nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2020‒06‒15
six papers chosen by
Sam Sarpong
The University of Mines and Technology

  1. Africa's lockdown dilemma: High poverty and low trust By Eva-Maria Egger; Sam Jones; Patricia Justino; Ivan Manhique; Ricardo Santos
  2. A comparative study of export processing zones in the wake of sustainable development goals: Cases of Botswana, Kenya, Tanzania and Zimbabwe By Richard Adu-Gyamfi; Simplice A. Asongu; Tinaye S. Mmusi; Herbert Wamalwa; Madei Mangori
  3. Resource sector concessions and spatial development in Southern Africa By Joan Halstein
  4. The Moderating Role of Green Energy and Energy-Innovation in Environmental Kuznets: Insights from Quantile-Quantile Analysis By Hammed Oluwaseyi Musibau; Rabindra Nepal; Joaquin L. Vespignani; Maria Yanotti
  5. Profit taxation and royalties: evidence from gold mines in Sub-Saharan Africa By Luisito Bertinelli; Arnaud Bourgain; Skerdilajda Zanaj
  6. Environmental Disclosures Effect on Cost of Capital Structure Financing of the Nigerian Listed Companies By Magaji Abba; Muhammad Auwal Kabir; Abdulkadir Abubakar

  1. By: Eva-Maria Egger; Sam Jones; Patricia Justino; Ivan Manhique; Ricardo Santos
    Abstract: The primary policy response to suppress the spread of COVID-19 in high-income countries has been to lock down large sections of the population. However, there is growing unease that blindly replicating these policies might inflict irreparable damage to poor households and foment social unrest in developing countries. We investigate this concern using Afrobarometer data from 2019 for 30 sub-Saharan African countries. We create a multidimensional index of lockdown readiness based on living conditions and explore its relationship with forms of trust and the potential for social unrest.
    Keywords: COVID-19, lockdown measures, lockdown policies, Poverty, social unrest, Sub-Saharan Africa, Trust
    Date: 2020
  2. By: Richard Adu-Gyamfi (Geneva, Switzerland); Simplice A. Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon); Tinaye S. Mmusi (Gaborone, Botswana); Herbert Wamalwa (Nairobi, Kenya); Madei Mangori (Gaborone, Botswana)
    Abstract: The objective of this research is to assess the extent to which export processing zones in Botswana, Kenya, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe integrate the Sustainable Development Goals in their implementation and operations. We focused on four Sustainable Development Goals—gender equality, decent work, industry, and climate action. We interviewed four zone authorities, one in each country. A total of 12 firms in the agro-processing, textiles and garments, construction, and real estate sectors were also interviewed. All four zone authorities demonstrate a measure of environmental inclusiveness in their zone programmes. We found that firms in Kenya and Zimbabwe have a higher number of male than female employees, while zones in Tanzania employ more women. We propose that to promote sustainable development in these zones, policy action should concentrate on attracting firms that (are willing and able to) align with the particular Sustainable Development Goal that zone programmes are intended to achieve.
    Keywords: export processing zones, sustainable development, Botswana, Kenya, Southern Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe
    JEL: O25 O55 O57 Q01
    Date: 2020–05
  3. By: Joan Halstein
    Abstract: This paper explores how Southern Africa can leverage its mineral resources to support growth and industrialization. It considers the aggregate and spatial effects of transport infrastructure improvements, and the relative benefits of financing these investments through resource sector concessions versus government expenditure.
    Keywords: Computable general equilibrium, infrastructure, resource sector
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Hammed Oluwaseyi Musibau; Rabindra Nepal; Joaquin L. Vespignani; Maria Yanotti
    Abstract: The recent environmental challenges in Africa that emanated from global warming, human activity, limited access to electricity and overexploitation of natural resources have contributed to the growth of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the region. This paper empirically investigates the moderating role of green energy consumption and energy innovation in the environmental Kuznets curve for the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region using data spanning from 1980 to 2018. Our threshold model found that at least 54 percent of the population needs access to energy innovation before the region could be safe from environmental degradation. We conclude that investment in green energy, energy innovation and conservation of natural resources will help to mitigate environmental degradation in SSA in the long run. Policies should be targeted towards encouraging the consumption of green energy, and more investment in energy innovation beyond the estimated threshold will save the region from pollution and its implications.
    Keywords: Environmental Kuznets Curve; Green energy; Energy innovation; CO2 emission; SSA countries; Quantile-Quantile regression
    JEL: E10 C20 Q40
    Date: 2020–05–27
  5. By: Luisito Bertinelli (CREA, Université du Luxembourg); Arnaud Bourgain (CREA, Université du Luxembourg); Skerdilajda Zanaj (CREA, Université du Luxembourg)
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze theoretically and empirically the effects of tax changes on firms’ profits in extractive industries. In the theoretical part, we assume a country that levies a profit tax and a royalty on the profits of extractive firms to maximize its tax revenues. The mining companies may reduce their taxable income by cost manipulation. By analyzing the optimal choice of the government and of the firms, we first establish the optimal tax policy and then we investigate the impact of the optimal fiscal policy on firms’ profits. In the empirical part of the paper, we estimate the effect of the profit tax and royalty on the extracting firms’ profit in African countries during the period spanning from 2007 to 2018. We use the Mining Intelligence database to constitute a panel of annual individual data on 363 gold mines located in 21 Sub-Saharan countries. We obtain an inverse relationship between the tax rate change of the two tax instruments and the profit of the firms.
    Keywords: Resource countries, Resource taxation, Royalties, Cost misreporting, Extractive industries.
    JEL: H25 H32 O13
    Date: 2019
  6. By: Magaji Abba (Faculty of Management Sciences, A.T.B.U. Bauchi); Muhammad Auwal Kabir (Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Bauchi State University, Gadau); Abdulkadir Abubakar (Faculty of Social and Management Sciences, Bauchi State University, Gadau)
    Abstract: The paper examined the relationship between environmental disclosure and cost of capital structure financing of the Nigerian listed companies. This is due to a concern about the environmental behaviour of the companies that result in stakeholders? interest in environmental disclosure. Though the disclosure is voluntary (to a certain extent) its inadequacy creates information asymmetric and risk that affect the cost of capital structure financing. The study was on listed Nigerian companies whose activities have an environmental repercussion. Where the data was gathered from content analysis of the companies? annual reports. A regression analysis based on the pool, 2SLS and 3SLS were made to improve the robustness of the results. It provides evidence in support of companies? stakeholders? engagement through disclosure to manage the cost of capital structure financing. The disclosure level effect on the cost of capital structure will help curtailed negative environmental activities of the companies. However, the sample size is small due to the limited number of publically listed companies in the Nigerian. Additionally, the data is cross-sectional which may not be stable over time and across industries level. Recommend for further study that will look into financial stakeholders? perception about the environmental disclosure and its value relevance in financing decision.
    Keywords: Environmental Disclosure; Information Asymmetric; Disclosure Quality; Cost of Capital Structure Financing; Nigerian Listed Companies
    JEL: M41 Q56 E22
    Date: 2020–02

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