nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2023‒01‒30
six papers chosen by
Sam Sarpong
Xiamen University Malaysia Campus

  1. Gender implications of agricultural commercialization in Africa: Evidence from farm households in Ethiopia and Nigeria By Berhane, Guush; Abay, Mehari Hiluf; Seymour, Greg
  2. QAnon and other conspiracy ideologies’ impact on Sub-Saharan Africa in the age of Global capitalism By Kohnert, Dirk
  3. Governance quality and trade performance in Sub-Saharan Africa By Simplice A. Asongu; Nicholas M. Odhiambo
  4. December report on progress of Ukrainian grains exports to Africa By Häberli, Christian; Kostetsky, Bogdan
  5. How can different currency regimes affect the willingness to pay tax? Tax morale evidence from Zimbabwe By Nyamapheni, Joseph; Robinson , Zurika
  6. A Systematic Review of the Potential for Promotion of Southern Epistemologies in Educational Research: Ubuntu Philosophy as a Research Paradigm, a Conceptual Model By Costa, King; Ntsobi, Mfanelo Patrick

  1. By: Berhane, Guush; Abay, Mehari Hiluf; Seymour, Greg
    Abstract: Agricultural commercialization is often pursued as an important driver of agricultural transformation in low-income countries. However, the implications it can have on gendered outcomes are less understood. While agricultural commercialization creates opportunities to increase income, this may come at the expense of change in women’s decision-making agency and control over resources. Understanding the interactions between agricultural commercialization and gender outcomes is thus critical for policymakers aspiring to achieve agricultural transformation while promoting gender equity and the evidence on the links between the two in the context of Africa is scarce and mixed. We use three rounds of Ethiopia’s and Nigeria’s LSMS-ISA panel data to understand the implications of agricultural commercialization to gendered decision-making on crop harvest use, marketing, revenue control, asset ownership, and intrahousehold budget allocation. Results indicate commercialization is associated with decreases in women’s participation in decision-making related to use of harvest, crop marketing, and control over revenue in Ethiopia, but only on harvest use and control over revenue in Nigeria. The association with land ownership is mixed: positive in Ethiopia but negative in Nigeria. Moreover, commercialization is associated with decreases in women’s share of farm-workload but with increases in share of hired labor in Ethiopia. In Ethiopia we also find women’s control over revenue is positively associated with increases in per capita consumption expenditures and dietary diversity, but men’s control is negatively associated with increases in the share of expenditure on children’s shoes and clothes. In Nigeria, women’s control is positively associated with increases in the share of expenditure on women’s shoes and clothes, food gap, and dietary diversity. In sum, we find suggestive evidence that commercialization may further marginalize women’s decision-making agency in Ethiopia and Nigeria. However, conditional on women’s control over proceeds, commercialization tends to improve women’s as well as other members’ welfare. We provide some policy recommendations and directions for future research.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA, EAST AFRICA, NIGERIA, WEST AFRICA, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, AFRICA, gender, women, agriculture, commercialization, income, farmers, households, agricultural commercialization, income control
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Kohnert, Dirk
    Abstract: With the attack on the Capitol by the 'Proud Boys', Donald Trump's 'deep state' allegations reached the peak of US conspiracy ideologies. Conspiracy was at the core of Trump's policies, including his repeated claims that President Barack Obama was born in Africa. It reflects Trump's deep dislike of African states. After all, a third of the Republican electorate agreed with the far-right QAnon paranoia and other bizarre conspiracy theories. From the outside, the United States was taking on the shape of a banana republic. When US media identified a South African journalist as the mastermind behind QAnon's global rollout in 2019, many Republicans equated Africa with Pandora's box. However, it is no coincidence that the black continent is associated with occult powers. In the social sciences, the modernity of witchcraft beliefs in Africa has been debated hotly for decades. Modern techniques and utensils have become central to the occult's continued importance to Africans. The crisis of the modern nation-state is closely intertwined with the global spread of neoliberal capitalism and the 'invisible hand' that shapes its political and material conditions and forms of society. Beliefs in witchcraft and zombies reflect the alienation of labour, capitalist exploitation, and class formation in African societies. The poor of Africa and the people of the Global South in general, do not lack modernity but have been denied the promise of modernization. Today, even cybercriminals working in the Ivory Coast, impersonating Europeans on social media profiles and seducing partners into falling in love with them, feel compelled to seek the advice of witch doctors to outwit their prey. Given the worldwide importance of social media, this suggests that the virtual space of the global economy as a hotbed of magic and witchcraft is under researched. As in the US election campaign and its entanglement with fake news, examination of the cosmology of the occult in Africa and elsewhere reveals the threat of destructive forces inherent in social relations. African religions could provide a framework for valuable self-determined solutions to current problems in contemporary life, including the issue of witchcraft violence. In addition, this could open up an inspiring new dimension of philosophical thinking and emancipative action to the outside world, for example, regarding conflict resolution and reconciliation.
    Keywords: Global economy; conspiracy theories; deep state; Trump government; African occult belief; modernization; neoliberalism; commodification; international trade; migration; governance; sustainable development; post-colonialism; Sub-Saharan Africa; South Africa; Nigeria; Kenya; Ivory Coast; African Studies
    JEL: E26 F15 F16 F22 F54 F65 I31 J15 J46 J61 N37 O17 P17 Z13
    Date: 2023–01–08
  3. By: Simplice A. Asongu (Yaounde, Cameroon); Nicholas M. Odhiambo (Pretoria, South Africa)
