nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2020‒02‒24
five papers chosen by
Sam Sarpong
The University of Mines and Technology

  1. Taking Power : Women's Empowerment and Household Well-Being in Sub-Saharan Africa By Annan,Jeannie Ruth; Donald,Aletheia Amalia; Goldstein,Markus P.; Gonzalez Martinez,Paula Lorena; Koolwal,Gayatri B.
  2. Artisanal or Industrial Conflict Minerals? Evidence from Eastern Congo By Nik Stoop; Marijke Verpoorten; Peter Van Der Windt
  3. Conflict Exposure and Economic Welfare in Nigeria By John Chiwuzulum Odozi; Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere
  4. Trade Policy to Catalyze Export Diversification : What Should Landlocked Fragile Countries Do ? The Cases of Mali, Chad, and Niger By Lopez Calix,Jose R.; Pitigala,Nihal
  5. Markups, Market Imperfections, and Trade Openness : Evidence from Ghana By Damoah,Kaku Attah

  1. By: Annan,Jeannie Ruth; Donald,Aletheia Amalia; Goldstein,Markus P.; Gonzalez Martinez,Paula Lorena; Koolwal,Gayatri B.
    Abstract: This paper examines women's power relative to that of their husbands in 23 Sub-Saharan African countries to determine how it affects women's health, reproductive outcomes, children's health, and children's education. The analysis uses a novel measure of women's empowerment that is closely linked to classical theories of power, built from spouses'often-conflicting reports of intrahousehold decision making. It finds that women's power substantially matters for health and various family and reproductive outcomes. Women taking power is also better for children's outcomes, in particular for girls'health, but it is worse for emotional violence. The results show the conceptual and analytical value of intrahousehold contention over decision making and expand the breadth of evidence on the importance of women's power for economic development.
    Date: 2019–10–02
  2. By: Nik Stoop (Institute of Development Policy, University of Antwerp; Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, University of Leuven; Southern Africa Labor and Development Institute, University of Cape Town); Marijke Verpoorten (Institute of Development Policy, University of Antwerp; Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, University of Leuven); Peter Van Der Windt (Division of Social Sciences, New York University Abu Dhabi; Development Economics Group, Wageningen University and Research)
    Abstract: Existing research suggests a strong link between mining and local conflict but makes no distinction between artisanal and industrial mining. We exploit variation in mineral prices and the granting of industrial mining concessions to investigate how the mode of extraction affects conflict in Eastern Congo. Rising mineral prices increase battles over artisanal mines, indicating competition between armed groups. This effect is much less pronounced for industrial mining. Moreover, the expansion of industrial mining decreases battles, suggesting that companies can secure their concessions. Such expansion does, however, trigger riots, and when it crowds out artisanal mining, also increases violence against civilians and looting. In line with case-study evidence, these negative effects only materialize when industrial mining companies expand their activities from the research to the production phase.
    Keywords: JEL Classification:
    Date: 2019–08
  3. By: John Chiwuzulum Odozi (Research Fellow at the French Institute for Research in Africa, Institute of African Studies, University of Ibadan, Nigeria); Ruth Uwaifo Oyelere (Department of Economics Agnes Scott College, Atlanta, USA; IZA, Bonn Germany and Global Labor Organization)
    Abstract: Several papers have attempted to estimate and document the impact of conflict on several education, health and socioeconomic outcomes. One lesson from the past research is the heterogeneity in the effect of violent conflict across and within countries. In this paper we attempt to estimate the casual impact of conflict in Nigeria on welfare related outcomes. The 2009 insurgence of Boko Haram and the Fulani herdsmen versus farmers conflicts have led to a significant increase in violent conflict in the North Eastern and Central parts of Nigeria. However, bouts of violent conflict have existed in different communities across the country since independence. We estimate the average effect of violent conflict exposure on welfare, across Nigeria using the three waves of the Nigerian General Household Survey (GHS) panel combined with The Armed Conflict Location & Event Data (ACLED). Employing a fixed effect approach, our results suggest that recent and long term exposure to conflict increased the incidence, intensity and severity of poverty in Nigeria. In addition we find that exposure to violent conflict also decreased household income.
    Keywords: Violence; Nigeria; Conflict; Boko Haram; Economic Welfare; Poverty JEL Classification: I10, I30, O1, D74
    Date: 2019–09
  4. By: Lopez Calix,Jose R.; Pitigala,Nihal
    Abstract: The landlocked and fragile countries Mali, Niger, and Chad have suffered, to varying degrees, from Dutch Disease, with high export concentration in natural resource commodities and in a few foreign markets, and little development of their non-resource economies. The three countries'ability to create a sustainable path to economic growth and poverty reduction is inextricably linked to their connectivity with external markets, in the region and beyond. Thus, Mali, Niger, and Chad are first challenged by their geography -- their landlocked nature creates a barrier to market access beyond their immediate neighbors, while their vast and thinly populated lands serve to isolate the most vulnerable communities from external and internal markets. Adding to these geographic disadvantages, the incentive environment -- defined by high and variable customs common external tariff regimes resulting from multiple overlapping regional trade arrangements -- places a wedge between domestic and international prices that provides a disincentive to exports in favor of non-tradable and domestic-oriented sectors. By bringing greater coherence and convergence between the many common external tariff regimes in operation and the rationalization of their structures, and improving connectivity within and between markets, Mali, Niger, and Chad can better promote the reallocation of resources toward tradable goods and services, putting the countries on a path toward greater economic inclusion and sustainable growth.
    Keywords: International Trade and Trade Rules,Export Competitiveness,Transport Services,Food Security,Trade and Multilateral Issues
    Date: 2019–10–08
  5. By: Damoah,Kaku Attah
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of Ghana's World Trade Organization (WTO) accession on firm-level product and labor market imperfections. The paper exploits a rich dataset of firm-level information to estimate both markups and the degree of monopsony power enjoyed by manufacturing firms. The results indicate that price-cost margins declined while the degree of monopsony power increased in the wake of WTO accession. These diverging dynamics suggest that firms compress real wages to offset loss of market power in the product market due to increased international competition. This gives rise to an increase in the market imperfection gap, which gradually erodes the pro-competitive gains from trade. The paper contributes to the literature by identifying channels through which allocative inefficiencies and misallocation can persist even after trade liberalization.
    Keywords: International Trade and Trade Rules,Rural Labor Markets,Labor Markets,Common Carriers Industry,Food&Beverage Industry,Construction Industry,Business Cycles and Stabilization Policies,Plastics&Rubber Industry,Pulp&Paper Industry,Textiles, Apparel&Leather Industry,General Manufacturing,Trade Policy,Trade and Multilateral Issues,Rules of Origin
    Date: 2019–12–11

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