nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2022‒04‒18
five papers chosen by
Sam Sarpong
Xiamen University Malaysia Campus

  1. The forgotten coal: Charcoal demand in Sub-Saharan Africa By Rose, Julian; Bensch, Gunther; Munyehirwe, Anicet; Peters, Jörg
  2. Sub-Saharan Africa: Building Resilience to Climate-Related Disasters By Ms. Pritha Mitra; Eric M. Pondi Endengle; Seung Mo Choi
  3. Near-real-time welfare and livelihood impacts of an active civil war: Evidence from Ethiopia By Abay, Kibrom A.; Tafere, Kibrom; Berhane, Guush; Chamberlin, Jordan; Abay, Mehari Hiluf
  4. Strengthening the WAEMU Regional Fiscal Framework By Mr. Antonio David; Hoda Selim; Alexandre Nguyen-Duong
  5. Political inclusion and democracy in Africa: some empirical evidence By Tii N. Nchofoung; Simplice A. Asongu; Vanessa S. Tchamyou; Ofeh M. Edoh

  1. By: Rose, Julian; Bensch, Gunther; Munyehirwe, Anicet; Peters, Jörg
    Abstract: Charcoal is an important cooking fuel in urban Africa. In this paper, we estimate the current number of charcoal users and project trends for the coming decades. Charcoal production is often not effectively regulated, and it hence contributes to forest degradation. Moreover, charcoal has adverse health effects for its users. At the same time, charcoal constitutes an important income source in deprived rural areas, while the current alternative, gas, is a mostly imported fossil fuel. We find that 195 million people in sub-Saharan Africa rely on charcoal as their primary cooking fuel and gauge that another 200 million use charcoal as secondary fuel. Our scenarios suggest that clean cooking initiatives are outweighed by strong urban population growth and hence charcoal usage is expected to remain high over the coming decades. Policies should therefore target end-users, forest management, and regulation of charcoal production to enable sustainable production and use of charcoal.
    Keywords: Energy consumption,charcoal,Africa
    JEL: Q56 Q58 Q40 Q41 Q20 R11 O10
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Ms. Pritha Mitra; Eric M. Pondi Endengle; Seung Mo Choi
    Abstract: This paper assesses the impact of climate-related disasters on medium-term growth and analyzes key structural areas that could substantially improve disaster-resilience. Results show that (i) climaterelated disasters have a significant negative impact on medium-term growth, especially for sub-Saharan Africa; and (ii) a disaster’s intensity matters much more than its frequency, given the non-linear cumulative effects of disasters. In sub-Saharan Africa, electrification (facilitating irrigation) is found to be most effective for reducing damage from droughts while improved health care and education outcomes are critical for raising resilience to floods and storms. Better access to finance, telecommunications, and use of machines in agriculture also have a significant impact.
    Keywords: Climate change, Growth, Resilience building, Sub-Saharan Africa
    Date: 2022–02–25
  3. By: Abay, Kibrom A.; Tafere, Kibrom; Berhane, Guush; Chamberlin, Jordan; Abay, Mehari Hiluf
    Abstract: Ethiopia is currently embroiled in a large-scale civil war that has continued for more than a year. Using unique High-Frequency Phone Survey (HFPS) data, which spans several months before and after the outbreak of the war, this paper provides fresh evidence on the ex durante impacts of the conflict on the food security and livelihood activities of affected households. We use difference-in-differences estimation to compare trends in the outcomes of interest across affected and unaffected regions (households) and before and after the outbreak of the civil war. Seven months into the conflict, we find that the outbreak of the civil war increased the probability of moderate to severe food insecurity by 38 percentage points. Using the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data (ACLED) on households’ exposure to violent conflict, we show that exposure to one additional battle leads to 1 percentage point increase in the probability of moderate to severe food insecurity. The conflict has reduced households’ access to food through supply chain disruptions while also curtailing non-farm livelihood activities. Non-farm and wage related activities were the most affected by the conflict while farming activities were relatively more resilient. Similarly, economic activities in urban areas were much more affected than those in rural areas. These substantial impact estimates, which are likely to be underestimates of the true average effects on the population, constitute novel evidence on the near-real-time impacts of an on-going civil conflict, providing direct evidence on how violent conflict disrupts the functioning of market supply chains and livelihoods activities. Our work highlights the potential of HFPS to monitor active and large-scale conflicts, especially in contexts where conventional data sources are not immediately available.
    Keywords: ETHIOPIA; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; livelihoods; food security; civil conflict; conflicts; surveys; market access; food access; labour; households; employment; phone surveys
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Mr. Antonio David; Hoda Selim; Alexandre Nguyen-Duong
    Abstract: This paper assesses the adequacy and effectiveness of the WAEMU fiscal framework along three pillars that have proven to effectively support fiscal discipline in monetary unions—common fiscal rules (including adequacy of numerical ceilings as well as elements of design and enforcement), shared public financial management systems, and coordination mechanisms for decentralized fiscal policies. We undertake a calibration of regional debt and fiscal deficit ceilings taking into account different macroeconomic tradeoffs and risks and conclude that numerical ceilings that prevailed before the suspension of the fiscal rules remain adequate and strike the right balance between growth and fiscal sustainability. The paper also proposes reform options to strengthen the WAEMU regional fiscal surveillance framework, with a view to more effectively supporting fiscal discipline.
    Keywords: Fiscal policy, fiscal rules, fiscal governance, PFM, fiscal coordination, monetary unions, WAEMU
    Date: 2022–03–04
  5. By: Tii N. Nchofoung (University of Dschang, Cameroon); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Vanessa S. Tchamyou (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Ofeh M. Edoh (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: The objective of this study is to examine the effect of political inclusion on democracy in Africa. The results of the analyses through the OLS, system GMM, IV-Tobit and IV-2SLS show that political inclusion enhances democracy in Africa. This result is robust across alternative specifications of political inclusion and democracy. Besides, the results equally stood when controlled for colonisation and internal conflicts. As policy implications, policy makers in Africa should enhance their fight for political inclusion as one of the gateways to promoting democracy. In this respect, national laws could be put in place, which impose gender quotas in political positions in every country. Equally, the African Union could sign a convention on these quotas for respective countries to ratify.
    Keywords: Political inclusion; democracy; Africa
    JEL: I32 O55 P16 P43 P50
    Date: 2021–12

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