    Abstract: In this study, nexuses between governance and trade performance in terms of natural resource rents are assessed in 44 sub-Saharan African countries. The empirical evidence is based on Tobit regressions. The findings show that political governance (entailing “voice & accountability†and political stability) and institutional governance (consisting of the rule of law and corruption control) have a negative effect on trade performance. The findings are consistent with the perspective that resources rents are linked to inefficiencies in governance which are further detrimental to trade performance within the remit of natural resource rents on the one hand and, on the other, the premise of the prevailing weak institutions in the region less likely to boost trade performance.
    Keywords: Natural Resources; Economic Growth; Governance; Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: H10 Q20 Q30 O11 O55
    Date: 2023–01
  4. By: Häberli, Christian; Kostetsky, Bogdan
    Abstract: We publish today the December report on the outcome of the project "Repairing Broken Food Trade Routes Ukraine – Africa”. It covers development of Ukrainian grain exports (including Africa and Middle East destinations) under the Grain Initiative and change of Ukrainian origin’ market share at main African importing markets. Report recaptures the December 2022 developments of grain export shipments from Ukraine and touches on competitive standing of Ukrainian production in context of subsidies practiced by competitive origins. We also shed more light on sea freight insurance changes and impact on increased costs born in supply chain. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme “Making Agricultural Trade Sustainable” (MATS) programme ( The role of MATS/WTI in this programme is to identify and explore “broken” Ukrainian - African food trade routes due to the Russian invasion of Ukraine. Starting with a food trade flow chart pre- and post-24 February 2022, it will assess, first, whether Ukrainian (or African) traders can again supply these products (Output 1). Failing that, whether the new EU-financed “Crisis Management” (or another) programme can possibly make up for lost Ukrainian agrifood exports (Output 2). It will also identify alternative exporters (if any) which might already have filled in agrifood demand in Africa (Output 3). Importantly, the Project also looks at the potential effect of these developments on competing farm production in Africa (Output 4). For further information and/or offer to assist in project implementation, please write to Christian Häberli ( or to Bogdan Kostetsky (
    Date: 2023–01–11
  5. By: Nyamapheni, Joseph; Robinson , Zurika
    Abstract: The article investigates tax morale during different economic milieus, going hand in hand with the introduction of different currency regimes. It was guided by econometric research and data were collected using questionnaires from the 2010-2014 and 2017-2020 World Values Survey (WVS). For Zimbabwe, Wave 6 and Wave 7 had a sample size of 1500 and 1200 respectively. The article?s dependent variable, tax morale and independent variables included marital status, age, income level, employment and religion among others, and analysed them using the Ordered Logit Model. The article concludes with an understanding of how tax morale and its determinants is crucial for governments in their bid to boost voluntary compliance. Also, different economic milieus for a particular country affect the level of tax morale significantly. Tax morale was established to be high when Zimbabwe was experiencing economic growth due to the introduction of multi-currency, herein called the dollarization period, and the opposite was true for the post-dollarization era. Corruption, which is a menace under study, has proven to be an important factor that influences tax morale. Results of all the models show that demographic factors have little effect on tax morale. The article introduced an important variable of hunger in its analysis of determinants of tax morale. The article showed that there is a negative relationship between hunger and tax morale for Zimbabwe in both economic situations. Based on the findings, policy makers should consider the eradication of corruption and hunger in order to boost tax morale, which in turn improves tax compliance. Also, policy makers should include improvement in the perception of democracy in the mix of enhancement strategies of tax compliance.
    Keywords: Determinants; Tax morale; Order Logit Model; Zimbabwe
    Date: 2022–12
  6. By: Costa, King (Global Centre for Academic Research); Ntsobi, Mfanelo Patrick
    Abstract: INTRODUCTION The fast changing global trends, practices and ideologies have a potential to dissipate cultural identities of historically colonized nations, in favor for adoption of popularized perspectives. This problem is becoming more and more evident in South Africa due to urbanization and impact of globalization. However, this becomes a constant barrier in knowledge creation, development and management due to the fact that southern epistemologies remain pacified and under-utilized in scholarship and educational research. One such pacified epistemology in both social and educational research is Ubuntu. RESEARCH AIMS: The aim of this study is to determine the suitable application of Ubuntu philosophy in educational research. This will be achieved by answering a theoretical question: How can Ubuntu be adopted as a paradigm for research inquiries within a southern epistemological context? METHODS: The philosophy of Ubuntu is located within a subjective realist ontology. Applying non-intrusive research measures, a Scoping Review method was used to postulate evidence for adoption and application of Ubuntu philosophy as a research paradigm. Using a search engine comprising a number of social sciences databases (AnthroSource, ASSIA, Wilson Web and CSA), articles were appraised using the Systematic Review research protocols and analyzed using Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. The final activity for data analysis culminated into thematic analysis, using COSTA QDA technique. RESULTS: This study played a crucial role in magnifying the pacified voices of cultural epistemological contexts and existential realities. While the concept of Ubuntu is well researched across different disciplines, there was paucity of research on its adoption as a research paradigm and research design. The study found out that there were seminal works of established researchers on decoloniality and Afrocentrism, requesting consideration of Ubuntu as a research method. Thus, this scoping review found evidence that Ubuntu can and should be used as a research method in African contexts within social, economic and management sciences, as well as health and politics. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that institutions of higher learning should start teaching Ubuntu Action Research as a method of inquiry in their undergraduate and postgraduate research programmes. Consultants are also encouraged to investigate this research design approach for business and policy research.
    Date: 2023–01–01

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