nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2021‒08‒16
two papers chosen by
Sam Sarpong
The University of Mines and Technology

  1. E-money, Financial Inclusion and Mobile Money Tax in Sub-Saharan African Mobile Networks By Tarna Silue
  2. When the hidden transcript storms centre stage: from slow to sudden violence in eastern DRCongo’s Kahuzi-Biega National Park By Simpson, Fergus O'Leary

  1. By: Tarna Silue (CERDI - Centre d'Études et de Recherches sur le Développement International - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique - UCA - Université Clermont Auvergne)
    Abstract: E-money and financial inclusion are both development challenges for developing countries, the former contributing to improving tax mobilization and the latter to achieving particular sustainable development objectives. However, one of the central financial inclusion and e-money services providers is mobile network operators using mobile money. The latter is subject to numerous taxes that can affect their operations. The paper studies the incidence of the new mobile money excise duty in the mobile networks sector on the adoption of electronic money and the advancement of financial inclusion through digital services in sub-Saharan countries. It appears that the introduction of the tax leads to an increase in user fees, which has a positive impact on demand for cash, and it is only in the presence of the latter that MM reduces the demand for cash for studied countries. In addition, the study assumes that tax administrations in these countries would raise more revenue without this excise because the tax is not conducive to the full adoption of e-money.
    Keywords: Financial inclusion,Mobile money,Tax incidence
    Date: 2021–07
  2. By: Simpson, Fergus O'Leary
    Abstract: It has been argued that protected areas give rise to forms of incremental ‘slow’ violence when populations are displaced from their lands and resources. The literature has shown how this can lead communities living at the edge of national parks to resist conservation regulations, often through everyday strategies designed to go under the radar of park authorities. I make an original contribution to this debate by exploring how conditions of slow violence and practices of covert resistance surrounding conservation projects can over time be transformed into forms of overt resistance and a state of ‘sudden’ violence. Taking a recent conflict over eastern Democratic Republic of Congo’s Kahuzi-Biega National Park as an illustrative example, I argue that an attempt by indigenous Batwa communities to violently take back parts of the park’s highland sector can be explained by three factors: first, the failure of forms ‘rights-based’ resistance strategies to achieve meaningful change; second, specific threats to Batwa livelihoods, identity and dignity that have emerged over recent years; third, the arrival of opportunities to forge new alliances with more powerful actors who could support their struggle. My overall argument speaks to the literature on conservation by exposing the intricate relationships between ‘everyday’ and ‘overt’ forms of resistance, and between ‘slow’ and ‘sudden’ violence. In turn, rather than romanticizing the Batwa’s actions, the paper shows how their struggle has ultimately intersected with elite interests, politico-military networks and wider conflict dynamics in a way that has led to widespread environmental destruction.
    Keywords: conservation; everyday resistance; overt resistance; slow violence; sudden violence; DR Congo; DRC
    Date: 2021–08

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