: 2011–02–01
  8. By: Jibum Kim; Jinkook Lee
    Abstract: This paper investigates how educational attainment may affect the prevalence of disability among older Koreans, a population for whom the association between health and education has been little studied. It performs descriptive and logistic regression analysis on five nationally representative data sets, all collected between 2004 and 2006, regarding education and disability among Koreans at least 65 years of age. It finds the relationship between education and disability to be strongest between less than primary school graduates and primary school graduates. Beyond the primary school level, the educational gradient on disability is weak.
    Date: 2010–11
  9. By: Mapa, Dennis S.; Bersales , Lisa Grace S.; Albis, Manuel Leonard F.; Daquis , John Carlo P.
    Abstract: This paper looks at the impact of population dynamics on poverty in elderly-headed households in the Philippines using data from the Family Income and Expenditure Survey (FIES) from 2000 to 2006. The population of the elderly, or those 60 years and above, has increased from 3.2 million in 1990 to 4.6 million in 2000. This group is growing at a rate of 3.6% per annum and estimated to reach 7 million in 2010. Data from the FIES shows that the percentage of the elderly who are poor is increasing since 2003. Moreover, the percentage of elderly-headed household belonging to the poorest 10% of all households has been on the rise since 1997. An econometric model based on the logistic regression shows that the presence of a young dependent (aged 14 years old or below) increases the probability that the elderly-headed household will become poor by about 9 percentage points, controlling for other factors such as income of the household, education, age and gender of the household head, income transfer from abroad and regional-specific characteristics. The results of the econometric model suggest that the high proportion of young dependents create negative effects on the welfare of the elderly-headed household by increasing the probability of that household being poor. From the point of view of policy, addressing the alarming poverty incidence in the country must include measures that will manage the country’s bourgeoning population and bring down the fertility rate to a level that is conducive to higher income growth.
    Keywords: elderly; population dynamics; poverty
    JEL: J13 J14 I32
    Date: 2011–02

This nep-age issue is ©2011 by Claudia Villosio. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.