nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2023‒05‒01
three papers chosen by
Sam Sarpong
Xiamen University Malaysia Campus

  1. Mining the forests: do protected areas hinder mining-driven forest loss in Sub-Saharan Africa? By Jean-Louis Combes; Pascale Combes Motel; Manegdo Ulrich Doamba; Youba Ndiaye
  2. Institutions and intra-sub-regional trade: the ECOWAS Case By Fadiran, David; Oyenubi, Adeola
  3. (De facto) Historical Ethnic Borders and Land Tenure in Sub-Saharan Africa By Depetris-Chauvin, Emilio; Özak, Ömer

  1. By: Jean-Louis Combes (LEO - Laboratoire d'Économie d'Orleans [2022-...] - UO - Université d'Orléans - UT - Université de Tours - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne, UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Pascale Combes Motel (LEO - Laboratoire d'Économie d'Orleans [2022-...] - UO - Université d'Orléans - UT - Université de Tours - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne, UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Manegdo Ulrich Doamba (LEO - Laboratoire d'Économie d'Orleans [2022-...] - UO - Université d'Orléans - UT - Université de Tours - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne, UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne); Youba Ndiaye (ENVT - Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse - Toulouse INP - Institut National Polytechnique (Toulouse) - UT - Université de Toulouse, UMR ASTRE - Animal, Santé, Territoires, Risques et Ecosystèmes - Cirad - Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement - INRAE - Institut National de Recherche pour l’Agriculture, l’Alimentation et l’Environnement)
    Abstract: African countries are natural resource-rich. The continent has natural forests, homes of endemic biodiversity and various ores. This richness brings hope for sustainable and inclusive development in a continent whose population is rapidly growing. It also raises fears of environmental degradation. This article studies mining-driven deforestation using unique finescale data from 2001 to 2019. The dataset covering all Sub-Saharan African countries entails 2, 207 polygons with an average size of about 12, 000 square kilometres. 926 polygons were forested in 2001, of which 198 hosted industrial mines. A spatial autoregressive model allows taking dependence between deforestation decisions at the polygon level. The econometric results show that an additional mine increases deforestation by about 155 square kilometres. Protected areas mitigate deforestation poorly. One hundred square kilometres under protected areas enable only a 9.7 square kilometres reduction in forest loss. More than doubling protected areas would be necessary to offset mining-driven forest loss. Protected areas cannot alone mitigate the adverse effects of mining on forest loss and other environmental consequences. Moreover, the effectiveness of protected areas is not uniform across space: it vanishes in highly conflicted regions.
    Abstract: Les pays africains sont riches en ressources naturelles. Le continent possède des forêts naturelles, foyers de biodiversité endémique et divers produits miniers. Cette richesse est porteuse d'espoir pour un développement durable et inclusif dans un continent dont la population croît rapidement. Elle suscite également des craintes de dégradation de l'environnement. Cet article étudie la déforestation due à l'activité minière en utilisant des données uniques à échelle fine sur la période 2001-2019. L'ensemble de données couvrant tous les pays d'Afrique subsaharienne comprend 2 207 polygones d'une taille moyenne d'environ 12 000 kilomètres carrés. 926 polygones comportaient une surface forestière en 2001, dont 198 accueillaient des mines industrielles. Un modèle spatial autorégressif permet de prendre en compte la dépendance entre les décisions de déforestation au niveau des polygones. Les résultats économétriques montrent qu'une mine supplémentaire augmente la déforestation d'environ 155 kilomètres carrés. Les aires protégées atténuent peu la déforestation. Cent kilomètres carrés d'aires protégées ne permettent qu'une réduction de 9, 7 kilomètres carrés de déforestation. Il faudrait plus que doubler les zones protégées pour compenser la perte de forêt due à l'exploitation minière. Les zones protégées ne peuvent à elles seules atténuer les effets négatifs de l'exploitation minière sur la déforestation et les autres conséquences environnementales. En outre, l'efficacité des aires protégées n'est pas uniforme dans l'espace : elle disparaît dans les régions fortement conflictuelles.
    Keywords: Deforestation, Mining, Protected areas, Panel data, Spatial econometrics, Sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2023–04–06
  2. By: Fadiran, David; Oyenubi, Adeola
    Abstract: Extensive evidence has been found in literature for the role of institutions in determining the outcomes of a number of macroeconomic variables. This evidence is however inconclusive in the case of trade. In this paper, the gravity model of trade is employed in an empirical assessment of the relationship between institutions and intra-sub-regional trade. In this regard, the overall impact of the quality of institutions is examined, as well as the impact of the difference in quality of institutions between trading countries, on bilateral trade within the ECOWAS (Economic Community of West African States) region. The empirical results show evidence of significant impact of differences in the quality of institutions on intra-sub-regional trade.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Depetris-Chauvin, Emilio; Özak, Ömer
    Abstract: We study the role of proximity to historical ethnic borders in determining individual land ownership in Sub-Saharan Africa. Following an instrumental variable strategy, we document that individuals have a lower likelihood of owning land near historical ethnic borders. In particular, the likelihood of owning land decreases by 15 percentage points, i.e., about 1/3 of the mean rate of landownership, for rural migrants who move from 57km (90th percentile) to 2 km (10th percentile) from the border. This result aligns with the view that competition for land is stronger and property rights are weaker close to historical ethnic borders in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Keywords: Land ownership, Land Tenure, Borders, Property Rights, Historical Homelands, Development, Africa, Voronoi Tessellation, Thiessen Tessellation
    JEL: D74 N57 O13 O17 O43 P48 Q15 Q34
    Date: 2023–03–30

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