nep-afr New Economics Papers
on Africa
Issue of 2016‒08‒07
five papers chosen by
Sam Sarpong
The University of Mines and Technology

  1. Parenting, Family Care and Adolescence in East and Southern Africa: An evidence-focused literature review By Rachel Bray; Andrew Dawes; UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti
  2. Migration and Urbanisation in Post-Apartheid South Africa By Bakker, Jan David; Parsons, Christopher; Rauch, Ferdinand
  3. Labor Market Regulations in Sub-Saharan Africa, With a Focus on Senegal By Stephen Golub; Aly Mbaye; Hanyu Chwe
  4. Banking the Unbanked? Evidence from three countries By Dupas, Pascaline; Karlan, Dean S.; Robinson, Jonathan; Ubfal, Diego
  5. Productivity Spillovers from Foreign Direct Investment: The Case of Ethiopia By Abeba Nigussie Turi

  1. By: Rachel Bray; Andrew Dawes; UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti
    Abstract: Based on an evidence-focused literature review, this paper examines existing knowledge on raising adolescents in east and southern African countries, including Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe. Country selection was based on the availability of relevant literature and data. The vast majority of studies on parenting and adolescent development is based on research from the global north. This research sought to deepen understandings of family life, care practices and support networks in the east and southern African region so as to inform policy and interventions that seek to improve adolescent-family relations and reduce risk behaviours. An evidence-informed model for understanding the ecology of adolescent-parent relationships in the cultural and economic contexts of the region is provided. In addition, a framework for exploring contextually-relevant dimensions of parenting through research and practice is offered.
    Keywords: adolescent health; adolescents; family environment; gender issues; HIV and AIDS; parent-child relationship; risk;
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Bakker, Jan David (University of Oxford); Parsons, Christopher (University of Western Australia); Rauch, Ferdinand (University of Oxford)
    Abstract: Under apartheid, black South Africans were severely restricted in their choice of location and many were forced to live in homelands. Following the abolition of apartheid they were free to migrate. Given gravity, a town nearer to the homelands can be expected to receive a larger inflow of people than a more distant town following the removal of mobility restrictions. Exploting this exogenous variation, we study the effect of migration on urbanisation and the distribution of population. In particular, we test if migration inflows led to displacement, path dependence, or agglomeration in destination areas. We find evidence for path dependence in the aggregate, but substantial heterogeneity across town densities. An exogenous population shock leads to an increase of the urban relative to the rural population, which suggests that exogenous migration shocks can foster urbanisation in the medium run.
    Keywords: economic geography, migration, urbanisation, natural experiment
    JEL: R12 R23 N97 O18
    Date: 2016–07
  3. By: Stephen Golub; Aly Mbaye; Hanyu Chwe (Swarthmore College; Professor of Economics)
    Abstract: Disappointing job creation in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), despite improved economic growth, is drawing greater attention to the labor market. Recent research has highlighted the paucity of formal employment and large disparities between formal and informal sector incomes. Formal private sector wage employment has grown too slowly to offset declines in public sector employment and to keep up with labor force growth, so employment remains overwhelmingly informal, with very low wages, no benefits or job security, and hazardous working conditions. The question arises as to whether labor market regulations play a role in limiting formal sector employment creation. We combine quantitative and qualitative assessments of labor-market regulations in SSA, and compare them to countries in other regions, particularly Asia, using indicators of labor market restrictions around the world, and conducting case studies of selected countries. We carried out an in-depth study of Senegal based on interviews and original data collection, and less detailed studies of Ethiopia and Ghana in SSA and Bangladesh and China in Asia. Our main conclusion is that labor market regulations are a less important obstacle than lack of infrastructure and general weaknesses in the business climate, but do contribute to holding back formal employment growth in Senegal and other SSA countries.
    Keywords: Labor market regulations, Sub-Saharan Africa, informal & formal employment, relative unit labor costs, manufacturing
    Date: 2015–12
  4. By: Dupas, Pascaline; Karlan, Dean S.; Robinson, Jonathan; Ubfal, Diego
    Abstract: We experimentally test the impact of expanding access to basic bank accounts in Uganda, Malawi, and Chile. Over two years, 17%, 10%, and 3% of treatment individuals made five or more deposits, respectively. Average monthly deposits for them were at the 79th, 91st, and 96th percentiles of baseline savings. Survey data show no clearly discernible intention-to-treat effects on savings or any downstream outcomes. This suggests that policies merely focused on expanding access to basic accounts are unlikely to improve welfare noticeably since impacts, even if present, are likely small and diverse.
    Keywords: financial access; savings; banking; micro-finance; field experiment; multicountry; Uganda; Malawi; Chile
    JEL: C93 D14 G21 O12 O16
    Date: 2016–07
  5. By: Abeba Nigussie Turi (Institute of Economic Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University in Prague, Smetanovo nabrezi 6, 111 01 Prague 1, Czech Republic)
    Abstract: This paper presents the spillover effect resulting from the foreign direct investment with a focus on the manufacturing firms in Ethiopia. Being one of the pillars of the Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP), identifying the productivity spillovers arising from the FDI to the sector is timely. The research covers extensive econometric analysis based on the Central Statistics Agency’s (CSA) survey, for the years 2004 up to 2010, on the manufacturing firms and an Input-Output matrix, for the year 2005/6, constructed by the Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI). My analysis suggests that there is an econometric evidence for positive Backward spillovers and negative Forward spillovers to the total productivity of the manufacturing firms in the country. The paper’s findings on this aspect are limited. Because, the analysis entirely rely on industry level secondary data and only one year Input-Output matrix. Therefore, there is a potential for further research work; given this benchmark finding.
    Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment, Spillover Effect, Total Factor Productivity
    JEL: F2 F21 F23
    Date: 2015–12

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